Seleucid Silver Tetradrachm Depicting an Elephant

Seleucid Silver Tetradrachm Depicting an Elephant


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History Of Macedonia

Diademed head of Dioddotos right, dotted border around /
Nude Zeus standing left, seen from behind, holding aegis on left arm, hurling thunderbolt with right
Eagle at left, Greek legend, at right: BAΣIΛEΩΣ, at left: ΔIOΔOTOY

Bactria: Diodotos I or II, as King
Bronze dichalkon, c. 240 BCE

Weight: 5.74 gm., Diam: 21 mm., Die axis: 6h

Bust of Hermes right, wearing petasos /
Pallas Athena standing facing, holding spear
Greek legend: BAΣIΛEΩΣ ΔIOΔOTOY (of King Diodotos)

Coin 4 represents one of the first clearly “foreign” coins to be minted in India. Although the Achaemenids had ruled northwestern India for a while, they did not leave any numismatic legacy. However, after Alexander the Great’s brief appearance on the Indian horizon, the Seleucid empire established a presence in the northwestern part of the country. Although a few Greek style coins were minted in Bactria prior to the Seleucid issues, this coin, of Seleucos I (312-280 BCE) is nevertheless one of the first Greco-Bactrian coins. With a laureate head of Zeus right on the obverse and Athena in an elephant quadriga on the reverse, the coin is representative of the highest quality classic Greek coins of the period. It introduces to Indian numismatics not only an entirely new design type, but also the use of legends to identify the issuer. Here we see on the reverse the Greek inscription: BAΣIΛEΩΣ ΣEΛEYKOY (of King Seleucos).

To Seleucos, the Indian provinces were a distant holding far from the center of his empire in Syria. These distant provinces faced a threat from a rising super-power in India: the Maurya dynasty. The dynasty was founded in 322 BCE by Chandragupta Maurya, who overthrew the Nanda rulers of the Magadha kingdom and then began a process of expansion that extended the empire all the way to what is now Pakistan. Facing conflict with this powerful rival, Seleucos chose to forge a peace. He conceded all the Seleucid lands south of the Hindu Kush mountains (in modern Afghanistan) to Chandragupta (known as Sandracottas in the Greek literature of the time) in exchange for 500 elephants. So the Mauryan empire now extended from Bengal in the east all the way to Afghanistan in the west.

The Mauryan empire reached the peak of its extent probably under the rule of Chandragupta’s grandson Ashoka (273-232 BCE), who has been called the greatest king the world has ever known. Ashoka’s claim to this distinction comes from an unlikely source: It stems not from the extent to which he expanded his empire through conquest, but rather on his renunciation of violence and war, his adoption of Buddhism, and his mission to spread the non-violent teachings of the Buddha throughout his empire. Ashoka carved the Buddha’s teachings on rocks throughout India, or on iron pillars he erected for the purpose. He also sent Buddhist missions to other countries, notably to Lanka, China and Southeast Asia. There is little doubt that he was the person who did more than anyone else to spread Buddhism throughout Asia.


Seleucid Silver Tetradrachm Depicting an Elephant - History

Lorber Catharine, Iossif Panagiotis. The cult of Helios in the Seleucid East. In: Topoi, volume 16/1, 2009. pp. 19-42.

Topoi 16 (2009) p. 19-42 THE CULT OF HELIOS IN THE SELEUCID EAST

The coins of the Seleucid king Antiochus IV Epiphanes (175-164 B. C.) associate him with various celestial attributes and symbols – stars at the ends of his diadem ties, a star above his head, or rays about his head. The iconography is considered innovative within the Seleucid tradition, but we can trace certain antecedents in the Seleucid east. Our purpose here is to develop the background – especially the Seleucid background – for interpreting allusions to Helios on the eastern coinages of Antiochus IV *.

I. Early Seleucid testimonia for the cult of Helios in the East

The written record is extremely poor concerning the worship of Greek deities in Seleucid Mesopotamia. And the cult of Helios is only rarely attested by eastern Hellenistic material sources, whether Greek, Babylonian, or Iranian. The poor survival rate of eastern coins and certain other documents may be responsible, at least in part, for the scanty evidence. The most important example is a set of five inscribed tablets found at Persepolis, which were presumably affixed to altars. One of the tablets names Helios the other four are inscribed in the names of Zeus

Megistos, Athena Basileia, Artemis, and Apollo (Figs. 1-3). Louis Robert referred to a magnificent script of the early Hellenistic period 1. Josef Wiesehöfer proposed a date in the late fourth century, under Peukestas 2. The tablets were formally

* This paper partly draws on presentations made at two international conferences, Networks in the Greek World, Rethymnon 26-28 May 2006, and Royal Cult and Emperor Worship, Athens 1-2 November 2007. We express our sincere thanks to Andreas Blasius, Arthur Houghton, Oliver D. Hoover, and Vito Messina for reading drafts of an earlier version of this paper and offering their comments. Any remaining errors of interpretation are entirely our responsibility. 1. Robert 1967, p. 282. 2. Wiesehöfer, 1994, p. 72-73 and 89.


Tetradrachm

Obv.: Diademed head of Seleucus II r., dotted border.

Rev.: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ on r., ΣΕΛΕΥΚΟΥ on l., Apollo seated l. on omphalos, slight drapery on thigh, testing arrow and resting l. hand on grounded bow.

Outer left control off flan.

Reference: Copenhagen, M. Andersen collection, ex CNG E Auction 295, 30 January 2013, lot 267.

Obverse die link with SC C742.1-7 and SC Ad197.

SCADS82 Seleucus III SC 921.1Ad

SELEUCUS III

Silver tetradrachm, Apollo on omphalos type

Obv.: Diademed head of Seleucus III r., dotted border.

Rev.: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ on r., ΣΕΛΕΥΚΟΥ on l., Apollo, slight drapery on thigh, seated l. on omphalos which is placed upon a plinth or basis, resting hand on grounded bow.

Outer left (a) and outer right (b) controls

Reference: San Rafael, California, MNL collection, ex Gemini 11, 12 January 2014, lot 249.

A plinth beneath the omphalos is anomalous, but appears to be clear and not the product of overstriking or double striking.

SCADS78 Seleucus I SC 156 Corr.

SELEUCUS I

ELEPHANT CHARIOT TETRADRACHMS WITHOUT CONTROLS, FROM CENTRAL OR EASTERN PERSIA OR PERHAPS BACTRIA

Silver tetradrachms, elephant chariot type

Obv.: Laureate head of Zeus r., dotted border.

Rev.: CΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ (curving) to l., ΣΕΑΕΥΚΟΥ in exergue, Athena in elephant quadriga r., brandishing spear and shield, dotted border.

Seleucid symbol (upper field): ANCHOR

Reference: Triton 17, 6 January 2014, lot 367 (image). See also the preliminary die study for elephant chariot tetradrachms without controls.

The high obverse relief, strongly cupped flans, bold obverse style, blundered legends (see also SC 156), loose dies, and the absence of controls all distinguish this series from the regular issues of Seleucia on the Tigris and Susa. Provenances appear to point toward a mint in central Persia or more remotely in Bactria.

For plated tetradrachms more closely related to the style of Seleucia on the Tigris but also lacking controls, see SCADS73 and SCADS74.

SCADS77 Seleucus I SC 156 Corr.

SELEUCUS I

ELEPHANT CHARIOT TETRADRACHMS WITHOUT CONTROLS, FROM CENTRAL OR EASTERN PERSIA OR PERHAPS BACTRIA

Silver tetradrachms, elephant chariot type

Obv.: Laureate head of Zeus r., dotted border.

Rev.: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ (curving) on l., ΣΕΛΕΥΚΟΥ in exergue, Athena in elephant quadriga r., brandishing spear and shield, dotted border.

Seleucid symbol (upper field): ANCHOR

Reference: San Rafael, California, MNL collection, ex CNG 94, 18 September 2013, lot 721 (image). See also the preliminary die study for elephant chariot tetradrachms without controls.

The high obverse relief, strongly cupped flans, bold obverse style, several blundered legends (SCADS78 and SC 156), loose dies, and lack of controls all distinguish this series from the regular issues of Seleucia on the Tigris and Susa. Provenances appear to point toward a mint in central Persia or more remotely in Bactria.

For plated tetradrachms more closely related to the style of Seleucia on the Tigris but also lacking controls, see SCADS73 and SCADS74.

SCADS76 Seleucus II plated issue SC 834 Corr.

Plated tetradrachm, Apollo on omphalos type

Obv.: Diademed head of Seleucus II r., slightly barbarized with arching eyebrow, dotted border.

Rev.: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ on r., ΣΕΛΕΥΚΟΥ on l., Apollo of barbarous style seated l., testing arrow and resting l. hand on grounded bow.

Uncertain outer right control.

On review, SC 834, which is described as a barbarous tetradrachm, is in fact a plated issue.

SCADS75 Demetrius I plated issue SC 1708-1709

Silver plated tetradrachm, Apollo on omphalos type(15.22 gm.)

Obv.: Diademed head of Demetrius I r., diadem ends falling straight behind, fillet border.

Rev.: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ on r., ΔΗΜΗΤΡΙΟΥ on l., Apollo seated l. on omphalos, testing arrow and resting hand on grounded bow with grip marked by two pellets.

Outer left (a, mostly off flan) and outer right (b) controls.

Reference: CNG EAuction 264, lot 172.

Judging from the type, the coin was intended to imitate an eastern issue. The treatment of the diadem ends, the ornamentation of Apollo’s bow, and the right field control all suggest an issue of Antioch in Persis as the probable model. The form of the outer left control is uncertain.

SCADS74 Seleucus I plated issue SC 130

SELEUCIA ON THE TIGRIS (SELEUCIA II, SECOND WORKSHOP)

Silver plated tetradrachm, elephant chariot type

Obv.: Laureate head of Zeus r., dotted border.

Rev.: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ to l., ΣΕΛΕΥΚΟΥ in exergue, Athena in elephant quadriga r., brandishing spear and shield, dotted border.

Seleucid symbol (upper field) ANCHOR

Reference: Uncertain Hirsch sale.

See SCADS73 for a related plated tetradrachm and terracotta “token.”

See SCADS77 and SCADS78 for elephant chariot tetradrachms lacking controls probably struck at a mint in Persis or Bactria.

SCADS73 Seleucus I plated issue SC 130

SELEUCIA ON THE TIGRIS (SELEUCIA II, SECOND WORKSHOP)

Silver plated tetradrachm, elephant chariot type

Obv.: Laureate head of Zeus r., dotted border.

Rev.: Blundered legends (curving) to l., and in exergue, Athena in elephant quadriga r., brandishing spear and shield, dotted border.

Seleucid symbol (upper field): ANCHOR

Reference: CNG EAuction 100, 21 October 2004, lot 62.

Elephant chariot tetradrachms lacking controls are not known in the regular coinage of Seleucus I struck at Seleucia on the Tigris and Susa. However, a terracotta “token” from Seleucia on the Tigris in the ANS collection (1944.100.44991), apparently cast from a mould made from an actual coin, also lacks control marks. Unfortunately, it is impossible to determine the status (official, imitative, or plated) of the original coin used for the “token.” The quality of the legend on the “token” is certainly superior to that of SCADS73.

Terracotta “token” from Seleucia on the Tigris
(ANS 1944.100.44991)

For a plated chariot tetradrachm with correct legend and no controls, see SCADS74.

See SCADS77 and SCADS78 for elephant chariot tetradrachms lacking controls probably struck at a mint in Persis or Bactria.

SCADS69 Antiochus V SC 1583Ad

Silver tetradrachm, Phoenician eagle type

Obv.: Diademed head of Antiochus V r., diadem ends falling straight behind, dotted border.

Rev.: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ (curving) on r., ΕΥΠΑΤΟΡΟΣ (curving) on l., eagle standing l. on thunderbolt, dotted border.

Reverse symbol (l. field): PALM BRANCH

Obverse control (a) behind head and reverse control (b) between legs

Although the types and controls of this coin are all known (see SC 1583c), it has been included in the addenda because of its anomalous portrait depicting the king with bangs.

SCADS67 Antiochus V SC 1584Ad

“ANTIOCH ON THE PERSIAN GULF”

Silver tetradrachm, Apollo on omphalos type

Obv.: Diademed head of young king r., fillet border.

Rev.: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ on r., ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ on l., Apollo seated l. on omphalos, testing arrow and resting l. hand on grounded bow.

Outer left (a) and outer right (b) controls

Reference: Copenhagen, M. Andersen collection, ex Najaf, 4 October 2012.

It remains questionable whether SC 1584 and this coin belong to Antiochus V. Antiochus IV may be the more likely possibility.

SCADS66 Demetrius I SC 1633-1640Ad

Silver tetradrachm, Tyche type

Obv.: Diademed head of Demetrius I r., diadem ends hanging straight behind, laurel wreath border.

Rev.: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ on r., ΔΗΜΗΤΡΙΟΥ ΣΩΤΗΡΟΣ in two lines on l., Tyche seated l. on backless throne with winged tritoness support, holding short sceptre and cornucopiae.

Hoard: Gaziantep Hoard 1994 (CH 9, 527 CH 10, 308)

This coin was recorded by E. Levante in Beirut, but either the control or attribution is in error. No other known tetradrachm with the epithet Soter has this control, although a similar control occurs on SC 1625, an unattributed issue of Cilicia or Northern Syria that lacks the epithet.

The coin is listed here under Antioch as a placemarker.

SCADS65 Antiochus VII SC 2061.1Ad

Silver tetradrachm, standing Athena Nicephorus type

Obv.: Diademed head of Antiochus VII r., diadem ends falling straight behind, fillet border.

Rev.: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ in two lines on r., ΕΥΕΡΓΕΤΟΥ on l., Athena standing l., holding Nike in r. and resting l. hand on grounded shield and extending r. beyond royal epithet, where she supports Nike l., extending wreath into border, spear propped against Athena’s arm, laurel wreath border.

Date (in exergue): ΔΟΡ (S.E. 174 = 139/8 B.C.)

Outer left primary control (a) above secondary control (b)

Reference: Tupelo, MS, B. Bowlin collection, ex Rauch ESale, 18 September 2013, lot 344.

Almost certainly the first issue of Antiochus VII at Antioch, before the date was removed. Controls as SC 2061.1e.

SCADS64 Antiochus VII SC 2049.3 Corr.

SELEUCIA ON THE CALYCADNUS

Silver tetradrachm, local standing Athena Nicephorus type

Obv.: Diademed head of Antiochus VII r., diadem ends falling straight behind, fillet border.

Rev.: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ in two lines on r., ΕΥΕΡΓΕΤΟΥ on l., Athena standing l., holding Nike facing r. and offering wreath, resting l. hand on shield, spear behind.

Symbol (inner l.): FEATHERY BRANCH

Reference: San Rafael, California, MNL collection, ex Gorny & Mosch 220, 11 March 2014, lot 1426.

Obverse die link with SC 2049.1-2.

The coin shows controls that were off flan on SC 2049.3. Interestingly, the ΙΣΙ primary control employed at Seleucia on the Calycadnus for other issues of Antiochus VII does not appear here, but rather controls that prefigure those employed during the first and second reigns of Antiochus VIII (121/0-114/13 and 112-96 B.C., respectively) in the city.

SCADS63 Alexander I SC 1784.4 Corr.

Silver Tetradrachm, Zeus Nicephorus type, revived

Obv.: Diademed head of Alexander I r., diadem ends falling straight behind, fillet border.

Rev.: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ in two lines on r., ΘΕΟΠΑΤΟΡΟΣ ΕΥΕΡΓΕΤΟΥ in two lines on l., Zeus enthroned l., resting l. hand on sceptre and holding Nike facing r.

Inner left (a) and right exergue (b) controls.

Variant form of the left field control and corrects the reading of the exergue control.

SCADS62 Alexander I SC 1784.8Ad

Silver Tetradrachm, Zeus Nicephorus type, revived

Obv.: Diademed head of Alexander I r., diadem ends falling straight behind, fillet border.

Rev.: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ in two lines on r., ΘΕΟΠΑΤΟΡΟΣ ΕΥΕΡΓΕΤΟΥ in two lines on l., Zeus enthroned l., resting l. hand on sceptre and holding Nike facing r.

Date (in ex., on l.) ϚΞΡ (S.E. 166 = 147/6 B.C.)

Inner left (a) and right exergue (b) controls

Reference: Davisson’s EAuction 3, 7 December 2013, lot 19.

The inner right control is a variant form of the usual primary control for SC 1784.8.

SCADS61 Alexander I SC 1784.3Ad

Silver Tetradrachm, Zeus Nicephorus type, revived

Obv.: Diademed head of Alexander I r., diadem ends falling straight behind, fillet border.

Rev.: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ in two lines on r., ΘΕΟΠΑΤΟΡΟΣ ΕΥΕΡΓΕΤΟΥ in two lines on l., Zeus enthroned l., resting l. hand on sceptre and holding Nike facing r.

Date (in ex., on l.) ΕΞΡ (S.E. 165 = 148/7 B.C.)

Outer left (a) and exergue (b) controls

Hoard: Gaziantep Hoard 1994 (CH 9, 527 CH 10, 308)

Adds a new exergue control to SC 1784.3.

SCADS58 Antiochus VII SC 2109.3Ad

Silver Tetradrachm, Phoenician eagle type

Obv.: Diademed and draped bust of Antiochus VII r., dotted border.

Rev.: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ (curving) on r., ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ (curving) on l., eagle standing l. on ship’s ram, palm branch under far wing, dotted border.

Date (in r. field, below) ΕΟΡ (S.E. 175 = 138/7 B.C.)

Left (a above and b on club) and right field (c) mintmarks. Control(s) between legs (d above e).

Reference: USA (CT), J. Guberman coll.

This coin adds a new control between the legs of the eagle, but it is unclear how it should be read. In the enlargement, the control appears to be composed of Greek delta with two smaller characters written above it that could perhaps be read as the Phoenician letters gimel and ayin (G‘). Phoenician control letters regularly appeared between the legs of the eagle on autonomous Tyrian tetradrachms (shekels) struck after 127 B.C. Alternatively, the control could be a Greek monogram composed of cursive omega above delta although the elements of the omega are not clearly linked. A third, but least probable interpretation is that the delta has been recut over a largely erased control involving phi (e.g. SC 2109.3d).

A Tyrian didrachm of the same year (SC 2110.3b) may feature the same mysterious control between the eagle’s legs.

SCADS54 Demetrius II (first reign) SC 1906.5Ad

Silver tetradrachm, Apollo on omphalos type

Obv.: Diademed head of Demetrius II r., diadem ends falling straight behind, fillet border.

Rev.: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΔΗΜΗΤΡΙΟΥ in two lines on r., ΘΕΟΥ ΦΙΛΑΔΕΛΦΟΥ ΝΙΚΑΤΟΡΟΣ in three lines on l., Apollo, nude, seated l. on omphalos, testing arrrow and resting l. hand on grounded bow.

Date (in ex., on l.): ΖΞΡ (S.E. 167 = 146/5 B.C.)

Symbol (outer l.) PALM BRANCH

Inner right (a) and exergue (b) controls

Reference: Pars VCoins sale, November 2013.

SCADS53 Antiochus VI SC 2010.4Ad

Silver Tetradrachm, Dioscuri type

Obv.: Radiate and diademed head of Antiochus VI r., one diadem end flying up behind, the other falling forward over shoulder, fillet border.

Rev.: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ in two lines above, ΕΠΙΦΑΝΟΥΣ ΔΙΟΝΥΣΟΥ in two lines below, Dioscuri charging l. on horseback, with couched spears, within Dionysiac wreath of laurel, grain, lotus, ivy, and vine leaves.

Date (beneath horses): ΘΞΡ (S.E. 169 = 144/3 B.C.)

Obverse symbol (behind head): STAR

Hoard: Gaziantep Hoard 1994 (CH 9, 527 CH 10, 308)

Adds the obverse STAR symbol to SC 2010.1.

SCADS52 Antiochus VI SC 2010.1Ad

Silver Tetradrachm, Dioscuri type

Obv.: Radiate and diademed head of Antiochus VI r., one diadem end flying up behind, the other falling forward over shoulder, fillet border.

Rev.: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ in two lines above, ΕΠΙΦΑΝΟΥΣ ΔΙΟΝΥΣΟΥ in two lines below, Dioscuri charging l. on horseback, with couched spears, within Dionysiac wreath of laurel, grain, lotus, ivy, and vine leaves.

Date (beneath horses): ΘΞΡ (SE 169 = 144/3 B.C.)

Obverse symbol (behind head): STAR

Hoard: Gaziantep Hoard 1994 (CH 9, 527 CH 10, 308)

Adds the obverse STAR symbol to SC 2010.1.

SCADS47 Antiochus VIII SC 2290 Corr.

Silver tetradrachm, Mallian Athena Magarsia type

Obv.: Diademed head of Antiochus VIII r., diadem ends falling straight behind, fillet border.

Rev.: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ in two lines on r., ΕΠΙΦΑΝΟΥΣ on l., facing cult statue of Athena Magarsia holding spear, rosette above each shoulder.

Mintmark (on obv., behind neck): M

Controls (left, beneath inscription, and right, beneath inscription)

Reference: Tupelo, MS, B. Bowlin collection, ex CNG EAuction 229, 10 March 2010, lot 218.

Struck from the same dies as SC 2290, but with the lower r. control added. The form of the left control is also corrected here.

For the Seleucid coinage of Mallus in general, see A. Houghton, “The Seleucid Mint of Mallus And the Cult Figure of Athena Magarsia,” in Studies Mildenberg.

SCADS46 Antiochus VIII

UNCERTAIN MINT, PERHAPS IN CILICIA (ΕΥ MINT)

Silver tetradrachm, standing Athena Nicephorus type

Obv.: Diademed head of Antiochus VIII r., diadem ends falling straight behind, fillet border.

Rev.: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ in two lines on r., ΕΠΙΦΑΝΟΥΣ on l., Athena standing l., holding Nike in extended r. and resting l. on shield, spear behind.

Controls (outer l.) : ΕΥ above ΤΙ.

Reference: Tupelo, MS, B. Bowlin collection, ex CNG EAuction 236, 7 July 2010, lot 200.

The coin is of apparently barbarous style, but the controls are credible and follow the convention of other Cilician mints. The obverse die has been extensively recut.

SCADS44 Cleopatra Thea and Antiochus VIII SC 2262.1Ad

CLEOPATRA THEA AND ANTIOCHUS VIII

Silver tetradrachm, Zeus Nicephorus type

Obv.: Jugate busts r. of Cleopatra Thea diademed, veiled and wearing stephane, and Antiochus VIII, diademed, dotted border.

Rev.: ΒΑΣΙΛΙΣΣΗΣ ΚΛΕΟΠΑΤΡΑΣ in two lines on r., ΚΑΙ ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ in three lines on l., Zeus enthroned l., holding Nike and sceptre.

Primary control (outer l.): ΙΕ

Secondary control (under throne): Π

Reference: Vedrines, 28 December 1998, lot 79.

SCADS42 Alexander II SC 2211a Corr.

Silver tetradrachm, Tarsian Sandan altar type

Obv.: Diademed head of Alexander II r., diadem ends falling straight behind, fillet border.

Rev.: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ on r., ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ on l., garlanded altar with baldachin, under which Sandan standing r. on back of horned winged lion-griffin r.

Outer left controls
(above and below)

Reference: CNG EAuction 321, 26 February 2014, lot 187.

The reference object is die-linked to SC 2211 but credibly reflects an issue of Alexander II that clarifies the upper control of SC 2211a.

SCADS41 Seleucus I SC 226Ad

TETRADRACHM WITH TROPHY TYPE, FROM DRANGIANA, COREGENCY OF SELEUCUS I AND ANTIOCHUS I

Silver Tetradrachm, Nike crowning trophy type

Obv.: Head of hero r. (assimilating Seleucus, Alexander and Dionysus), wearing helmet covered with panther skin and adorned with bull’s ear and horns, lion skin tied around neck, dotted border.

Rev.: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ on r., ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ on l. (reading outward from l.), Nike standing r., crowning trophy, dotted border.

Controls (between Nike and trophy)

Reference: Private California collection.

Previously only drachms and smaller fractions were known for the coregency of Seleucus I and Antiochus I in Drangiana. The control is related to that found on the hemidrachm SC 227b.

SCADS35 Antiochus XII SC 2472.1Ad

Silver tetradrachm, local Hadad type

Obv.: Diademed head of Antiochus XII r., with short, curly beard, fillet border.

Rev.: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ ΕΠΙΦΑΝΟΥΣ in three lines on r., ΦΙΛΟΠΑΤΟΡΟΣ ΚΑΛΛΙΝΙΚΟΥ in two lines on l., cult image of Hadad standing facing on double basis, holding barley stalk, flanked by bull foreparts of bull to l. and r., laurel wreath border.

Date (in exergue): ΗΚΣ (S.E. 228 = 85/4 B.C.)

Outer left controls
(above and below)

Reference: San Rafael, California, MNL collection, ex CNG 96, 14 May 2014, lot 552. See Hoover, Houghton and Vesely, p. 336, 9.

This entry corrects the lower control of SC 2472.1, and adds the most recent die study of the Damascus tetradrachms of Antiochus XII.

SCADS31 Antiochus Hierax SC 836Ad

Silver tetradrachm, Apollo on omphalos type

Obv.: Diademed head of young king r., probably Antiochus Hierax.

Rev.: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ on r., ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ on l., Apollo, slight drapery on thigh, seated l. on omphalos, testing arrow and resting l. hand on grounded bow, dotted border.

Outer left control(above): SATYR MASK

Reference: Private California collection.

SCADS30 Antiochus Hierax SC836Ad

Silver tetradrachm, Apollo on omphalos type

Obv.: Diademed head of young king r.

Rev.: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ on r., ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ on l., Apollo, slight drapery on thigh, seated l. on omphalos, testing arrow and resting l. hand on grounded bow.

Controls (in exergue): (Uncertain, perhaps CRAB) to l. and XX to r.

Obverse die link with SC 836.1.5.

Reference: Forum VCoins, uncertain date.

SCADS29 Antiochus Hierax SC 835Ad

Silver tetradrachm, draped Apollo on omphalos type

Obv: Diademed head of young king r.

Rev.: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ on r., ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ on l., Apollo, draped, seated l. on omphalos, testing arrow and resting l. hand on grounded bow.

Controls (in exergue): FACING PAN HEAD to l. and FACING LION HEAD to r.

Reference: Roma 7, 22 March 2014, lot 820.

Obverse die link with SC 836.1.5.

SCADS28 Antiochus Hierax SC 835.6Ad

Silver tetradrachm, Apollo on omphalos type

Obv.: Diademed head of young king r., probably Antiochus Hierax.

Rev.: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ on r., ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ on l., Apollo, draped, seated l. on omphalos, testing arrow and resting l. hand on grounded bow.

Obverse die link with SC 835.2-6.

Hoard: 2012 Commerce 190s Hoard.

Reference: Gemini 11, 12 January 2014, lot 230.

SCADS26 Seleucus II SC 644Ad

Silver Tetradrachm, Apollo with tripod type

Obv.: Dademed head of Seleucus II r. clean-shaven, dotted border.

Rev.: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ on r., ΣΕΛΕΥΚΟΥ on l., Apollo standing l., testing arrow and resting elbow on tall tripod, no border.

Control (inner l.): DOVE flying l.

Reference: San Rafael, California, MNL collection, ex Roma 7, 22 March 2014, lot 819.

The pellets or dots on the obverse, a number of which form lines or clusters and appear to be artifacts and not die flaws or rust, are unexplained.

SCADS25 Seleucus II SC Ad137 Corr.

Obv.: Diademed head of Seleucus II r. with long sideburn, dotted border.

Rev.: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ on r., ΣΕΛΕΥΚΟΥ on l., Apollo standing l., testing arrow and resting l. elbow on tall tripod, no border.

Controls(?): TWO WINGS, ONE UP THE SECOND DOWN, ON LION-FOOTED PEDESTAL?

Reference: SC Ad 137 = Lanz 151, 30 Jun. 2011, 528,

The reverse is slightly double struck but the control is evidently not the leafy branch that was originally recorded in SC. A sharper example is needed to determine what was intended. The apparent control may actually be a feature on the flan (an overstruck host coin?) rather than an intentional control cut into the die.

SCADS24 Antiochus II SC 518Ad

Silver Tetradrachm, Apollo on omphalos type

Obv.: Diademed head of Antiochus II r.

Rev.: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ on r., ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ on l., Apollo, slight drapery on thigh, seated l. on omphalos, testing arrow and resting l. hand on grounded bow.

Controls (in exergue): ΑΝ ΑΣ

Reference: The New York Sale 3, 12 December 2000, lot 161

SCADS23 Antiochus II SC 518Ad

Silver Tetradrachm, Apollo on omphalos type

Obv.: Diademed head of Antiochus II r.

Rev.: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ on r., ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ on l., Apollo, slight drapery on thigh, seated l. on omphalos, testing arrow and resting l. hand on grounded bow.

Reference: Hirsch 256, 5 May 2008, lot 350

Corrects the reading of SC 518c.

SCADS22 Antiochus II (or Antiochus Hierax) SC 492 Corr.

ANTIOCHUS II (OR ANTIOCHUS HIERAX)

Silver tetradrachm, Apollo on ompnalos type

Obv.: Head of idealized young king to r., wearing winged diadem, dotted border.

Rev.: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ on r., ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ on l., Apollo, slight drapery on thigh, seated l. on omphalos and resting l. hand on grounded bow.

Outer right (a) and exergue (b) controls

Reference: CNG 96, 14 May 2014, lot 537.

This entry makes a minor correction to the exergue control.

SC 492 notes that this coin may be an issue of Antiochus Hierax.

SCADS18 Antiochus IX SC 2347c

EP MINT, IN CILICIA, WEST OF TARSUS

Silver tetradrachm, Athena Nicephorus type

Obv.: Head of Antiochus IX r. fillet border.

Rev.: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ in two lines on r., ΦΙΛΟΠΑΤΟΡΟΣ on l., Athena standing l., holding Nike and resting l. hand on shield, spear behind, laurel wreath border.

Controls (outer l.): EP above N (possibly engraved over another control).

Reference: Tupelo, MS, B. Bowlin collection, ex Gorny & Mosch 191, 11 October 2010, lot 1651.

Obverse die link with SC 2347 and SCADS17 (SC 2347b).

SCADS17 Antiochus IX SC 2347b

ΕΡ MINT, IN CILICIA, WEST OF TARSUS

Silver tetradrachm, Athena Nicephorus type

Obv.: Diademed head of Antiochus IX r., diadem ends falling straight behind, fillet border

Rev.: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ in two lines on r., ΦΙΛΟΠΑΤΟΡΟΣ on l., Athena standing l., holding Nike and resting l. hand on shield, spear behind, laurel wreath border.

Controls (outer l.): ΕΡ above Θ.

Reference: CNG EAuction 236, 7 July 2010, lot 202.

Obv. die link with SC 2347 and SCADS18 (SC 2347c).

SCADS9 Antiochus III SC 1075Ad

PERHAPS LAODICEA BY THE SEA

Silver tetradrachms, Apollo on omphalos type

Obv.: Diademed head of Antiochus III r. (Type B), dotted border.

Rev.: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ on r., ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ on l., Apollo, slight drapery on thigh, seated l. on omphalos, testing arrow and resting l. hand on grounded bow, dotted border.

Symbol (outer l., below): PROW r.

Outer left (a) and outer right (b) controls

Reference: Roma ESale 2, 2 November 2013, lot 330.

Hoard: Commerce 2012 190s Hoard.

SCADS8 Antiochus III SC 1072Ad

PERHAPS LAODICEA BY THE SEA

Silver tetradrachms, Apollo on omphalos type

Obv.: Diademed head of Antiochus III r. (Type Aii), youthful, no sideburn, with idealized features and slightly irregular bangs indicating incipient baldness, one diadem end flying upward, the other falling straight behind, dotted border.

Rev.: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ on r., ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ on l., Apollo, slight drapery on thigh, seated l. on omphalos, testing arrow and resting l. hand on grounded bow, dotted border.

Outer left (a) and outer right (b) controls

Reference: Pecunem 9, 3 November 2013, lot 294.

Hoard: Commerce 2012 190s Hoard.

SCADS5 Antiochus III SC 1044.5Ad

Silver tetradrachm, Apollo on omphalos type

Obv.: Dademed head of Antiochus r. (Type Cii), of florid style, with godlike, idealized features, touseled hair, and break in bangs indicating incipient baldness at temple, horn above ear, diadem ends waving upward behind, fillet border.

Rev.: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ on r., ANTIOXOY on l., Apollo, slight drapery on r. thigh, seated l. on omphalos, testing arrow and resting l. hand on grounded bow.

Primary control (outer l.): BOW IN BOWCASE

Secondary control (in exergue): ΕΚ

Reference: GM 208, 16 October 2012, lot 1634.

SCADS4 Antiochus III SC1026.6Corr.

Silver tetradrachm, Apollo on omphalos type

Obv.: Diademed head of Antiochus III r., dotted border

Rev.: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ on r., ANTIOXOY on l., Apollo, nude, seated l. on omphalos, testing arrow and resting l. hand on grounded bow.

Mintmark (outer l., below): CLUB

Controls: XX (outer l., above) and YY (outer r.).

Reference Spink 7023, 27 September 2007, lot 90.

The coin clarifies the l. control for the 1026 series.

SCADS3 Antiochus III SC 1010Ad

NEW MINT, PERHAPS A MILITARY FACILITY OPERATING IN ASIA MINOR AFTER 203 B.C.

Silver tetradrachm, Apollo on omphalos type

Obv.: Diademed head of Antiochus III r. (type Cii) of refined style, with idealized features, elongated profile eye, slightly aquiline nose, break in bags indicating incipient baldness at temple, one diadem end waving upward, the other falling straight behind.

Rev.: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ on r., ANTIOXOY on l., Apollo seated l. on omphalos, testing arrow and resting l. hand on grounded bow.

Obverse die links with SC 1010.

Reference: Copenhagen, M. Andersen collection, ex Ancient Delights Vcoins sale, December 2011, lot 1284.

The new coin confirms that rather than being a barbarous imitation, SC 1010 must be seen as the product of a “mint” (a facility producing two or more issues) — perhaps one of several created by military need during Antiochus’ invasion of Asia Minor after 203 B.C.

SCADS1 Antiochus III SC 1001Ad

UNCERTAIN MINT 49, IN PHRYGIA, PERHAPS APAMEA

Silver tetradrachm, Apollo on omphalos type

Obv.: Dademed head of Antiochus III r., dotted border.

Rev.: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ on r., ANTIOXOY on l., Apollo, slight drapery on thigh, seated l. on omphalos, testing arrow and resting l. hand on grounded bow.

Reference: Private California collection, ex CNG E-Auction 334, 3 Sep 2014, 164.


SELEUKOS I 312BC Seleukid Tetradrachm ELEPHANTS Ancient Silver Greek Coin i55309 For Sale

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SELEUKOS I 312BC Seleukid Tetradrachm ELEPHANTS Ancient Silver Greek Coin i55309: $2,000

Greek Coin of Seleukid Kingdom
Seleukos I Nikator - King: 312-280 B.C.
Silver Tetradrachm 25mm (16.65 grams) Struck circa 312-280 B.C.
Reference: HGC 9, 18/19 var. (four elephants) Sear 6832 var.
Laureate head of Zeus right.
Athena, brandishing spear and holding shield, standing in chariot pulled by two horned elephants on left, ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ in exergue, ΣEΛΕYKOY in field above, anchor.

* Numismatic Note: This is seldom seen two elephant type of the rare Seleukos tetradrachm.

Destined to be the longest-surviving of the 'Successors' of Alexander, Seleukos had a difficult time establishing his power. Alloted the satrapy of Babylon in 321 B.C. he was ousted from this position five years later, by Antigonos the One-eyed, and fled to his friend Ptolemy in Egypt. In 312 B.C. he regained Babylon and it is from this even that the Seleukid Era is dated. Seleukos gradually consolidated his power and in 305 B.C. took the title of King. From 305-3 he campaigned in the east, extending his rule as far as India. With his defeat of Lysimachos in 281 he became master of the whole of Alexander's empire, except Egypt but the following year he was assassinated by Ptolemy Keraunos, a renegade son of his late friend, the King of Egypt.

The territorial extent of this might realm varied greatly from period to period. At its zenith, under Seleukos I and Antiochos I, it compromised almost the whole of Alexander's conquests, except Egypt. In the mid-3rd century the easternmost provinces were lost when both Baktria and Parthia achieved independence. Antiochos III, the Great, attempted to regain the lost territories, but he was only partially successful and in 190 B.C. he was defeated by the Romans at the battle of Magnesia. This destroyed the Seleukid power in Asia Minor, their former possessions passed to Rome's ally, the Kingdom of Pergamon. The Seleukid Kingdom, now restricted to Syria and the surrounding area, maintained a precarious existence until 64 B.C. when it finally succumbed to Pompey the Great.

You are offerding on the exact item pictured, provided with a Certificate of Authenticity and Lifetime Guarantee of Authenticity.

Seleucus I Nicator (ca. 358 BC – 281 BC) was one of the Diadochi, having previously served as an infantry general under Alexander the Great, he eventually assumed the title of basileus and established the Seleucid Empire over much of Alexander's near eastern territories.

After the death of Alexander, Seleucus initially supported Perdiccas, the regent of Alexander's empire, and was appointed Commander of the Companions and chiliarch at the Partition of Babylon in 323 BC. However, at the outbreak of the Wars of the Diadochi, Perdiccas' military failures against Ptolemy in Egypt led to the mutiny of his troops in Pelusium. Perdiccas was betrayed and assassinated in a conspiracy by Seleucus, Peithon and Antigenes in Pelusium sometime in either 321 or 320 BC.

At the Partition of Triparadisus, Seleucus was appointed Satrap of Babylon under the new regent Antipater. But almost immedialty, the wars between the Diadochi resumed and Antigonus[D] forced Seleucus to flee Babylon. Seleucus was only able to return to Babylon in 312 BC with the support of Ptolemy. From 312 BC, Seleucus ruthlessly expanded his dominions and eventually conquered the Persian and Median lands. Seleucus did not only rule Babylonia, but the entire enormous eastern part of Alexander's empire:

"Always lying in wait for the neighboring nations, strong in arms and persuasive in council, he [Seleucus] acquired Mesopotamia, Armenia, 'Seleucid' Cappadocia, Persis, Parthia, Bactria, Arabia, Tapouria, Sogdia, Arachosia, Hyrcania, and other adjacent peoples that had been subdued by Alexander, as far as the river Indus, so that the boundaries of his empire were the most extensive in Asia after that of Alexander. The whole region from Phrygia to the Indus was subject to Seleucus."

Seleucus' wars took him as far as India, where, after two years of war, he made peace with the Indian Emperor Chandragupta Maurya, and exchanged his eastern satrapies in the Indus River Valley for a considerable force of 500 war elephants, which would play a decisive role against Antigonus at the Battle of Ipsus in 301 BC and against Lysimachus[E] at the Battle of Corupedium in 281 BC.

"The Indians occupy [in part] some of the countries situated along the Indus, which formerly belonged to the Persians: Alexander deprived the Ariani of them, and established there settlements of his own. But Seleucus Nicator gave them to Sandrocottus in consequence of a marriage contract, and received in return five hundred elephants."

Following Seleucus' victories against Antigonus and Lysimachus, the Seleucid dynasty was virtually unopposed in Asia and in Anatolia. However, Seleucus also hoped to take control of Lysimachus' European territories, primarily Thrace and Macedon itself. But upon arriving in Thrace in 281 BC, Seleucus was assassinated by Ptolemy Ceraunus, whom had taken refuge at the Seleucid court with his sister Lysandra. The effect of the assassination of Seleucus destroyed Seleucid prospects in Thrace and Macedon, and paved the way for Ptolemy Ceraunus to absorb much of Lysimachus' former power in Macedon. Seleucus was succeeded by his son Antiochus I as ruler of the empire.

Seleucus founded a number of new cities during his reign, including Antioch and in particular Seleucia on the Tigris, the new capital of the Seleucid Empire, something that eventually depopulated Babylon.

Seleucus was the son of Antiochus. Historian Junianus Justinus claims he was one of Philip II of Macedon's generals. Antiochus is not, however, mentioned in any other sources and nothing is known of his supposed career under Philip. It is possible that Antiochus was a member of an upper Macedonian noble family. Seleucus' mother was supposedly called Laodice, but nothing else is known of her. Later, Seleucus named a number of cities after his parents.

As a teenager, Seleucus was chosen to serve as the king's page (paides). It was customary for all male offspring of noble families to first serve in this position and later as officers in the king's army.

Seleucus' year of birth is unclear. Justin claims he was 77 years old during the battle of Corupedium, which would place his year of birth at 358 BC. Appianus tells us Seleucus was 73 years old during the battle, which means 354 BC would be the year of birth. Eusebius of Caesarea, however, mentions the age of 75, and thus the year 356 BC, making Seleucus the same age as Alexander the Great. This is most likely propaganda on Seleucus' part to make him seem comparable to Alexander.

Seleucus was born in Europos, located in the northern part of Macedonia. Just a year before his birth (if the year 358 BC is accepted as the most likely date), the Paeonians invaded the region. Philip defeated the invaders and only a few years later utterly subdued them under Macedonian rule.

A number of legends, similar to those told of Alexander the Great, were told of Seleucus. It was said Antiochus told his son before he left to battle the Persians with Alexander that his real father was actually the god Apollo. The god had left a ring with a picture of an anchor as a gift to Laodice. Seleucus had a birthmark shaped like an anchor. It was told that Seleucus' sons and grandsons also had similar birthmarks. The story is similar to the one told about Alexander. Most likely the story is merely propaganda by Seleucus, who presumably invented the story to present himself as the natural successor of Alexander.

John Malalas tells us Seleucus had a sister called Didymeia, who had sons called Nicanor and Nicomedes. It is most likely the sons are fictitious. Didymeia might refer to the oracle of Apollo in Didyma near Miletus. It has also been suggested that Ptolemy (son of Seleucus) was actually the uncle of Seleucus.

Early career under Alexander the Great Main article: Alexander's Indian campaign Seleucus led the Royal Hypaspistai during Alexander's Persian campaign.

In spring 334 BC, as a young man of about twenty-three, Seleucus accompanied Alexander into Asia. By the time of the Indian campaigns beginning in late in 327 BC, he had risen to the command of the élite infantry corps in the Macedonian army, the "Shield-bearers" (Hypaspistai), later known as the "Silvershields". It is said that when Alexander crossed the Hydaspes river on a boat, he was accompanied by Perdiccas, Ptolemy I Soter, Lysimachus and also Seleucus. During the subsequent Battle of the Hydaspes, Seleucus led his troops against the elephants of King Porus. It is likely that Seleucus had no role in the actual planning of the battle. He is also not mentioned as holding any major independent position during the battle, unlike, for example, Craterus, Hephaistion, Peithon and Leonnatus – each of whom had sizable detachments under his control. Seleucus' Royal Hypaspistai were constantly under Alexander's eye and at his disposal. They later participated in the Indus valley campaign, in the battles fought against the Malli and in the crossing of the Gedrosian desert.

Seleucus also took his future wife, the Persian princess Apama (daughter of Spitamenes), with him into India as his mistress, where she gave birth to his eldest son and successor Antiochus I Soter (325 BC). At the great marriage ceremony at Susa in the spring of 324 BC, Seleucus formally married Apama, and she later bore him at least two legitimate daughters, Laodice, Apama and a son Achaeus. At the same event, Alexander married the daughter of Darius III while several other Macedonians married Persian women. After Alexander's death, when the other senior Macedonian officers unloaded their "Susa wives" en masse, Seleucus was one of the very few who kept his, and Apama remained his consort and later Queen for the rest of her life.

Seleucus is mentioned three times in ancient sources before the death of Alexander. He participated in a sailing trip near Babylon, took part in the dinner party of Medeios the Thessalian with Alexander and visited the temple of Sarapis. In the first of these episodes, Alexander's diadem was blown off his head and landed on some reeds near the tombs of Assyrian kings. Seleucus swam to fetch the diadem back, placing it on his own head while returning to the boat to keep it dry. The validity of the story is dubious. The story of the dinner party of Medeios may be true, but the plot to poison the King is unlikely.[clarification needed insufficient details and context] In the final story, Seleucus reportedly slept in the temple of Sarapis in the hope that Alexander's health might improve. The validity of this story is also questionable, as Sarapis had not been invented at the time.

Senior officer under Perdiccas Ptolemy, an officer under Alexander the Great, was nominated as the satrap of Egypt. Ptolemy made Egypt independent and proclaimed himself King and Pharaoh. Main article: Diadochi

Alexander the Great died without a successor in Babylon on June 10, 323 BC. His general Perdiccas became the regent of all of Alexander's empire, while Alexander's physically and mentally disabled half-brother Arrhidaeus was chosen as the next king under the name Philip III of Macedon. Alexander's unborn child (Alexander IV) was also named his father's successor. In the "Partition of Babylon" however, Perdiccas effectively divided the enormous Macedonian dominion among Alexander's generals. Seleucus was chosen to command the Companion cavalry (hetaroi) and appointed first or court chiliarch, which made him the senior officer in the Royal Army after the regent and commander-in-chief Perdiccas. Several other powerful men supported Perdiccas, including Ptolemy, Lysimachus, Peithon and Eumenes. Perdiccas' power depended on his ability to hold Alexander's enormous empire together, and on whether he could force the satraps to obey him.

War soon broke out between Perdiccas and the other Diadochi. To cement his position, Perdiccas tried to marry Alexander's sister Cleopatra. The First War of the Diadochi began when Perdiccas sent Alexander's corpse to Macedonia for burial. Ptolemy however captured the body and took it to Alexandria. Perdiccas and his troops followed him to Egypt, whereupon Ptolemy conspired with the satrap of Media, Peithon, and the commander of the Argyraspides, Antigenes, both serving as officers under Perdiccas, and assassinated him. Cornelius Nepos mentions that Seleucus also took part in this conspiracy, but this is not certain.

The most powerful man in the empire after the death of Perdiccas was Antipater. Perdiccas' opponents gathered in Triparadisos, where the empire of Alexander was partitioned again (the Treaty of Triparadisus 321 BC).

At Triparadisos the soldiers had become mutinous and were planning to murder their master Antipater. Seleucus and Antigonus, however, managed to prevent this. For betraying Perdiccas, Seleucus was awarded the rich province of Babylon. This decision may have been Antigonus' idea. Seleucus' Babylon was surrounded by Peucestas, the satrap of Persis Antigenes, the new satrap of Susiana and Peithon of Media. Babylon was one of the wealthiest provinces of the empire, but its military power was insignificant. It is possible that Antipater divided the eastern provinces so that no single satrap could rise above the others in power.

After the death of Alexander, Archon of Pella was chosen satrap of Babylon. Perdiccas, however, had had plans to supersede Archon and nominate Docimus as his successor. During his invasion of Egypt, Perdiccas sent Docimus along with his detachments to Babylon. Archon waged war against him, but fell in battle. Thus, Docimus was not intending to give Babylon to Seleucus without a fight. It is not certain how Seleucus took Babylon from Docimus, but according to one Babylonian chronicle an important building was destroyed in the city during the summer or winter of 320 BC. Other Babylonian sources state that Seleucus arrived in Babylon in October or November 320 BC. Despite the presumed battle, Docimus was able to escape.

Meanwhile, the empire was once again in turmoil. Peithon, the satrap of Media, assassinated Philip, the satrap of Parthia, and replaced him with his brother Eudemus as the new satrap. In the west Antigonus and Eumenes waged war against each other. Just like Peithon and Seleucus, Eumenes was one of the former supporters of Perdiccas. Seleucus' biggest problem was, however, Babylon itself. The locals had rebelled against Archon and supported Docimus. The Babylonian priesthood had great influence over the region. Babylon also had a sizable population of Macedonian and Greek veterans of Alexander's army. Seleucus managed to win over the priests with monetary gifts and bribes.

Second War of the Diadochi Main article: Second War of the Diadochi

After the death of Antipater in 319 BC, the satrap of Media began to expand his power. Peithon assembled a large army of perhaps over 20,000 soldiers. Under the leadership of Peucestas the other satraps of the region brought together an opposing army of their own. Peithon was finally defeated in a battle waged in Parthia. He escaped to Media, but his opponents did not follow him and rather returned to Susiana. Meanwhile Eumenes and his army had arrived at Cilicia, but had to retreat when Antigonus reached the city. The situation was difficult for Seleucus. Eumenes and his army were north of Babylon Antigonus was following him with an even larger army Peithon was in Media and his opponents in Susiana. Antigenes, satrap of Susiana and commander of the Argyraspides, was allied with Eumenes. Antigenes was in Cilicia when the war between him and Peithon began.

Peithon arrived at Babylon in the autumn or winter of 317 BC. Peithon had lost a large number of troops, but Seleucus had even fewer soldiers. Eumenes decided to march to Susa in the spring of 316 BC. The satraps in Susa had apparently accepted Eumenes' claims of his fighting on behalf of the lawful ruling family against the usurper Antigonus. Eumenes marched his army 300 stadions away from Babylon and tried to cross the Tigris. Seleucus had to act. He sent two triremes and some smaller ships to stop the crossing. He also tried to get the former hypasiti of the Argyraspides to join him, but this did not happen. Seleucus also sent messages to Antigonus. Because of his lack of troops, Seleucus apparently had no plans to actually stop Eumenes. He opened the flood barriers of the river, but the resulting flood did not stop Eumenes.

In the spring of 316 BC, Seleucus and Peithon joined Antigonus, who was following Eumenes to Susa. From Susa Antigonus went to Media, from where he could threaten the eastern provinces. He left Seleucus with a small number of troops to prevent Eumenes from reaching the Mediterranean. Sibyrtius, satrap of Arachosia, saw the situation as hopeless and returned to his own province. The armies of Eumenes and his allies were at breaking point. Antigonus and Eumenes had two encounters during 316 BC, in the battles of Paraitacene and Gabiene. Eumenes was defeated and executed. The events of the Second War of the Diadochi revealed Seleucus' ability to wait for the right moment. Blazing into battle was not his style.

Escape to Egypt Coin of Seleucus.

Antigonus spent the winter of 316 BC in Media, whose ruler was once again Peithon. Peithon's lust for power had grown, and he tried to get a portion of Antigonus troops to revolt to his side. Antigonus, however, discovered the plot and executed Peithon. He then superseded Peucestas as satrap of Persia. In the summer of 315 BC Antigonus arrived in Babylon and was warmly welcomed by Seleucus. The relationship between the two soon turned cold, however. Seleucus punished one of Antigonus' officers without asking permission from Antigonus. Antigonus became angry and demanded that Seleucus give him the income from the province, which Seleucus refused to do. He was, however, afraid of Antigonus and fled to Egypt with 50 horsemen. It is told that Chaldean astrologers prophesied to Antigonus that Seleucus would become master of Asia and would kill Antigonus. After hearing this, Antigonus sent soldiers after Seleucus, who had however first escaped to Mesopotamia and then to Syria. Antigonus executed Blitor, the new satrap of Mesopotamia, for helping Seleucus. Modern scholars are skeptical of the prophecy story. It seems certain, however, that the Babylon priesthood was against Seleucus.

During Seleucus' escape to Egypt, Macedonia was undergoing great turmoil. Alexander the Great's mother Olympias had been invited back to Macedon by Polyperchon in order to drive Cassander out. She held great respect among the Macedonian army but lost some of this when she had Philip III and his wife Eurydice killed as well as many nobles whom she took revenge upon for supporting Antipater during his long reign. Cassander reclaimed Macedon the following year at Pydna and then had her killed. Alexander IV, still a young child, and his mother Roxane were held guarded at Amphipolis and died under mysterious circumstances in 310BC, probably murdered at the instigation of Cassander to allow the diadochs to assume the title of kingship.

Admiral under Ptolemy Main article: Diadochi#Third War of the Diadochi, 314-311 BC

After arriving in Egypt, Seleucus sent his friends to Greece to inform Cassander and Lysimachus, the ruler of Thracia, about Antigonus. Antigonus was now the most powerful of the Diadochi, and the others would soon ally against him. The allies sent a proposition to Antigonus in which they demanded that Seleucus be allowed to return to Babylon. Antigonus refused and went to Syria, where he planned to attack Ptolemy in the spring of 314 BC.[21] Seleucus was an admiral under Ptolemy. At the same time he started the siege of Tyros,[22] Antigonus allied with Rhodes. The island had a strategic location and its navy was capable of preventing the allies from combining their forces. Because of the threat of Rhodes, Ptolemy gave Seleucus a hundred ships and sent him to the Aegean Sea. The fleet was too small to defeat Rhodes, but it was big enough to force Asander, the satrap of Caria, to ally with Ptolemy. To demonstrate his power, Seleucus also invaded the city of Erythrai. Ptolemy, nephew of Antigonus, attacked Asander. Seleucus returned to Cyprus, where Ptolemy I had sent his brother Menelaos along with 10,000 mercenaries and 100 ships. Seleucus and Menelaos began to besiege Kition. Antigonus sent most of his fleet to the Aegean Sea and his army to Asia Minor. Ptolemy now had an opportunity to invade Syria, where he defeated Demetrius, the son Antigonus, in the battle of Gaza in 312 BC. It is probable that Seleucus took part in the battle. Peithon, son of Agenor, whom Antigonus had nominated as the new satrap of Babylon, fell in the battle. The death of Peithon gave Seleucus an opportunity to return to Babylon.

Seleucus had prepared his return to Babylon well. After the battle of Gaza Demetrius retreated to Tripoli while Ptolemy advanced all the way to Sidon. Ptolemy gave Seleucus 800 infantry and 200 cavalry. He also had his friends accompanying him, perhaps the same 50 who escaped with him from Babylon. On the way to Babylon Seleucus recruited more soldiers from the colonies along the route. He finally had about 3,000 soldiers. In Babylon, Pethon's commander, Diphilus, barricaded himself in the city's fortress. Seleucus conquered Babylon with great speed and the fortress was also quickly captured. Seleucus' friends who had stayed in Babylon were released from captivity. His return to Babylon was afterwards officially regarded as the beginning of the Seleucid Empire and that year as the first of the Seleucid era.

Seleucus the Victor Conquest of the eastern provinces The kingdoms of Antigonus, Seleucus I, Ptolemy I, Cassander and Lysimachus.

Soon after Seleucus' return, the supporters of Antigonus tried to get Babylon back. Nicanor was the new satrap of Media and the strategos of the eastern provinces. His army had about 17,000 soldiers. Evagoras, the satrap of Aria, was allied with him. It was obvious that Seleucus' small force could not defeat the two in battle. Seleucus hid his armies in the marshes that surrounded the area where Nicanor was planning to cross the Tigris and made a surprise attack during the night. Evagoras fell in the beginning of the battle and Nicanor was cut off from his forces. The news about the death of Evagoras spread among the soldiers, who started to surrender en masse. Almost all of them agreed to fight under Seleucus. Nicanor managed to escape with only a few men.

Even though Seleucus now had about 20,000 soldiers, they were not enough to withstand the forces of Antigonus. He also did not know when Antigonus would begin his counterattack. On the other hand, he knew that at least two eastern provinces did not have a satrap. A great majority of his own troops were from these provinces. Some of Evagoras' troops were Persian. Perhaps a portion of the troops were Eumenes' soldiers, who had a reason to hate Antigonus. Seleucus decided to take advantage of this situation.

Seleucus spread different stories among the provinces and the soldiers. According to one of them, he had in a dream seen Alexander standing beside him. Eumenes had tried to use a similar propaganda trick. Antigonus, who had been in Asia Minor while Seleucus had been in the east with Alexander, could not use Alexander in his own propaganda. Seleucus, being Macedonian, had the ability to gain the trust of the Macedonians among his troops, which was not the case with Eumenes.

After becoming once again satrap of Babylon, Seleucus became much more aggressive in his politics. In a short time he conquered Media and Susiana. Diodorus Siculus reports that Seleucus also conquered other nearby areas, which might refer to Persis, Aria or Parthia. Seleucus did not reach Bactria and Sogdiana. The satrap of the former was Stasanor, who had managed to remain neutral during the conflicts. After the defeat of Nikanor's army, there was no force in the east that could have opposed Seleucus. It is uncertain how Seleucus arranged the administration of the provinces he had conquered. Most satraps had died. In theory, Polyperchon was still the lawful successor of Antipater and the official regent of the Macedonian kingdom. It was his duty to select the satraps. However, Polyperchon was still allied with Antigonus and thus an enemy of Seleucus.

Response Seleucus I coin depicting Alexander the Great's horse Bucephalus.

Antigonus sent his son Demetrius along with 15,000 infantry and 4,000 cavalry to reconquer Babylon. Apparently, he gave Demetrius a time limit, after which he had to return to Syria. Antigonus believed Seleucus was still ruling only Babylon. Perhaps Nicanor had not told him that Selucus now had at least 20,000 soldiers. It seems that the scale of Nicanor's defeat was not clear to all parties. Antigonus did not know Seleucus had conquered the majority of the eastern provinces and perhaps cared little about the eastern parts of the empire.

When Demetrius arrived in Babylon, Seleucus was somewhere in the east. He had left Patrocles to defend the city. Babylon was defended in an unusual way. It had two strong fortresses, in which Seleucus had left his garrisons. The inhabitants of the city were transferred out and settled in the neighboring areas, some as far as Susa. The surroundings of Babylon were excellent for defense, with cities, swamps, canals and rivers. Demetrius' troops started to besiege the fortresses of Babylon and managed to conquer one of them. The second fortress proved more difficult for Demetrius. He left his friend Archelaus to continue the siege, and himself returned west leaving 5,000 infantry and 1,000 cavalry in Babylon. Ancient sources do not mention what happened to these troops. Perhaps Seleucus had to reconquer Babylon from Archelaus.

Babylonian War Main article: Babylonian War Coin of Lysimachus with an image of a horned Alexander the Great.

Over the course of nine years (311–302 BC), while Antigonus was occupied in the west, Seleucus brought the whole eastern part of Alexander's empire as far as the Jaxartes and Indus Rivers under his authority.

In 311 BC Antigonus made peace with Cassander, Lysimachus and Ptolemy, which gave him an opportunity to deal with Seleucus. Antigonus' army had at least 80,000 soldiers. Even if he left half of his troops in the west, he would still have a numerical advantage over Seleucus. Seleucus may have received help from Cossaians, whose ancestors were the ancient Kassites. Antigonus had devastated their lands while fighting Eumenes. Seleucus perhaps recruited a portion of Archelaus' troops. When Antigonus finally invaded Babylon, Seleucus' army was much bigger than before. Many of his soldiers certainly hated Antigonus. The population of Babylon was also hostile. Seleucus, thus, did not need to garrison the area to keep the locals from revolting.

Little information is available about the conflict between Antigonus and Seleucus only a very rudimentary Babylonian chronicle detailing the events of the war remains. The description of the year 310 BC has completely disappeared. It seems that Antigonus managed to conquer Babylon. His plans were disturbed, however, by Ptolemy, who made a surprise attack in Cilicia.

We do know that Seleucus managed to defeat Antigonus in at least one decisive battle. This battle is only mentioned in Stratagems in War by Polyaenus. Polyaenus reports that the troops of Seleucus and Antigonus fought for a whole day, but when night came the battle was still undecided. The two forces agreed to rest for the night and continue in the morning. Antigonus' troops slept without their equipment. Seleucus ordered his forces to sleep and eat breakfast in battle formation. Shortly before dawn, Seleucus' troops attacked the forces of Antigonus, who were still without their weapons and in disarray and thus easily defeated. The historical accuracy of the story is questionable.

The Babylonian war finally ended in Seleucus' victory. Antigonus was forced to retreat west. Both sides fortified their borders. Antigonus built a series of fortresses along the Balikh River while Seleucus built a few cities, including Dura-Europos and Nisibis.

The next event connected to Seleucus was the founding of the city of Seleucia. The city was built on the shore of the Tigris probably in 307 or 305 BC. Seleucus made Seleucia his new capital, thus imitating Lysimachus, Cassander and Antigonus, all of whom had named cities after themselves. Seleucus also transferred the mint of Babylon to his new city. Babylon was soon left in the shadow of Seleucia, and the story goes that Antiochus, the son of Seleucus, moved the whole population of Babylon to his father's namesake capital in 275 BC. The city flourished until AD 165, when the Romans destroyed it.

A story of the founding of the city goes as follows: Seleucus asked the Babylonian priests which day would be best to found the city. The priest calculated the day, but, wanting the founding to fail, told Seleucus a different date. The plot failed however, because when the correct day came, Seleucus' soldiers spontaneously started to build the city. When questioned, the priests admitted their deed.

Seleucus the king Coin of Antigonus, with the text ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΓΟΝΟΥ (king Antigonus).

The struggle between the Diadochi reached its climax when Antigonus, after the extinction of the old royal line of Macedonia, proclaimed himself king in 306 BC. Ptolemy, Lysimachus, Cassander and Seleucus soon followed. Also, Agathocles of Sicily declared himself king around the same time. Seleucus, like the other four principal Macedonian chiefs, assumed the title and style of basileus (king).

Chandragupta and the eastern provinces Main article: Seleucid–Mauryan war

Seleucus soon turned his attention once again eastward. In the year 305 BC, Seleucus I Nicator went to India and apparently occupied territory as far as the Indus, and eventually waged war with the Maurya Emperor Chandragupta Maurya:

Always lying in wait for the neighboring nations, strong in arms and persuasive in council, he [Seleucus] acquired Mesopotamia, Armenia, 'Seleucid' Cappadocia, Persis, Parthia, Bactria, Arabia, Tapouria, Sogdia, Arachosia, Hyrcania, and other adjacent peoples that had been subdued by Alexander, as far as the river Indus, so that the boundaries of his empire were the most extensive in Asia after that of Alexander. The whole region from Phrygia to the Indus was subject to Seleucus. He crossed the Indus and waged war with Sandrocottus, king of the Indians, who dwelt on the banks of that stream, until they came to an understanding with each other and contracted a marriage relationship. – Appian, History of Rome, The Syrian Wars 55

Only a few sources mention his activities in India. Chandragupta (known in Greek sources as Sandrökottos), founder of the Mauryan empire, had conquered the Indus valley and several other parts of the easternmost regions of Alexander's empire. Seleucus began a campaign against Chandragupta and crossed the Indus. Seleucus' Indian campaign was, however, a failure. It is unknown what exactly happened. Perhaps Chandragupta defeated Seleucus in battle. No sources mention this, however. But as most historians note, Seleucus appears to have fared poorly as he did not achieve his aims. The two leaders ultimately reached an agreement, and through a treaty sealed in 305 BC, Seleucus ceded a considerable amount of territory to Chandragupta in exchange for 500 war elephants, which were to play a key role in the forthcoming battles, particularly at Ipsus. According to Strabo, the ceded territories bordered the Indus:

The geographical position of the tribes is as follows: along the Indus are the Paropamisadae, above whom lies the Paropamisus mountain: then, towards the south, the Arachoti: then next, towards the south, the Gedroseni, with the other tribes that occupy the seaboard and the Indus lies, latitudinally, alongside all these places and of these places, in part, some that lie along the Indus are held by Indians, although they formerly belonged to the Persians. Alexander [III 'the Great' of Macedon] took these away from the Arians and established settlements of his own, but Seleucus Nicator gave them to Sandrocottus [Chandragupta], upon terms of intermarriage and of receiving in exchange five hundred elephants. — Strabo 15.2.9

From this, it seems that Seleucus surrendered the easternmost provinces of Arachosia, Gedrosia, Paropamisadae and perhaps also Aria. On the other hand, he was accepted by other satraps of the eastern provinces. His Persian wife, Apama, may have helped him implement his rule in Bactria and Sogdiana. Some modern scholarship suggests that Seleucus gave away more territory in what is now southern Afghanistan, and parts of Persia west of the Indus. This would tend to be corroborated archaeologically, as concrete indications of Mauryan influence, such as the inscriptions of the Edicts of Ashoka which are known to be located in, for example, Kandhahar in today's southern Afghanistan. However, Asoka's Edicts were inscribed two generations after any territorial handover by Seleucus and, for this reason, it is equally possible that the land in which these Edicts are to be found was incorporated into the Mauryan empire by Bindusara, Chandragupta's son and successor, or Asoka himself.

Some authors claim that the argument relating to Seleucus handing over more of what is now southern Afghanistan is an exaggeration originating in a statement by Pliny the Elder referring not specifically to the lands received by Chandragupta, but rather to the various opinions of geographers regarding the definition of the word "India":

Most geographers, in fact, do not look upon India as bounded by the river Indus, but add to it the four satrapies of the Gedrose, the Arachotë, the Aria, and the Paropamisadë, the River Cophes thus forming the extreme boundary of India. According to other writers, however, all these territories, are reckoned as belonging to the country of the Aria. — Pliny, Natural History VI, 23

Also the passage of Arrian explaining that Megasthenes lived in Arachosia with the satrap Sibyrtius, from where he traveled to India to visit Chandragupta, goes against the notion that Arachosia was under Maurya rule:

Megasthenes lived with Sibyrtius, satrap of Arachosia, and speaks of his often visiting Sandracottus, the king of the Indians. — Arrian, Anabasis Alexandri v,6

Nevertheless, it is usually considered today that Arachosia and the other three regions did become dominions of the Mauryan Empire.

The alliance between Chandragupta and Seleucus was probably affirmed with a marriage (Epigamia). Chandragupta or his son married the daughter of Seleucus, Cornelia, or perhaps there was diplomatic recognition of intermarriage between Indians and Greeks. In addition to this matrimonial recognition or alliance, Seleucus dispatched an ambassador, Megasthenes, to the Mauryan court at Pataliputra (Modern Patna in Bihar state). Only short extracts remain of Megasthenes' description of the journey.

The two rulers seem to have been on very good terms, as classical sources have recorded that following their treaty, Chandragupta sent various presents such as aphrodisiacs to Seleucus.

Seleucus obtained knowledge of most of northern India, as explained by Pliny the Elder through his numerous embassies to the Mauryan Empire:

The Hellenistic world view after Seleucus: ancient world map of Eratosthenes (276–194 BC), incorporating information from the campaigns of Alexander and his successors.

The other parts of the country [beyond the Hydaspes, the farthest extent of Alexander's conquests] were discovered and surveyed by Seleucus Nicator: namely

  • from thence (the Hydaspes) to the Hesudrus 168 miles
  • to the river Ioames (Yamuna) as much: and some copies add 5 miles more therto
  • from thence to Ganges 112 miles
  • to Rhodapha 119, and some say, that between them two it is no less than 325 miles.
  • From it to Calinipaxa, a great town 167 miles-and-a-half, others say 265.
  • And to the confluent of the rivers Iomanes and Ganges, where both meet together, 225 miles, and many put thereto 13 miles more
  • from thence to the town Palibotta 425 miles
  • and so to the mouth of the Ganges where he falleth into the sea 638 miles. — Pliny the Elder, Natural history, Book 6, Chap 21

Seleucus apparently minted coins during his stay in India, as several coins in his name are in the Indian standard and have been excavated in India. These coins describe him as "Basileus" ("King"), which implies a date later than 306 BC. Some of them also mention Seleucus in association with his son Antiochus as king, which would also imply a date as late as 293 BC. No Seleucid coins were struck in India thereafter and confirm the reversal of territory west of the Indus to Chandragupta.

Seleucus may have founded a navy in the Persian Gulf and in the Indian Ocean.

Battle of Ipsus Main article: Diadochi#Fourth War of the Diadochi, 308-301 BC Tetradrachm of Seleucus from Seleucia. Obverse: the head of Zeus, Reverse: Athena.

The war elephants Seleucus received from Chandragupta proved to be useful when the Diadochi finally decided to deal with Antigonus. Cassander, Seleucus and Lysimachus defeated Antigonus and Demetrius in the battle of Ipsus. Antigonus fell in battle, but Demetrius managed to escape. After the battle, Syria was placed under Seleucus' rule. He understood Syria to encompass the region from the Taurus mountains to Sinai, but Ptolemy had already conquered Palestine and Phonicia. In 299 BC Seleucus allied with Demetrius and married his daughter Stratonice. Stratonice was also the daughter of Antipater's daughter Phila. Seleucus had a daughter by Stratonice, who was also called Phila.

The fleet of Demetrius managed to destroy Ptolemy's fleet and thus Seleucus did not need to fight him.

Seleucus, however, did not manage to enlarge his kingdom to the west. The main reason was that he did not have enough Greek and Macedonian troops. During the battle of Ipsus, he had less infantry than Lysimachus. His strength was in his war elephants and in traditional Persian cavalry. In order to enlarge his army, Seleucus tried to attract colonists from mainland Greece by founding four new cities—Seleucia Pieria and Laodicea in Syria on the coast and Antioch on the Orontes and Apameia in the Orontes River valley. Antioch became his chief seat of government. The new Seleuceia was supposed to become his new naval base and a gateway to the Mediterranean. Seleucus also founded six smaller cities.

It is said of Seleucus that "few princes have ever lived with so great a passion for the building of cities. He is reputed to have built in all nine Seleucias, sixteen Antiochs, and six Laodiceas".

Defeat of Demetrius and Lysimachus Coin of Demetrius, with the text ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΔΗΜΗΤΡΙΟΥ (King Demetrius).

Seleucus nominated his son Antiochus I as his co-ruler and viceroy of the eastern provinces in 292 BC, the vast extent of the empire seeming to require a double government. In 294 BC Stratonice married her stepson Antiochus. Seleucus reportedly instigated the marriage after discovering that his son was in danger of dying of lovesickness. Seleucus was thus able to remove Stratonice out of the way, as her father Demetrius had now become king of Macedonia.

The alliance between Seleucus and Demetrius ended in 294 BC when Seleucus conquered Cilicia. Demetrius invaded and easily conquered Cilicia in 286 BC, which meant that Demetrius was now threatening the most important regions of Seleucus' empire in Syria. Demetrius' troops, however, were tired and had not received their payment. Seleucus, on the other hand, was known as a cunning and rich leader who had earned the adoration of his soldiers. Seleucus blocked the roads leading south from Cilicia and urged Demetrius' troops to join his side. Simultaneously he tried to evade battle with Demetrius. Finally, Seleucus addressed Demetrius personally. He showed himself in front of the soldiers and removed his helmet, revealing his identity. Demetrius' troops now started to abandon their leader en massse. Demetrius was finally imprisoned in Apameia and died a few years later in captivity.

Lysimachus and Ptolemy had supported Seleucus against Demetrius, but after the latter's defeat the alliance started to break apart. Lysimachus ruled Macedonia, Thracia and Asia Minor. He also had problems with his family. Lysimachus executed his son Agathocles, whose wife Lysandra escaped to Babylon to Seleucus.

The unpopularity of Lysimachus after the murder of Agathocles gave Seleucus an opportunity to remove his last rival. His intervention in the west was solicited by Ptolemy Keraunos, who, on the accession to the Egyptian throne of his brother Ptolemy II (285 BC), had at first taken refuge with Lysimachus and then with Seleucus. Seleucus then invaded Asia Minor and defeated his rival in the Battle of Corupedium in Lydia, 281 BC. Lysimachus fell in battle. In addition, Ptolemy had died a few years earlier. Seleucus was thus now the only living contemporary of Alexander.

Administration of Asia Minor Silver coin of Seleucus. Greek inscription reads ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΣΕΛΕΥΚΟΥ (King Seleucus).

Before his death, Seleucus tried to deal with the administration of Asia Minor. The region was ethnically diverse, consisting of Greek cities, a Persian aristocracy and indigenous peoples. Seleucus perhaps tried to defeat Cappadocia, but failed. Lysimachus' old officer Philetairos ruled Pergamon independently. On the other hand, based on their names, Seleucus apparently founded a number of new cities in Asia Minor.

Few of the letters Seleucus sent to different cities and temples still exist. All cities in Asia Minor sent embassies to their new ruler. It is reported that Seleucus complained about the number of letters he received and was forced to read. He was apparently a popular ruler. In Lemnos he was celebrated as a liberator and a temple was built to honour him. According to a local custom, Seleucus was always offered an extra cup of wine during dinner time. His title during this period was Seleucus Soter ("liberator"). When Seleucus left for Europe, the organizational rearrangement of Asia Minor had not been completed.

Seleucus now held the whole of Alexander's conquests except Egypt and moved to take possession of Macedonia and Thrace. He intended to leave Asia to Antiochus and content himself for the remainder of his days with the Macedonian kingdom in its old limits. He had, however, hardly crossed into the Thracian Chersonese when he was assassinated by Ptolemy Keraunos near Lysimachia September (281 BC).

It seems certain that after taking Macedonia and Thracia, Seleucus would have tried to conquer Greece. He had already prepared this campaign using the numerous gifts presented to him. He was also nominated an honorary citizen of Athens.

Antiochus founded the cult of his father. A cult of personality formed around the later members of the Seleucid dynasty and Seleucus was later worshipped as a son of god. One inscription found in Ilion advises priests to sacrifice to Apollo, the ancestor of Antiochus' family. Several anecdotes of Selecus' life became popular in the classical world.

The Seleucid Empire was a Hellenistic state ruled by the Seleucid dynasty founded by Seleucus I Nicator following the division of the empire created by Alexander the Great. Seleucus received Babylonia and, from there, expanded his dominions to include much of Alexander's near eastern territories. At the height of its power, it included central Anatolia, the Levant, Mesopotamia, Kuwait, Persia, Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, and northwest parts of India.

The Seleucid Empire was a major center of Hellenistic culture that maintained the preeminence of Greek customs where a Greek-Macedonian political elite dominated, mostly in the urban areas. The Greek population of the cities who formed the dominant elite were reinforced by emigration from Greece. Seleucid expansion into Anatolia and Greece was abruptly halted after decisive defeats at the hands of the Roman army. Their attempts to defeat their old enemy Ptolemaic Egypt were frustrated by Roman demands. Much of the eastern part of the empire was conquered by the Parthians under Mithridates I of Parthia in the mid-2nd century BC, yet the Seleucid kings continued to rule a rump state from the Seleukid Kingdom until the invasion by Armenian king Tigranes the Great and their ultimate overthrow by the Roman general Pompey.

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Oliver Hoover

Obv.: Head of young Heracles in lion skin headdress r.

Rev.: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ on r., ΣΕΛΕΥΚΟΥ on l., Apollo seated l. on omphalos, testing arrow and resting l. hand on grounded bow.

Countermarks: Caduceus in rectangular punch Anchor in rectangular punch.

Reference: CNG E Auction 200, 3 December 2008, lot 71.

The countermarks seem to have been applied with the intention of obliterating the image of Apollo on the reverse.

SCADS83 Seleucus III SC 741Ad

SELEUCUS III

UNCERTAIN MINT 44, PROBABLY IN MESOPOTAMIA OR COMMAGENE

Silver Tetradrachm, Apollo on omphalos type

Obv.: Diademed head of Seleucus II r., dotted border.

Rev.: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ on r., ΣΕΛΕΥΚΟΥ on l., Apollo seated l. on omphalos, slight drapery on thigh, testing arrow and resting l. hand on grounded bow.

Outer left control off flan.

Reference: Copenhagen, M. Andersen collection, ex CNG E Auction 295, 30 January 2013, lot 267.

Obverse die link with SC C742.1-7 and SC Ad197.

SCADS82 Seleucus III SC 921.1Ad

SELEUCUS III

Silver tetradrachm, Apollo on omphalos type

Obv.: Diademed head of Seleucus III r., dotted border.

Rev.: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ on r., ΣΕΛΕΥΚΟΥ on l., Apollo, slight drapery on thigh, seated l. on omphalos which is placed upon a plinth or basis, resting hand on grounded bow.

Outer left (a) and outer right (b) controls

Reference: San Rafael, California, MNL collection, ex Gemini 11, 12 January 2014, lot 249.

A plinth beneath the omphalos is anomalous, but appears to be clear and not the product of overstriking or double striking.

SCADS81 Achaeus SC 956 Ad

ACHAEUS

Royal bronze coinage

Variety a Variety b Variety c Variety d

Denomination C: 15 mm., 3.17-3.78 gm.

Obv.: Laureate head of Apollo r. with corkscrew curls.

Rev.: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ on r., ΑΧΑΙΟΥ on l., eagle standing r., wreath in claws.

Control (outer r.): a) Ν, b) Α, c) Ε, d) AΦ (?)

Countermark (on c and d): TRIPOD in round punch

Reference: a) CNG EAuction 94, 21 July 2004, lot 62 b) CNG EAuction 279, 16 May 2012, lot 128 c) CNG EAuction 199, 19 November 2008, lot 305 d) CNG E Auction 316, 4 December 2013, lot 151.

SCADS80 Achaeus SC 955Ad

ACHAEUS

Royal bronze coinage

Obv.: Laureate head of Apollo r. with corkscrew curls.

Rev.: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ on l., ΑΧΑΙΟΥ on r., eagle standing r., palm branch over shoulder.

Reference: CNG EAuction 316, 4 December 2013, lot 150.

SCADS79 Achaeus SC 956Ad

ACHAEUS

Royal bronze coinage

Obv.: Laureate head of Apollo r. with corkscrew curls.

Rev.: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ on r., ΑΧΑΙΟΥ on l., eagle standing r., wreath in claws.

Controls: Off flan (outer l.) and Α (outer r.)

Countermark (on reverse): TRIPOD in round punch

Reference: Copenhagen, M. Andersen collection, ex Lanz Ebay, 25 January 2014.

SCADS78 Seleucus I SC 156 Corr.

SELEUCUS I

ELEPHANT CHARIOT TETRADRACHMS WITHOUT CONTROLS, FROM CENTRAL OR EASTERN PERSIA OR PERHAPS BACTRIA

Silver tetradrachms, elephant chariot type

Obv.: Laureate head of Zeus r., dotted border.

Rev.: CΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ (curving) to l., ΣΕΑΕΥΚΟΥ in exergue, Athena in elephant quadriga r., brandishing spear and shield, dotted border.

Seleucid symbol (upper field): ANCHOR

Reference: Triton 17, 6 January 2014, lot 367 (image). See also the preliminary die study for elephant chariot tetradrachms without controls.

The high obverse relief, strongly cupped flans, bold obverse style, blundered legends (see also SC 156), loose dies, and the absence of controls all distinguish this series from the regular issues of Seleucia on the Tigris and Susa. Provenances appear to point toward a mint in central Persia or more remotely in Bactria.

For plated tetradrachms more closely related to the style of Seleucia on the Tigris but also lacking controls, see SCADS73 and SCADS74.

SCADS77 Seleucus I SC 156 Corr.

SELEUCUS I

ELEPHANT CHARIOT TETRADRACHMS WITHOUT CONTROLS, FROM CENTRAL OR EASTERN PERSIA OR PERHAPS BACTRIA

Silver tetradrachms, elephant chariot type

Obv.: Laureate head of Zeus r., dotted border.

Rev.: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ (curving) on l., ΣΕΛΕΥΚΟΥ in exergue, Athena in elephant quadriga r., brandishing spear and shield, dotted border.

Seleucid symbol (upper field): ANCHOR

Reference: San Rafael, California, MNL collection, ex CNG 94, 18 September 2013, lot 721 (image). See also the preliminary die study for elephant chariot tetradrachms without controls.

The high obverse relief, strongly cupped flans, bold obverse style, several blundered legends (SCADS78 and SC 156), loose dies, and lack of controls all distinguish this series from the regular issues of Seleucia on the Tigris and Susa. Provenances appear to point toward a mint in central Persia or more remotely in Bactria.

For plated tetradrachms more closely related to the style of Seleucia on the Tigris but also lacking controls, see SCADS73 and SCADS74.

SCADS76 Seleucus II plated issue SC 834 Corr.

Plated tetradrachm, Apollo on omphalos type

Obv.: Diademed head of Seleucus II r., slightly barbarized with arching eyebrow, dotted border.

Rev.: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ on r., ΣΕΛΕΥΚΟΥ on l., Apollo of barbarous style seated l., testing arrow and resting l. hand on grounded bow.

Uncertain outer right control.

On review, SC 834, which is described as a barbarous tetradrachm, is in fact a plated issue.

SCADS75 Demetrius I plated issue SC 1708-1709

Silver plated tetradrachm, Apollo on omphalos type(15.22 gm.)

Obv.: Diademed head of Demetrius I r., diadem ends falling straight behind, fillet border.

Rev.: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ on r., ΔΗΜΗΤΡΙΟΥ on l., Apollo seated l. on omphalos, testing arrow and resting hand on grounded bow with grip marked by two pellets.

Outer left (a, mostly off flan) and outer right (b) controls.

Reference: CNG EAuction 264, lot 172.

Judging from the type, the coin was intended to imitate an eastern issue. The treatment of the diadem ends, the ornamentation of Apollo’s bow, and the right field control all suggest an issue of Antioch in Persis as the probable model. The form of the outer left control is uncertain.

SCADS74 Seleucus I plated issue SC 130

SELEUCIA ON THE TIGRIS (SELEUCIA II, SECOND WORKSHOP)

Silver plated tetradrachm, elephant chariot type

Obv.: Laureate head of Zeus r., dotted border.

Rev.: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ to l., ΣΕΛΕΥΚΟΥ in exergue, Athena in elephant quadriga r., brandishing spear and shield, dotted border.

Seleucid symbol (upper field) ANCHOR

Reference: Uncertain Hirsch sale.

See SCADS73 for a related plated tetradrachm and terracotta “token.”

See SCADS77 and SCADS78 for elephant chariot tetradrachms lacking controls probably struck at a mint in Persis or Bactria.

SCADS73 Seleucus I plated issue SC 130

SELEUCIA ON THE TIGRIS (SELEUCIA II, SECOND WORKSHOP)

Silver plated tetradrachm, elephant chariot type

Obv.: Laureate head of Zeus r., dotted border.

Rev.: Blundered legends (curving) to l., and in exergue, Athena in elephant quadriga r., brandishing spear and shield, dotted border.

Seleucid symbol (upper field): ANCHOR

Reference: CNG EAuction 100, 21 October 2004, lot 62.

Elephant chariot tetradrachms lacking controls are not known in the regular coinage of Seleucus I struck at Seleucia on the Tigris and Susa. However, a terracotta “token” from Seleucia on the Tigris in the ANS collection (1944.100.44991), apparently cast from a mould made from an actual coin, also lacks control marks. Unfortunately, it is impossible to determine the status (official, imitative, or plated) of the original coin used for the “token.” The quality of the legend on the “token” is certainly superior to that of SCADS73.

Terracotta “token” from Seleucia on the Tigris
(ANS 1944.100.44991)

For a plated chariot tetradrachm with correct legend and no controls, see SCADS74.

See SCADS77 and SCADS78 for elephant chariot tetradrachms lacking controls probably struck at a mint in Persis or Bactria.

SCADS72 Seleucus I plated issue SC 204.4

Copper tetradrachm, seated Zeus Aetophorus type

Obv.: Head of young Heracles in lion skin headdress r. (dotted border?).

Rev.: Traces of inscription to r. and in exergue, Zeus seated l. on throne resting l. hand on sceptre and holding eagle in outstretched r.

Outer left control (mostly off flan)

Possible control under throne.

Reference: Private California collection (formerly AHNS)

Although the style of Heracles on the obverse suggests the use of a Susa tetradrachm as a model, the apparent left field control seems to suggest Ecbatana.

SCADS71 Antiochus IV SC 1388Ad

SELEUCIA ON THE PYRAMUS (MOPSUS)

Quasi-municipal bronze coinage

Diademed head of Antiochus IV/tripod

Denomination D (15 mm., 3.04 gm.)

Obv.: Diademed head of Antiochus IV r., dotted border.

Reference: Zuzim Judaea VCoins Store, April 2014.

SCADS70 Antiochus IV SC 1388Ad

SELEUCIA ON THE PYRAMUS (MOPSUS)

Quasi-municipal bronze coinage

Obv.: Diademed head of Antiochus IV r., dotted border.

Variety a left (a) and right (b) controls Variety b left control

Reference: a) San Rafael, California, MNL collection, ex Rauch 94, 9 April 2014 b) Copenhagen, M. Andersen collection, ex Doug Spangler ebay, 8 February 2014.

Unlike the issues carried in Seleucid Coins and SCADS70b, the portrait of SCADS70a is identifiable as that of Antiochus IV. SCADS70a shares its obverse die with the anepigraphic SCADS 71.

The same types continued in use into the first century B.C., when Mopsus struck autonomous coins with a Seleucid portrait (apparently not Antiochus IV) and a tripod.

Autonomous bronze coin of Mopsus, first century B.C. SNG Levante 1306. Gorny & Mosch 212, 5 March 2013, lot 2495.

SCADS69 Antiochus V SC 1583Ad

Silver tetradrachm, Phoenician eagle type

Obv.: Diademed head of Antiochus V r., diadem ends falling straight behind, dotted border.

Rev.: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ (curving) on r., ΕΥΠΑΤΟΡΟΣ (curving) on l., eagle standing l. on thunderbolt, dotted border.

Reverse symbol (l. field): PALM BRANCH

Obverse control (a) behind head and reverse control (b) between legs

Although the types and controls of this coin are all known (see SC 1583c), it has been included in the addenda because of its anomalous portrait depicting the king with bangs.

SCADS67 Antiochus V SC 1584Ad

“ANTIOCH ON THE PERSIAN GULF”

Silver tetradrachm, Apollo on omphalos type

Obv.: Diademed head of young king r., fillet border.

Rev.: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ on r., ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ on l., Apollo seated l. on omphalos, testing arrow and resting l. hand on grounded bow.

Outer left (a) and outer right (b) controls

Reference: Copenhagen, M. Andersen collection, ex Najaf, 4 October 2012.

It remains questionable whether SC 1584 and this coin belong to Antiochus V. Antiochus IV may be the more likely possibility.

SCADS66 Demetrius I SC 1633-1640Ad

Silver tetradrachm, Tyche type

Obv.: Diademed head of Demetrius I r., diadem ends hanging straight behind, laurel wreath border.

Rev.: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ on r., ΔΗΜΗΤΡΙΟΥ ΣΩΤΗΡΟΣ in two lines on l., Tyche seated l. on backless throne with winged tritoness support, holding short sceptre and cornucopiae.

Hoard: Gaziantep Hoard 1994 (CH 9, 527 CH 10, 308)

This coin was recorded by E. Levante in Beirut, but either the control or attribution is in error. No other known tetradrachm with the epithet Soter has this control, although a similar control occurs on SC 1625, an unattributed issue of Cilicia or Northern Syria that lacks the epithet.

The coin is listed here under Antioch as a placemarker.

SCADS65 Antiochus VII SC 2061.1Ad

Silver tetradrachm, standing Athena Nicephorus type

Obv.: Diademed head of Antiochus VII r., diadem ends falling straight behind, fillet border.

Rev.: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ in two lines on r., ΕΥΕΡΓΕΤΟΥ on l., Athena standing l., holding Nike in r. and resting l. hand on grounded shield and extending r. beyond royal epithet, where she supports Nike l., extending wreath into border, spear propped against Athena’s arm, laurel wreath border.

Date (in exergue): ΔΟΡ (S.E. 174 = 139/8 B.C.)

Outer left primary control (a) above secondary control (b)

Reference: Tupelo, MS, B. Bowlin collection, ex Rauch ESale, 18 September 2013, lot 344.

Almost certainly the first issue of Antiochus VII at Antioch, before the date was removed. Controls as SC 2061.1e.

SCADS64 Antiochus VII SC 2049.3 Corr.

SELEUCIA ON THE CALYCADNUS

Silver tetradrachm, local standing Athena Nicephorus type

Obv.: Diademed head of Antiochus VII r., diadem ends falling straight behind, fillet border.

Rev.: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ in two lines on r., ΕΥΕΡΓΕΤΟΥ on l., Athena standing l., holding Nike facing r. and offering wreath, resting l. hand on shield, spear behind.

Symbol (inner l.): FEATHERY BRANCH

Reference: San Rafael, California, MNL collection, ex Gorny & Mosch 220, 11 March 2014, lot 1426.

Obverse die link with SC 2049.1-2.

The coin shows controls that were off flan on SC 2049.3. Interestingly, the ΙΣΙ primary control employed at Seleucia on the Calycadnus for other issues of Antiochus VII does not appear here, but rather controls that prefigure those employed during the first and second reigns of Antiochus VIII (121/0-114/13 and 112-96 B.C., respectively) in the city.

SCADS63 Alexander I SC 1784.4 Corr.

Silver Tetradrachm, Zeus Nicephorus type, revived

Obv.: Diademed head of Alexander I r., diadem ends falling straight behind, fillet border.

Rev.: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ in two lines on r., ΘΕΟΠΑΤΟΡΟΣ ΕΥΕΡΓΕΤΟΥ in two lines on l., Zeus enthroned l., resting l. hand on sceptre and holding Nike facing r.

Inner left (a) and right exergue (b) controls.

Variant form of the left field control and corrects the reading of the exergue control.

SCADS62 Alexander I SC 1784.8Ad

Silver Tetradrachm, Zeus Nicephorus type, revived

Obv.: Diademed head of Alexander I r., diadem ends falling straight behind, fillet border.

Rev.: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ in two lines on r., ΘΕΟΠΑΤΟΡΟΣ ΕΥΕΡΓΕΤΟΥ in two lines on l., Zeus enthroned l., resting l. hand on sceptre and holding Nike facing r.

Date (in ex., on l.) ϚΞΡ (S.E. 166 = 147/6 B.C.)

Inner left (a) and right exergue (b) controls

Reference: Davisson’s EAuction 3, 7 December 2013, lot 19.

The inner right control is a variant form of the usual primary control for SC 1784.8.

SCADS61 Alexander I SC 1784.3Ad

Silver Tetradrachm, Zeus Nicephorus type, revived

Obv.: Diademed head of Alexander I r., diadem ends falling straight behind, fillet border.

Rev.: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ in two lines on r., ΘΕΟΠΑΤΟΡΟΣ ΕΥΕΡΓΕΤΟΥ in two lines on l., Zeus enthroned l., resting l. hand on sceptre and holding Nike facing r.

Date (in ex., on l.) ΕΞΡ (S.E. 165 = 148/7 B.C.)

Outer left (a) and exergue (b) controls

Hoard: Gaziantep Hoard 1994 (CH 9, 527 CH 10, 308)

Adds a new exergue control to SC 1784.3.

SCADS60 Alexander I SC 1805.1Ad

Royal bronze issue

Alexander I in lion skin headdress/Apollo with bow

Denomination B (19 mm., 5.47 gm.)

Obv. Head of Alexander r. in lion skin headdress, dotted border.

Rev. ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ on r., ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ on l., Apollo standing l., testing arrow and resting l. hand on bow.

Symbol (outer l.): PALM BRANCH

Countermark (on reverse): PANTHER R., LEFT PAW RAISED, WITHIN IRREGULAR PUNCH.

Reference: VCoins Auction, 6 March 2014, lot 144.

The previously unrecorded panther countermark was almost certainly applied at Apamea, an important center of the Dionysus cult in Syria. The panther occurs as a reverse type on civic coins of Apamea and on the royal bronze coins of Antiochus VI, who took Dionysus as one of his epithets. It is unclear whether this coin was countermarked by the authority of the city (after the fall of Alexander?) or by the partisans of Antiochus VI. The countermarking episode that produced this coin may be related to the extensive countermarking of the quasi-municipal bronzes of Apamea with a palm branch under Demetrius II, or more likely, under Antiochus VI.

SCADS59 Antiochus IX SC 2389Ad

UNCERTAIN MINT 123, PROBABLY IN NORTHERN PHOENICIA

Obv.: Head of Antiochus IX r., diadem ends falling straight behind, fillet border.

Rev.: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ in two lines on r., ΦΙΛΟΠΑΤΟΡΟΣ on l., Athena standing l., holding Nike and resting l. hand on shield, spear behind, laurel wreath border.

Outer left field monogram

Reference: Private Tehran coll.

This is the first known emission of Uncertain Mint 123 to depict Antiochus IX without beard and moustache. The absence of the beard seems to suggest that the coinage of this mint continued in production after the c. 111/10 B.C. date given in Seleucid Coins. Since Antiochus IX began to employ a clean-shaven portrait at Antioch after the death of his half-brother and nemesis, Antiochus VIII, in 96 B.C. it seems probable that this issue of Uncertain Mint 123 belongs to the period 96-95 B.C.

The existence of this beardless portrait removes the “iconographic dissonance” that contributed to the removal of SC 2389 from Ptolemaïs (Ake), where E. T. Newell had originally placed it. The issues of Uncertain Mint 123 probably should be restored to Ptolemaïs (Ake) and Newell vindicated.

SCADS58 Antiochus VII SC 2109.3Ad

Silver Tetradrachm, Phoenician eagle type

Obv.: Diademed and draped bust of Antiochus VII r., dotted border.

Rev.: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ (curving) on r., ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ (curving) on l., eagle standing l. on ship’s ram, palm branch under far wing, dotted border.

Date (in r. field, below) ΕΟΡ (S.E. 175 = 138/7 B.C.)

Left (a above and b on club) and right field (c) mintmarks. Control(s) between legs (d above e).

Reference: USA (CT), J. Guberman coll.

This coin adds a new control between the legs of the eagle, but it is unclear how it should be read. In the enlargement, the control appears to be composed of Greek delta with two smaller characters written above it that could perhaps be read as the Phoenician letters gimel and ayin (G‘). Phoenician control letters regularly appeared between the legs of the eagle on autonomous Tyrian tetradrachms (shekels) struck after 127 B.C. Alternatively, the control could be a Greek monogram composed of cursive omega above delta although the elements of the omega are not clearly linked. A third, but least probable interpretation is that the delta has been recut over a largely erased control involving phi (e.g. SC 2109.3d).

A Tyrian didrachm of the same year (SC 2110.3b) may feature the same mysterious control between the eagle’s legs.

SCADS57 Demetrius II (first reign) SC 1912.1Ad

Royal bronze coinage

Obv.: Laureate head of Apollo, hair rolled with two long locks escaping down neck, dotted border.

Rev.: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΔΗΜΗΤΡΙΟΥ in two lines on r., ΘΕΟΥ ΦΙΛΑΔΕΛΦΟΥ ΝΙΚΑΤΟΡΟΣ in three lines on l., filleted tripod.

Variety a exergue controls Variety b exergue controls

Reference: a) PCC VCoins sale, December 2011, lot G131 b) CNG EAuction 316, 4 December 2013, lot 174.

SCADS56 Demetrius II (first reign) SC 1908.3Ad

Silver drachms, Apollo on omphalos type

Obv.: Diademed head of Demetrius II r., diadem ends falling straight behind, fillet border.

Rev.: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΔΗΜΗΤΡΙΟΥ in two lines on r., ΘΕΟΥ ΦΙΛΑΔΕΛΦΟΥ ΝΙΚΑΤΟΡΟΣ in three lines on l., Apollo, nude, seated l. on omphalos, testing arrrow and resting l. hand on grounded bow.

Symbol (outer l.): STAR (?, off flan)

Inner left control (a) and control between legs (b)

Reference: Münz Zentrum Rheinland 167, 4 September 2013, lot 108.

Adds new control between legs.

SCADS55 Demetrius II (first reign) SC 1908.1Ad

Silver drachms, Apollo on omphalos type

Obv.: Diademed head of Demetrius II r., diadem ends falling straight behind, fillet border.

Rev.: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΔΗΜΗΤΡΙΟΥ in two lines on r., ΘΕΟΥ ΦΙΛΑΔΕΛΦΟΥ ΝΙΚΑΤΟΡΟΣ in three lines on l., Apollo, nude, seated l. on omphalos, testing arrrow and resting l. hand on grounded bow.

Reference: Copenhagen, M. Andersen coll., ex Roma ESale 5, 8 February 2014, lot 440.

Adds new exergue control combination.

SCADS54 Demetrius II (first reign) SC 1906.5Ad

Silver tetradrachm, Apollo on omphalos type

Obv.: Diademed head of Demetrius II r., diadem ends falling straight behind, fillet border.

Rev.: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΔΗΜΗΤΡΙΟΥ in two lines on r., ΘΕΟΥ ΦΙΛΑΔΕΛΦΟΥ ΝΙΚΑΤΟΡΟΣ in three lines on l., Apollo, nude, seated l. on omphalos, testing arrrow and resting l. hand on grounded bow.

Date (in ex., on l.): ΖΞΡ (S.E. 167 = 146/5 B.C.)

Symbol (outer l.) PALM BRANCH

Inner right (a) and exergue (b) controls

Reference: Pars VCoins sale, November 2013.

SCADS53 Antiochus VI SC 2010.4Ad

Silver Tetradrachm, Dioscuri type

Obv.: Radiate and diademed head of Antiochus VI r., one diadem end flying up behind, the other falling forward over shoulder, fillet border.

Rev.: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ in two lines above, ΕΠΙΦΑΝΟΥΣ ΔΙΟΝΥΣΟΥ in two lines below, Dioscuri charging l. on horseback, with couched spears, within Dionysiac wreath of laurel, grain, lotus, ivy, and vine leaves.

Date (beneath horses): ΘΞΡ (S.E. 169 = 144/3 B.C.)

Obverse symbol (behind head): STAR

Hoard: Gaziantep Hoard 1994 (CH 9, 527 CH 10, 308)

Adds the obverse STAR symbol to SC 2010.1.

SCADS52 Antiochus VI SC 2010.1Ad

Silver Tetradrachm, Dioscuri type

Obv.: Radiate and diademed head of Antiochus VI r., one diadem end flying up behind, the other falling forward over shoulder, fillet border.

Rev.: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ in two lines above, ΕΠΙΦΑΝΟΥΣ ΔΙΟΝΥΣΟΥ in two lines below, Dioscuri charging l. on horseback, with couched spears, within Dionysiac wreath of laurel, grain, lotus, ivy, and vine leaves.

Date (beneath horses): ΘΞΡ (SE 169 = 144/3 B.C.)

Obverse symbol (behind head): STAR

Hoard: Gaziantep Hoard 1994 (CH 9, 527 CH 10, 308)

Adds the obverse STAR symbol to SC 2010.1.

SCADS51 Commagenian Imitation of Demetrius I SC 1768.1Corr.

COMMAGENIAN IMITATIONSOF ANTIOCH DRACHMS OF DEMETRIUS I

Obv.: Diademed head of Demetrius I r., diadem ends falling straight behind, dotted border.

Rev.: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ on r., ΔΗΜΗΤΡΙΟΥ ΣΩΤΗΡΟΣ in two lines on l., cornucopia oriented to l.

Date (inner r., below): ΔΕΡ (sic) (S.E. 164 = 149/8 B.C.)

The discovery of a fake drachm muling the obverse die of SC 1768.1 with a reverse die imitating the helmet type of Tryphon in 2014 makes it clear that neither coin is authentic. SC 1768.1 should be stricken from the catalogue while the other Commagenian imitations should be treated with caution.

SCADS50 Alexander II SC 2229.4Ad

Royal bronze coinage

Obv: Diademed head of Alexander II r., dotted border.

Rev.: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ on r., ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ on l., young Dionysus standing l., holding cantharus and thyrsus.

Control (outer l., above): ΙΣΙ

Symbol (outer l., below): GRAPES

Date (inner l., reading downward): ΕΠΡ (S.E. 185 = 128/7 B.C.).

Reference: CNG E-auction 200, 3 December 2008, lot 149.

SCADS49 Demetrius II (second reign) SC 2167 Corr.

DEMETRIUS II, SECOND REIGN

Silver Drachm, Zeus Nicephorus type

Obv.: Diademed, bearded head of Demetrius II r., fillet border.

Rev.: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΔΗΜΗΤΡΙΟΥ in two lines on r., ΘΕΟΥ ΝΙΚΑΤΟΡΟΣ in two lines on l., Zeus seated l., holding Nike and with l. hand on sceptre.

Reference: CNG EAuction 267, 17 April 2011, lot 154

The controls, which are clear on this coin, may clarify those on SC 2167a.

SCADS48 Demetrius II (second reign) SC 2158Ad

DEMETRIUS II, SECOND REIGN

Silver Drachm, Zeus Nicephorus type

Obv.: Diademed, bearded head of Demetrius II r., fillet border.

Rev.: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΔΗΜΗΤΡΙΟΥ in two lines on r., ΘΕΟΥ ΝΙΚΑΤΟΡΟΣ in two lines on l., Zeus seated l., holding Nike and sceptre.

Left field controls (above and below) Recut lower control (?)

Reference: Joron-Derem, 26 November 2013, lot 57.

Variant controls of SC 2158.

SCADS47 Antiochus VIII SC 2290 Corr.

Silver tetradrachm, Mallian Athena Magarsia type

Obv.: Diademed head of Antiochus VIII r., diadem ends falling straight behind, fillet border.

Rev.: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ in two lines on r., ΕΠΙΦΑΝΟΥΣ on l., facing cult statue of Athena Magarsia holding spear, rosette above each shoulder.

Mintmark (on obv., behind neck): M

Controls (left, beneath inscription, and right, beneath inscription)

Reference: Tupelo, MS, B. Bowlin collection, ex CNG EAuction 229, 10 March 2010, lot 218.

Struck from the same dies as SC 2290, but with the lower r. control added. The form of the left control is also corrected here.

For the Seleucid coinage of Mallus in general, see A. Houghton, “The Seleucid Mint of Mallus And the Cult Figure of Athena Magarsia,” in Studies Mildenberg.

SCADS46 Antiochus VIII

UNCERTAIN MINT, PERHAPS IN CILICIA (ΕΥ MINT)

Silver tetradrachm, standing Athena Nicephorus type

Obv.: Diademed head of Antiochus VIII r., diadem ends falling straight behind, fillet border.

Rev.: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ in two lines on r., ΕΠΙΦΑΝΟΥΣ on l., Athena standing l., holding Nike in extended r. and resting l. on shield, spear behind.

Controls (outer l.) : ΕΥ above ΤΙ.

Reference: Tupelo, MS, B. Bowlin collection, ex CNG EAuction 236, 7 July 2010, lot 200.

The coin is of apparently barbarous style, but the controls are credible and follow the convention of other Cilician mints. The obverse die has been extensively recut.

SCADS45 Antiochus VIII SC 2278.3Ad

Silver drachm, local Sandan type

Obv.: Diademed head of Antiochus VIII r., diadem ends falling straight behind, fillet border.

Rev.: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ in two lines on r., ΕΠΙΦΑΝΟΥΣ on l., Sandan standing on back of horned winged lion-griffin r.

Outer left field controls
(above and below)

Reference: Schatzsucher Ebay sale, 6 February 2014, lot 400656132506.

The controls correspond to those of thee tetradrachm issue SC 2288.1c.

SCADS44 Cleopatra Thea and Antiochus VIII SC 2262.1Ad

CLEOPATRA THEA AND ANTIOCHUS VIII

Silver tetradrachm, Zeus Nicephorus type

Obv.: Jugate busts r. of Cleopatra Thea diademed, veiled and wearing stephane, and Antiochus VIII, diademed, dotted border.

Rev.: ΒΑΣΙΛΙΣΣΗΣ ΚΛΕΟΠΑΤΡΑΣ in two lines on r., ΚΑΙ ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ in three lines on l., Zeus enthroned l., holding Nike and sceptre.

Primary control (outer l.): ΙΕ

Secondary control (under throne): Π

Reference: Vedrines, 28 December 1998, lot 79.

SCADS43 Antiochus X SC 2427A

UNATTRIBUTED ISSUE OF NORTHERN SYRIA

Royal bronze coinage

Antiochus X bearded/pilei of Dioscuri

Denomination B (21mm, 8.29gm.)

Obv.: Diademed and bearded head of Antiochus X r., diadem ends falling straight behind, dotted border.

Rev.: (ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ) ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ on r., ΕΥΣΕΒΟΥΣ ΦΙΛΟΠΑΤΟΡΟΣ in two lines on l., pilei of Dioscuri, each surmounted by star.

Possible date (in exergue, to l.): ΑKΣ (S.E. 221 = 92/1 B.C.)?

Other mark (in exergue, to r.): ΑΝΤ….(possible other letters).

Enlargement of date(?) and other letters in exergue.

Reference: USA (CT), J. Guberman coll. A dated issue of Antiochus X is unexpected confirmation is needed with a clearer example.

SCADS42 Alexander II SC 2211a Corr.

Silver tetradrachm, Tarsian Sandan altar type

Obv.: Diademed head of Alexander II r., diadem ends falling straight behind, fillet border.

Rev.: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ on r., ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ on l., garlanded altar with baldachin, under which Sandan standing r. on back of horned winged lion-griffin r.

Outer left controls
(above and below)

Reference: CNG EAuction 321, 26 February 2014, lot 187.

The reference object is die-linked to SC 2211 but credibly reflects an issue of Alexander II that clarifies the upper control of SC 2211a.

SCADS41 Seleucus I SC 226Ad

TETRADRACHM WITH TROPHY TYPE, FROM DRANGIANA, COREGENCY OF SELEUCUS I AND ANTIOCHUS I

Silver Tetradrachm, Nike crowning trophy type

Obv.: Head of hero r. (assimilating Seleucus, Alexander and Dionysus), wearing helmet covered with panther skin and adorned with bull’s ear and horns, lion skin tied around neck, dotted border.

Rev.: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ on r., ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ on l. (reading outward from l.), Nike standing r., crowning trophy, dotted border.

Controls (between Nike and trophy)

Reference: Private California collection.

Previously only drachms and smaller fractions were known for the coregency of Seleucus I and Antiochus I in Drangiana. The control is related to that found on the hemidrachm SC 227b.

SCADS40 Demetrius III SC 2456Ad

Royal bronze coinage

Radiate Demetrius III, bearded/Hermes on basis with cornucopiae

Obv.: Radiate, diademed head of Demetrius III r., with short, curly beard, diadem ends falling straight behind, dotted border.

Rev.: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΔΗΜΗΤΡΙΟΥ ΘΕΟΥ in two lines on r., ΦΙΛΟΠΑΤΟΡΟΣ ΣΩΤΗΡΟΣ in two lines on l., Hermes standing l. on square basis, holding palm and cornucopiae, dotted border.

Controls (outer l.): N above M

Reference: Pharaoh Crypt Ebay sale, 20 November 2012.

It is possible that the apparent cornucopiae is actually a poorly executed caduceus (the expected attribute here) that has filled in.

SCADS39 Demetrius III SC 2456Ad

Royal bronze coinage

Radiate Demetrius III bearded/Hermes on basis

Obv.: Radiate, diademed head of Demetrius III r., with short curly beard, diadem ends falling straight behind, dotted border.

Rev.: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΔΗΜΗΤΡΙΟΥ ΘΕΟΥ in two lines on r., ΦΙΛΟΠΑΤΟΡΟΣ ΣΩΤΗΡΟΣ in two lines on l., Hermes standing l. on square basis, holding palm and caduceus, dotted border.

Controls (outer l.): Ν above Μ

Reference: Shick Vcoins sale, August 2013, lot vb987.

SCADS38 Demetrius III SC 2454Ad

Royal bronze coinage

Radiate Demetrius III, bearded/Nike

Obv.: Radiate, diademed head of Demetrius III r., with short, curly beard, diadem ends falling straight behind, dotted border.

Rev.: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΔΗΜΗΤΡΙΟΥ ΘΕΟΥ in two lines on r., ΦΙΛΟΠΑΤΟΡΟΣ ΣΩΤΗΡΟΣ in two lines on l., Nike advancing r., holding wreath and palm branch, dotted border.

Date (in ex): ΓΚΣ (S.E. 223 = 90/89B.C.)?

Controls (outer l.): Α above ΔΙ

The date may also be read as ΖΙΣ (S.E. 217 = 96/5 B.C.)

Reference: Ancient Imports EBay sale, September 2013.

SCADS37 Demetrius III SC 2454Ad

Royal bronze coinage

Radiate Demetrius III, bearded/Nike

Obv.: Radiate, diademed head of Demetrius III r., with short, curly beard, diadem ends falling straight behind, dotted border.

Rev.: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΔΗΜΗΤΡΙΟΥ ΘΕΟΥ in two lines on r., ΦΙΛΟΠΑΤΟΡΟΣ ΣΩΤΗΡΟΣ in two lines on l., Nike advancing r., holding wreath and palm, dotted border.

Date (in ex): ΗΙΣ (S.E. 218 = 95/4 B.C.)

Reference: Copenhagen, M. Andersen collection, ex Pharaoh Crypt Ebay sale, 6 May 2013.

SCADS36 Philip I SC 2460aCorr.

Silver tetradrachm, Zeus Nicephorus type

Obv.: Diademed head of Philip I r.

Rev.: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΦΙΛΙΠΠΟΥ in two lines on r., ΕΠΙΦΑΝΟΥΣ ΦΙΛΑΔΕΛΦΟΥ in two lines on l., Zeus enthroned l., holding Nike and sceptre, laurel wreath border.

Primary controls (outer left, above and below)

Fronzen control (under throne):

The wrong image was used to illustrate this variety in Seleucid Coins, Part II. It is corrected here.

SCADS35 Antiochus XII SC 2472.1Ad

Silver tetradrachm, local Hadad type

Obv.: Diademed head of Antiochus XII r., with short, curly beard, fillet border.

Rev.: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ ΕΠΙΦΑΝΟΥΣ in three lines on r., ΦΙΛΟΠΑΤΟΡΟΣ ΚΑΛΛΙΝΙΚΟΥ in two lines on l., cult image of Hadad standing facing on double basis, holding barley stalk, flanked by bull foreparts of bull to l. and r., laurel wreath border.

Date (in exergue): ΗΚΣ (S.E. 228 = 85/4 B.C.)

Outer left controls
(above and below)

Reference: San Rafael, California, MNL collection, ex CNG 96, 14 May 2014, lot 552. See Hoover, Houghton and Vesely, p. 336, 9.

This entry corrects the lower control of SC 2472.1, and adds the most recent die study of the Damascus tetradrachms of Antiochus XII.

SCADS34 Cleopatra Selene and Antiochus XIII

CLEOPATRA SELENE AND ANTIOCHUS XIII PHILOMETOR

Royal bronze coinage

Cleopatra Selene and Antiochus XIII/tripod

Denomination C (15mm, 4.00gm.)

Obv.: Jugate heads of Cleopatra Seleue, wearing veil, diadem and stephane, and Antiochus XIII, diademed, dotted border

Rev.: ΒΑϹΙΛΙϹϹΗϹ ΚΛΕΟΠΑΤΡΑϹ ϹΕΛΗΝΗϹ in three lines on r., ΚΑΙ ΒΑϹΙΛΕΩϹ ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ in three lines on l., tripod, dotted border.

Reference: Lisle, IL, Marcin Taraszkiewicz collection.

The coin is significantly better centered than the ANS example and confirms there is no control or date, and no third line inscription in the left field.


Numismatics and the legend of horned Bukephalos

Silver Coin of Seleucus I Nicator, Pergamum, 281 BC. The obverse shows a horned, bridled horse head right and the reverse shows an elephant walking right with the inscription BAΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΣΕΛΕΥΚΟΥ. (c) Seleucid Coins Online

In the 1990s two renowned numismatic experts described coins of the type shown above as Bukephalos. Their identification is based on the presence of these “famous” horns. Portraying the noble steed on such a small scale as a silver coin must have been challenging and thus a play on the name Bukephalos by adding horns to the horse depicted on the tetradrachms was one solution. To assume they depict Bukephalos would suggest two things. First that the legend of the horned Bukephalos must have been around during and shortly after the reign of Alexander for people to even understand this symbolism. Secondly, that awareness of this legend must have been widespread. As we learned from a previous article, coins were an important part of creating and representing identity – and Bukephalos seems to be an odd choice for this purpose. Whoever minted these coins did so with a plan in mind: a political agenda, a commemoration of an important event or some kind of connection towards this horse.

In fact, the authority behind these coins was none other than Seleukos I, a Makedonian general under Alexander III. He later became the founder of both the Seleukid Empire and the Seleukid Dynasty. The connection between Alexander III and Seleukos I could explain his knowledge of the horse (and maybe a certain fondness towards it), but not the reason for it being used in his coinage. Seleukos I was a powerful figure in his own merit: being at war with the other Diadochi and forging his own empire. Given the importance of coinage as a form of representation, why would he lean this heavily on Alexander’s horse instead of the king himself? The coins themselves are confidently engraved with BAΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΣΕΛΕΥΚΟΥ – Seleukos, the King, and nothing more.

Silver Coin of Seleucus I Nicator, Susa, 301 BC – 295 BC showing the head of a hero right (assimilating Seleucus, Alexander, and Dionysus), wearing helmet covered with panther skin and adorned with bull’s ear and horns on the obverse. The reverse shows the inscription BAΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΣΕΛΕΥΚΟΥ and Nike standing right, crowning trophy. (c) Seleucid Coins Online

The answer might be found when considering his other coins, which show the basileus himself (as some suggest) or a hero formed by merging Seleukos I, Alexander III, and the god Dionysos, adorned with the horns of a bull, sometimes even with additional bull’s ears. They are different from the curled ram’s horns given to those portraying themselves (or being portrayed by their descendants) as favourites of the mighty god Zeus-Ammon, but they do bear a similar message: I am a mighty ruler, blessed by the gods and gifted with extraordinary power. This is a message Seleukos I’s new subjects would easily understand, because he was drawing on symbolism which had been in use within ancient Near East art and iconography for centuries.

As we said before, coins were an important tool for both the spreading of propaganda and the creation of identity. Seleukos I, as a foreign ruler, carefully used the horns as something most of his local now-subjects would recognize as a sign of royalty and even divine blessing. Coins may be the first and only “direct” message these people ever received from their new ruler. Combining local symbolism with the Greek inscription and Hellenistic-style portrait might have been a successful attempt at reaching as many of his subjects as possible, while creating a strong image for any outsider. Seleukos I required legitimacy for his new position as ruler as he was not the descendant of a long-ruling dynasty but rather an outsider to many of his Middle Eastern subjects, constantly threatened by the fierce competition and fighting between the Diadochai. As part of this iconography, the horns are paired with other well-known and mighty animals, such as war elephants and horses. The war elephant being an animal used by the Persians (and later by Alexander III), the horse an old and well-known symbol for both royalty and military prowess for any Makedon, used heavily by Philipp II, the father of Alexander III. The use of these images seems to have done its job as Seleukos I’s son Antiochos I employed it again, showing his own portrait on the obvers, with the steer-horned horse on the reverse, now additionally bearing an almost flame-like mane.

Silver Coin of Antiochus I Soter, Ai Khanoum/Bactra, 280 BC. The obverse shows the diademed head of Antiochus I right while the reverse has the inscription BAΣΙΛΕΩΣ ANTIOXOY together with a horned and bridled horse head right. (c) Seleucid Coins Online

So, what can we learn from this? The discourse about these coins has not come to a definite end, but there is a high probability that they were never intended to reference the myth of the horned Bukephalos. Furthermore, it does not seem likely that the myth of the horned Bukephalos even existed at this time due to the absence of any contemporary reference to the myth, and it seems equally unlikely that these coins supported the propagation of this myth later on because the coins themselves were not far spread and our ancient and medieval sources most likely did not know of their existence. It was only after they were “re-discovered” by the orientalist scholars of the 19 th and 20 th century that the link between the coins and the myth was created, misreading Seleukos I’s usage of local religious symbolism as a way of forging a connection to Alexander III through his famous steed. Scholarly tradition then carried this theory well into our present day, where even the Wikipedia article about Seleukos I still features a coin “depicting Alexander’s horse Bukephalos”. It is a wonderful example of how the interpretation of such coins can change over the decades and one thing is for sure – the horned horse has not given up all its mysteries.

Michelle Simon studies Ancient History in Marburg (Germany). When she isn’t following the traces of the representation of Makedonian rulers (and their horses) on coins and in writing, she spends much of her time playing D&D, teaching archery or in the pursuit of stuffing even more books into her already overflowing bookshelves.


Collecting Seleukid Coins – Part II

The first part of this article has provided us with an introduction to collecting Seleukid Coinage, an overview of the history of research and a biography of Seleukos I.

Antiochos I Soter. AE. Antioch on the Orontes mint. From sale CNG 421 (2018), 250.

Antiochos I Soter (294-261 BC)

The eldest son of Seleukos I, Antiochos learned battlefield command at the feet of his father and led a decisive cavalry action at the Battle of Ipsos in 301 BC. When Seleukos took the beautiful Stratonike as a bride in 299 BC, Antiochos fell so deeply in love with her that he seemed likely to die. In 294, Seleukos gave Stratonike as wife to his son at the same time he elevated Antiochos to co-regent and moved the newlyweds off to a new command of the East, solving what must have been an awkward situation in the palace. Antiochos smoothly assumed power after his father&rsquos death in 280 BC, but had his hands full trying to maintain the integrity of the immense polyglot kingdom he had inherited. Two major wars against the Ptolemaic Kingdom resulted in stalemate, but his greatest challenge came when a mass-migration of warlike Celtic tribes swept into Asia Minor in the 270s BC, threatening to wipe out Greek civilization. Antiochos marched to confront them and won an overwhelming victory at the Battle of the Elephants (so-called due to the crucial role of the elephant corps) in circa 269-268 BC. Greeks gave him the title Soter (&ldquosavior&rdquo) in thanks for saving the day.

Antiochos I Soter. Tetradrachm, Ai Khanoum mint, 271-266. From sale CNG 109 (2018), 221.

The coinage of Antiochos I was even larger than his father&rsquos, and his heavy-browed, rather mournful portrait (one can easily imagine his lovesick moping over Stratonike) is a common sight on silver tetradrachms in auction catalogs and dealers&rsquo stocks worldwide. A reverse type he innovated became the standard Seleukid reverse for more than a century: It depicts Apollo seated to left atop the Omphalos of Delphi, a sacred stone covered with woven netting that was said to be the &ldquonavel of the earth.&rdquo Apollo rests his left hand on a grounded bow and looks down the shaft of an arrow held in his right hand, testing its trueness.

Antiochos I Soter. Tetradrachm, Magnesia ad Sipylum mint. From sale CNG 109 (2018), 215.

A rare and artistic variant on this type, struck at the mint of Magnesia on Mt. Sipylus, depicts Herakles resting after his labors. The style of portraiture and the elegance of the reverse vary greatly depending on mint on some coins Antiochos appears a man of vigorous middle age, while on others he looks wizened and overburdened by the weight of rule.

Antiochos III &ldquothe Great&rdquo. Tetradrachm, Antioch on the Orontes mint, 197-192/0. From sale CNG 109 (2018), 259.

Antiochos III &ldquoThe Great&rdquo (222-187 BC)

Seleukid fortunes had reached a low ebb when Antiochos III, great-great grandson of Nicator, arose to the throne after the assassination of his elder brother. The once-mighty kingdom had been riven by dynastic disputes, foreign invasions, and native uprisings, and looked to be on the cusp of dissolution. The young Antiochos announced his intention to reconstitute the empire of his ancestors, and, after an incredibly vigorous three decades of rule, by 192 BC seemed to have accomplished just that. Not particularly modest, he assumed the title Megas Basileos (&ldquoGreat King&rdquo), claiming parity not just with Alexander, but with the Achaemenid Kings of Persia.

Antiochos III &ldquothe Great&rdquo. AV-Oktadrachm, unknown mint in Mesopotamia, ca. 197-192/0. From sale Triton XIX (2016), 286.

Alas, at the summit of success he chose to press his luck and launch an invasion of mainland Greece, bringing him squarely against the upstart Roman Republic, the declared guarantor of Greek freedom. To the shock of everyone, Antiochos proved not-so-great and he suffered a crushing defeat at the Battle of Magnesia in 190 BC, barely escaping with his life. The humiliating treaty imposed by Rome, and massive annual indemnity of 15,000 talents (about 22.5 million tetradrachms), largely undid all the successes of his early career and again set the kingdom&rsquos fortunes into a downward spiral.

Antiochos III &ldquothe Great&rdquo. Drachm, Apamea on the Orontes mint, 223-211. From sale Triton XVIII (2015), 151.

Antiochos III&rsquos coins are of mostly of the typical royal portrait / Apollo-on-Omphalos type, and his image changes from that of a callow youth to a craggy campaigner over the course of his reign. One of the most interesting types depicts an Indian war elephant on the reverse in place of Apollo, pointing (again) to the importance of elephants in Hellenistic warfare. Elephant tetradrachms are among the most prized Seleukid rarities and usually sell for many thousands of dollars the silver drachm, in contrast, is more widely available and can be obtained in the mid hundreds to low thousands.

Antiochos IV Epiphanes. Tetradrachm, Antioch in Persis. From sale CNG 109 (2018), 289.

Antiochos IV Epiphanes (175-164 BC)

As the one Seleukid ruler to enter popular consciousness, &ldquoBad King Antiochos&rdquo has gone down in history as a tyrant, a megalomaniac, and the unintentional father of Hanukkah, the Jewish Festival of Lights. The younger son of Antiochos III Megas, Antiochos spent his youth as a hostage in Rome until the murder of his brother brought him to the Seleukid throne. From the outset, he energetically tried to strengthen his kingdom through a policy of Hellenization and urbanization. This found favor with his Greek subjects, but the Semetic peoples were less impressed. His assumption of the title Epiphanes (&ldquoGod manifest&rdquo) provoked resentment in a play on words, the Jews nicknamed him Epimanes or &ldquomadman.&rdquo His pillaging of the great Temple in Jerusalem turned resistance into outright revolt. Years of bitter warfare followed, leading ultimately to a Jewish breakaway state under the Maccabees, the Jewish recapture of Jerusalem, the re-consecration of the Temple, and the first Hanukkah.

Antiochos IV Epiphanes. AE, Antioch on the Orontes mint, 169-168. From sale CNG Electronic Auction 430 (2018), 197.

Yet Antiochos regarded the Jewish revolt as a minor annoyance, for he had his eyes on a bigger prize. In 168 BC, he invaded Egypt with his well-trained army and easily swept aside all resistance. But at Eleusis he was met by a single Roman magistrate, the aged Popillius Laenus, who handed him a decree by the Roman Senate demanding his immediate withdrawal. Laenus then dramatically drew a circle in the sand around the king and demanded an answer before he stepped out of it. Antiochos had no choice but to submit, or suffer the fate of his father at Magnesia. Antiochos returned to Syria with his army, sacking Jerusalem along the way, and spent his remaining years in royal self-indulgence.

Antiochos IV Epiphanes. Tetradrachm, Antioch on the Orones, ca. 166. From sale Triton XIX (2016), 290.

Like the man himself, the coinage of Antiochos IV is flamboyant, diverse, and complex. His portrait issues replace Apollo on the reverse with an enthroned figure of Zeus. He also struck a beautiful run of &ldquoFestival&rdquo issues honoring Zeus and Apollo, in the highest artistry of the age. These last types are rare and consequently pricey when they show up at auction in general, his coins are fairly easy to obtain in the middle price range of $500-1,500, while smaller silver denominations and bronzes can be had quite inexpensively.

Cleopatra Thea & Antiochos VIII. Tetradrachm, Damaskos mint, 120/19. From sale CNG Electronic Auction 427 (2018), 287

Cleopatra Thea (152-121 BC)

Daughter of the Egyptian king Ptolemy VI, Cleopatra Thea married the Seleukid usurper Alexander I Balas in 150 BC to cement ties between the two realms. Within five years, Balas had been deposed and killed his consort, however, had remarkable staying power and proved herself an adept player of the Hellenistic game of thrones. Over a 30-year career, Cleopatra Thea was a Ptolemaic princess, queen-consort to three kings (Balas, his replacement Demetrios II, and Antiochos VII), queen in her own right, and queen-mother of two kings. As ruthless as she was ambitious, she did much to define politics in her age. In 125 BC, Cleopatra assumed supreme power for herself, which required the murder of her eldest son, Seleukos V – reportedly she used him for archery practice! After a brief period as sole monarch, she was persuaded to share power with her youngest son, Antiochos VIII Grypos. This last son finally escaped her domineering shadow in 120 BC by forcing her to drink a poisoned cup she had intended for him.

Cleopatra Thea. Tetradrachm, 125. Ptolemais mint, 125. From sale CNG 109 (2018), 328.

Uniquely in the Seleukid series, Cleopatra appears by herself on the coinage as well as in combination with her various husbands and sons. A rare gold issue modeled on the famous issues of Ptolemaic queens depicts her veiled portrait, along with a cornucopia on the reverse. When she appears on silver tetradrachms conjoined with a Seleukid king (initially her husband, Balas, and later her son, Antiochos VIII), her portrait is topmost, in the position of honor. One could hardly ask for more explicit evidence of her forceful personality.


Additional product information

Alexander The Great & his successors – the Diadochi

When Alexander the Great died (June 10, 323 BC), he left behind a huge empire that was in essence composed of many independent territories. Alexander’s empire stretched from his homeland of Macedon itself, along with the Greek city-states that his father had subdued, to Bactria and parts of India in the east. It included Anatolia, the Levant, Egypt, Babylonia, and Persia. Without a chosen successor, there was almost immediately a dispute among his generals as to whom his successor should be. Meleager and the infantry supported the candidacy of Alexander’s half-brother, Arrhidaeus, while Perdiccas, the leading cavalry commander, supported waiting until the birth of Alexander’s unborn child by Roxana. A compromise was arranged – Arrhidaeus (as Philip III) should become king, and should rule jointly with Roxana’s child, assuming that it was a boy (as it was, becoming Alexander IV). Perdiccas himself would become regent of the entire empire, and Meleager his lieutenant. Soon, however, Perdiccas had Meleager and the other infantry leaders murdered, and assumed full control.


As a definition: The Diadochi (plural of Latin Diadochus, from Greek: Diádokhoi, “successors”) were the rival generals, families and friends of Alexander the Great who fought for control over his empire after his death in 323 BC. The Wars of the Diadochi mark the beginning of the Hellenistic period.

One of the major Empires following the Empire of Alexander the Great was the Seleucid Empire: It was a Hellenistic state ruled by the Seleucid dynasty, which existed from 312 BC to 63 BC it was founded by Seleucus I Nicator following the division of the Macedonian empire vastly expanded by Alexander the Great. Seleucus received Babylonia and, from there, expanded his dominions to include much of Alexander's near eastern territories. At the height of its power, it included central Anatolia, Persia, the Levant, Mesopotamia, and what is now Kuwait, Afghanistan, and parts of Pakistan and Turkmenistan.

The founding of new Empires as a consequence of the death of Alexander the Great is the aforementioned “Hellenistic Period”: The Hellenistic period covers the period of ancient Greek (Hellenic) history and Mediterranean history between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the emergence of the Roman Empire as signified by the Battle of Actium in 31 BC and the subsequent conquest of Ptolemaic Egypt the following year. At this time, Greek cultural influence and power was at its peak in Europe, Africa and Asia, experiencing prosperity and progress in the arts, exploration, literature, theatre, architecture, music, mathematics, philosophy, and science. After Alexander the Great's invasion of the Persian Empire in 330 BC and its disintegration shortly after, the Hellenistic kingdoms were established throughout south-west Asia (Seleucid Empire, Kingdom of Pergamon), north-east Africa (Ptolemaic Kingdom) and South Asia (Greco-Bactrian Kingdom, Indo-Greek Kingdom). This resulted in the export of Greek culture and language to these new realms through Greek colonization, spanning as far as modern-day Pakistan.


SCADS: Seleucid Coins Addenda System

In 2002 and 2008 the American Numismatic Society and Classical Numismatic Group published the two parts of Seleucid Coins: A Comprehensive Catalogue, by Arthur Houghton, Catharine Lorber, and Oliver Hoover. The first part, by Houghton and Lorber, presented and interpreted all the numismatic material for Seleucus I to Antiochus III known up to 2002. The second part, by Houghton, Lorber, and Hoover, did the same for the Seleucid kings from Seleucus IV to Antiochus XIII. In total, more than 2,491 primary coin types were published in these volumes.

No sooner had these important books come out in print than new types and varieties began to appear at the rate of almost 100 a year. This rapid growth of material made necessary the development of a system that could keep up with the coins. The Seleucid Coins Addenda System (SCADS) is intended to provide online access to the new material that has appeared since 2008. As there is no indication that the flow of previously unrecorded types and varieties will stop anytime soon, it is expected that the SCADS database will continue to grow over time. Interested parties will be instantly notified of new additions to the database by alerts through RSS feed (accessed through the subscribe button on the upper right of this page) and direct email subscription (accessed through the follow button on the sidebar).

The coins in the SCADS database are categorized by mint and ruler, making it easy for users to find all new entries for a particular king or mint with a single click. Extensive tagging of entry content allows for full searchability. Thus, for example, a user interested in all new material depicting Apollo would simply enter “Apollo” as the search criterion and SCADS would provide all the relevant entries. If a user was interested only in Apollo on issues of bronze denomination C, “denomination C” could be added to narrow down the search. The coins in the database have all been given a unique catalogue number (SCADS1, SCADS2, SCADS3, etc.) for ease of reference, but these only reflect the order of entry and are not tied to the numbering system used in the Seleucid Coins volumes.

The weblog (blog) format makes SCADS a unique tool in that it allows the community of users to annotate records. For example, a user who owns a second example of a coin in the database might leave a comment indicating the existence of the additional specimen. Likewise, another user might leave some insight about a coin. In this way, not only does SCADS present the new coins, but it offers opportunity for continued discussion within the Seleucid numismatic community. SCADS is designed to allow necessary changes or improvements to entries and to allow the insertion of new material that may appear. Users are encouraged to comment on individual entries or suggest additions or changes they believe would add to the content of the SCADS website.

This site is maintained by Oliver D. Hoover, a co-author of Seleucid Coins, Part II, and a widely published scholar on various aspects of Seleucid numismatics, chronology, and history. Hoover is currently an Adjunct Curator of the American Numismatic Society and Managing Editor of the American Journal of Numismatics. He is also the author behind Classical Numismatic Group’s ongoing Handbook of Greek Coinage series.

The entries included in SCADS would not have been possible without the contribution of numerous individuals — curators of collections, scholars, collectors, members of the trade, and others with technical or other expertise. For their contributions to the content of SCADS, we wish to cite in particular the help of Morten Andersen, Donald Ariel, G. R. F. Assar, Osmund Bopearachchi, Bradley Bowlin, Frédérique Duyrat, François de Callataÿ, Edward Cohen, Frédérique Duyrat, Wolfgang Fischer-Bossert, Haim Gitler, Jay Guberman, Panagiotis Iossif, Mary Lannin, John Lavender, Catharine Lorber, Laure Marest-Caffey, Andrew Meadows, Tom Miller, Brad Nelson, Ziad Sawaya, Shanna Schmidt, Elena Stolyarik, Danny Syon, Lloyd Taylor, Petr Vesely, Georges Voulgaridis, and Nicholas Wright. We are especially grateful to Ute Wartenberg Kagan, who has been a source of great encouragement and advice and who has always made the Seleucid collection of the American Numismatic Society available for study. Special recognition is also due to Victor England and CNG, Inc., whose archives have provided many of the outstanding coin images shown here and are a model for others to follow.

For technical and editorial expertise, we thank Chris Hopkins, Andrew Houghton, Mary Lannin, and John Lavender. We also wish to give special thanks to our friend and colleague Catharine Lorber, who established, with Seleucid Coins, the model for the entries included here, and who has provided invaluable advice and commentary with respect to this project.


Diademed head

Obv.: Diademed head of Seleucus II r., dotted border.

Rev.: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ on r., ΣΕΛΕΥΚΟΥ on l., Apollo seated l. on omphalos, slight drapery on thigh, testing arrow and resting l. hand on grounded bow.

Outer left control off flan.

Reference: Copenhagen, M. Andersen collection, ex CNG E Auction 295, 30 January 2013, lot 267.

Obverse die link with SC C742.1-7 and SC Ad197.

SCADS82 Seleucus III SC 921.1Ad

SELEUCUS III

Silver tetradrachm, Apollo on omphalos type

Obv.: Diademed head of Seleucus III r., dotted border.

Rev.: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ on r., ΣΕΛΕΥΚΟΥ on l., Apollo, slight drapery on thigh, seated l. on omphalos which is placed upon a plinth or basis, resting hand on grounded bow.

Outer left (a) and outer right (b) controls

Reference: San Rafael, California, MNL collection, ex Gemini 11, 12 January 2014, lot 249.

A plinth beneath the omphalos is anomalous, but appears to be clear and not the product of overstriking or double striking.

SCADS76 Seleucus II plated issue SC 834 Corr.

Plated tetradrachm, Apollo on omphalos type

Obv.: Diademed head of Seleucus II r., slightly barbarized with arching eyebrow, dotted border.

Rev.: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ on r., ΣΕΛΕΥΚΟΥ on l., Apollo of barbarous style seated l., testing arrow and resting l. hand on grounded bow.

Uncertain outer right control.

On review, SC 834, which is described as a barbarous tetradrachm, is in fact a plated issue.

SCADS75 Demetrius I plated issue SC 1708-1709

Silver plated tetradrachm, Apollo on omphalos type(15.22 gm.)

Obv.: Diademed head of Demetrius I r., diadem ends falling straight behind, fillet border.

Rev.: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ on r., ΔΗΜΗΤΡΙΟΥ on l., Apollo seated l. on omphalos, testing arrow and resting hand on grounded bow with grip marked by two pellets.

Outer left (a, mostly off flan) and outer right (b) controls.

Reference: CNG EAuction 264, lot 172.

Judging from the type, the coin was intended to imitate an eastern issue. The treatment of the diadem ends, the ornamentation of Apollo’s bow, and the right field control all suggest an issue of Antioch in Persis as the probable model. The form of the outer left control is uncertain.

SCADS71 Antiochus IV SC 1388Ad

SELEUCIA ON THE PYRAMUS (MOPSUS)

Quasi-municipal bronze coinage

Diademed head of Antiochus IV/tripod

Denomination D (15 mm., 3.04 gm.)

Obv.: Diademed head of Antiochus IV r., dotted border.

Reference: Zuzim Judaea VCoins Store, April 2014.

SCADS70 Antiochus IV SC 1388Ad

SELEUCIA ON THE PYRAMUS (MOPSUS)

Quasi-municipal bronze coinage

Obv.: Diademed head of Antiochus IV r., dotted border.

Variety a left (a) and right (b) controls Variety b left control

Reference: a) San Rafael, California, MNL collection, ex Rauch 94, 9 April 2014 b) Copenhagen, M. Andersen collection, ex Doug Spangler ebay, 8 February 2014.

Unlike the issues carried in Seleucid Coins and SCADS70b, the portrait of SCADS70a is identifiable as that of Antiochus IV. SCADS70a shares its obverse die with the anepigraphic SCADS 71.

The same types continued in use into the first century B.C., when Mopsus struck autonomous coins with a Seleucid portrait (apparently not Antiochus IV) and a tripod.

Autonomous bronze coin of Mopsus, first century B.C. SNG Levante 1306. Gorny & Mosch 212, 5 March 2013, lot 2495.

SCADS69 Antiochus V SC 1583Ad

Silver tetradrachm, Phoenician eagle type

Obv.: Diademed head of Antiochus V r., diadem ends falling straight behind, dotted border.

Rev.: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ (curving) on r., ΕΥΠΑΤΟΡΟΣ (curving) on l., eagle standing l. on thunderbolt, dotted border.

Reverse symbol (l. field): PALM BRANCH

Obverse control (a) behind head and reverse control (b) between legs

Although the types and controls of this coin are all known (see SC 1583c), it has been included in the addenda because of its anomalous portrait depicting the king with bangs.

SCADS67 Antiochus V SC 1584Ad

“ANTIOCH ON THE PERSIAN GULF”

Silver tetradrachm, Apollo on omphalos type

Obv.: Diademed head of young king r., fillet border.

Rev.: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ on r., ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ on l., Apollo seated l. on omphalos, testing arrow and resting l. hand on grounded bow.

Outer left (a) and outer right (b) controls

Reference: Copenhagen, M. Andersen collection, ex Najaf, 4 October 2012.

It remains questionable whether SC 1584 and this coin belong to Antiochus V. Antiochus IV may be the more likely possibility.

SCADS66 Demetrius I SC 1633-1640Ad

Silver tetradrachm, Tyche type

Obv.: Diademed head of Demetrius I r., diadem ends hanging straight behind, laurel wreath border.

Rev.: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ on r., ΔΗΜΗΤΡΙΟΥ ΣΩΤΗΡΟΣ in two lines on l., Tyche seated l. on backless throne with winged tritoness support, holding short sceptre and cornucopiae.

Hoard: Gaziantep Hoard 1994 (CH 9, 527 CH 10, 308)

This coin was recorded by E. Levante in Beirut, but either the control or attribution is in error. No other known tetradrachm with the epithet Soter has this control, although a similar control occurs on SC 1625, an unattributed issue of Cilicia or Northern Syria that lacks the epithet.

The coin is listed here under Antioch as a placemarker.

SCADS65 Antiochus VII SC 2061.1Ad

Silver tetradrachm, standing Athena Nicephorus type

Obv.: Diademed head of Antiochus VII r., diadem ends falling straight behind, fillet border.

Rev.: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ in two lines on r., ΕΥΕΡΓΕΤΟΥ on l., Athena standing l., holding Nike in r. and resting l. hand on grounded shield and extending r. beyond royal epithet, where she supports Nike l., extending wreath into border, spear propped against Athena’s arm, laurel wreath border.

Date (in exergue): ΔΟΡ (S.E. 174 = 139/8 B.C.)

Outer left primary control (a) above secondary control (b)

Reference: Tupelo, MS, B. Bowlin collection, ex Rauch ESale, 18 September 2013, lot 344.

Almost certainly the first issue of Antiochus VII at Antioch, before the date was removed. Controls as SC 2061.1e.

SCADS64 Antiochus VII SC 2049.3 Corr.

SELEUCIA ON THE CALYCADNUS

Silver tetradrachm, local standing Athena Nicephorus type

Obv.: Diademed head of Antiochus VII r., diadem ends falling straight behind, fillet border.

Rev.: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ in two lines on r., ΕΥΕΡΓΕΤΟΥ on l., Athena standing l., holding Nike facing r. and offering wreath, resting l. hand on shield, spear behind.

Symbol (inner l.): FEATHERY BRANCH

Reference: San Rafael, California, MNL collection, ex Gorny & Mosch 220, 11 March 2014, lot 1426.

Obverse die link with SC 2049.1-2.

The coin shows controls that were off flan on SC 2049.3. Interestingly, the ΙΣΙ primary control employed at Seleucia on the Calycadnus for other issues of Antiochus VII does not appear here, but rather controls that prefigure those employed during the first and second reigns of Antiochus VIII (121/0-114/13 and 112-96 B.C., respectively) in the city.

SCADS63 Alexander I SC 1784.4 Corr.

Silver Tetradrachm, Zeus Nicephorus type, revived

Obv.: Diademed head of Alexander I r., diadem ends falling straight behind, fillet border.

Rev.: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ in two lines on r., ΘΕΟΠΑΤΟΡΟΣ ΕΥΕΡΓΕΤΟΥ in two lines on l., Zeus enthroned l., resting l. hand on sceptre and holding Nike facing r.

Inner left (a) and right exergue (b) controls.

Variant form of the left field control and corrects the reading of the exergue control.

SCADS62 Alexander I SC 1784.8Ad

Silver Tetradrachm, Zeus Nicephorus type, revived

Obv.: Diademed head of Alexander I r., diadem ends falling straight behind, fillet border.

Rev.: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ in two lines on r., ΘΕΟΠΑΤΟΡΟΣ ΕΥΕΡΓΕΤΟΥ in two lines on l., Zeus enthroned l., resting l. hand on sceptre and holding Nike facing r.

Date (in ex., on l.) ϚΞΡ (S.E. 166 = 147/6 B.C.)

Inner left (a) and right exergue (b) controls

Reference: Davisson’s EAuction 3, 7 December 2013, lot 19.

The inner right control is a variant form of the usual primary control for SC 1784.8.

SCADS59 Antiochus IX SC 2389Ad

UNCERTAIN MINT 123, PROBABLY IN NORTHERN PHOENICIA

Obv.: Head of Antiochus IX r., diadem ends falling straight behind, fillet border.

Rev.: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ in two lines on r., ΦΙΛΟΠΑΤΟΡΟΣ on l., Athena standing l., holding Nike and resting l. hand on shield, spear behind, laurel wreath border.

Outer left field monogram

Reference: Private Tehran coll.

This is the first known emission of Uncertain Mint 123 to depict Antiochus IX without beard and moustache. The absence of the beard seems to suggest that the coinage of this mint continued in production after the c. 111/10 B.C. date given in Seleucid Coins. Since Antiochus IX began to employ a clean-shaven portrait at Antioch after the death of his half-brother and nemesis, Antiochus VIII, in 96 B.C. it seems probable that this issue of Uncertain Mint 123 belongs to the period 96-95 B.C.

The existence of this beardless portrait removes the “iconographic dissonance” that contributed to the removal of SC 2389 from Ptolemaïs (Ake), where E. T. Newell had originally placed it. The issues of Uncertain Mint 123 probably should be restored to Ptolemaïs (Ake) and Newell vindicated.

SCADS58 Antiochus VII SC 2109.3Ad

Silver Tetradrachm, Phoenician eagle type

Obv.: Diademed and draped bust of Antiochus VII r., dotted border.

Rev.: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ (curving) on r., ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ (curving) on l., eagle standing l. on ship’s ram, palm branch under far wing, dotted border.

Date (in r. field, below) ΕΟΡ (S.E. 175 = 138/7 B.C.)

Left (a above and b on club) and right field (c) mintmarks. Control(s) between legs (d above e).

Reference: USA (CT), J. Guberman coll.

This coin adds a new control between the legs of the eagle, but it is unclear how it should be read. In the enlargement, the control appears to be composed of Greek delta with two smaller characters written above it that could perhaps be read as the Phoenician letters gimel and ayin (G‘). Phoenician control letters regularly appeared between the legs of the eagle on autonomous Tyrian tetradrachms (shekels) struck after 127 B.C. Alternatively, the control could be a Greek monogram composed of cursive omega above delta although the elements of the omega are not clearly linked. A third, but least probable interpretation is that the delta has been recut over a largely erased control involving phi (e.g. SC 2109.3d).

A Tyrian didrachm of the same year (SC 2110.3b) may feature the same mysterious control between the eagle’s legs.

SCADS56 Demetrius II (first reign) SC 1908.3Ad

Silver drachms, Apollo on omphalos type

Obv.: Diademed head of Demetrius II r., diadem ends falling straight behind, fillet border.

Rev.: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΔΗΜΗΤΡΙΟΥ in two lines on r., ΘΕΟΥ ΦΙΛΑΔΕΛΦΟΥ ΝΙΚΑΤΟΡΟΣ in three lines on l., Apollo, nude, seated l. on omphalos, testing arrrow and resting l. hand on grounded bow.

Symbol (outer l.): STAR (?, off flan)

Inner left control (a) and control between legs (b)

Reference: Münz Zentrum Rheinland 167, 4 September 2013, lot 108.

Adds new control between legs.

SCADS55 Demetrius II (first reign) SC 1908.1Ad

Silver drachms, Apollo on omphalos type

Obv.: Diademed head of Demetrius II r., diadem ends falling straight behind, fillet border.

Rev.: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΔΗΜΗΤΡΙΟΥ in two lines on r., ΘΕΟΥ ΦΙΛΑΔΕΛΦΟΥ ΝΙΚΑΤΟΡΟΣ in three lines on l., Apollo, nude, seated l. on omphalos, testing arrrow and resting l. hand on grounded bow.

Reference: Copenhagen, M. Andersen coll., ex Roma ESale 5, 8 February 2014, lot 440.

Adds new exergue control combination.

SCADS54 Demetrius II (first reign) SC 1906.5Ad

Silver tetradrachm, Apollo on omphalos type

Obv.: Diademed head of Demetrius II r., diadem ends falling straight behind, fillet border.

Rev.: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΔΗΜΗΤΡΙΟΥ in two lines on r., ΘΕΟΥ ΦΙΛΑΔΕΛΦΟΥ ΝΙΚΑΤΟΡΟΣ in three lines on l., Apollo, nude, seated l. on omphalos, testing arrrow and resting l. hand on grounded bow.

Date (in ex., on l.): ΖΞΡ (S.E. 167 = 146/5 B.C.)

Symbol (outer l.) PALM BRANCH

Inner right (a) and exergue (b) controls

Reference: Pars VCoins sale, November 2013.

SCADS53 Antiochus VI SC 2010.4Ad

Silver Tetradrachm, Dioscuri type

Obv.: Radiate and diademed head of Antiochus VI r., one diadem end flying up behind, the other falling forward over shoulder, fillet border.

Rev.: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ in two lines above, ΕΠΙΦΑΝΟΥΣ ΔΙΟΝΥΣΟΥ in two lines below, Dioscuri charging l. on horseback, with couched spears, within Dionysiac wreath of laurel, grain, lotus, ivy, and vine leaves.

Date (beneath horses): ΘΞΡ (S.E. 169 = 144/3 B.C.)

Obverse symbol (behind head): STAR

Hoard: Gaziantep Hoard 1994 (CH 9, 527 CH 10, 308)

Adds the obverse STAR symbol to SC 2010.1.

SCADS52 Antiochus VI SC 2010.1Ad

Silver Tetradrachm, Dioscuri type

Obv.: Radiate and diademed head of Antiochus VI r., one diadem end flying up behind, the other falling forward over shoulder, fillet border.

Rev.: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ in two lines above, ΕΠΙΦΑΝΟΥΣ ΔΙΟΝΥΣΟΥ in two lines below, Dioscuri charging l. on horseback, with couched spears, within Dionysiac wreath of laurel, grain, lotus, ivy, and vine leaves.

Date (beneath horses): ΘΞΡ (SE 169 = 144/3 B.C.)

Obverse symbol (behind head): STAR

Hoard: Gaziantep Hoard 1994 (CH 9, 527 CH 10, 308)

Adds the obverse STAR symbol to SC 2010.1.

SCADS51 Commagenian Imitation of Demetrius I SC 1768.1Corr.

COMMAGENIAN IMITATIONSOF ANTIOCH DRACHMS OF DEMETRIUS I

Obv.: Diademed head of Demetrius I r., diadem ends falling straight behind, dotted border.

Rev.: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ on r., ΔΗΜΗΤΡΙΟΥ ΣΩΤΗΡΟΣ in two lines on l., cornucopia oriented to l.

Date (inner r., below): ΔΕΡ (sic) (S.E. 164 = 149/8 B.C.)

The discovery of a fake drachm muling the obverse die of SC 1768.1 with a reverse die imitating the helmet type of Tryphon in 2014 makes it clear that neither coin is authentic. SC 1768.1 should be stricken from the catalogue while the other Commagenian imitations should be treated with caution.

SCADS50 Alexander II SC 2229.4Ad

Royal bronze coinage

Obv: Diademed head of Alexander II r., dotted border.

Rev.: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ on r., ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ on l., young Dionysus standing l., holding cantharus and thyrsus.

Control (outer l., above): ΙΣΙ

Symbol (outer l., below): GRAPES

Date (inner l., reading downward): ΕΠΡ (S.E. 185 = 128/7 B.C.).

Reference: CNG E-auction 200, 3 December 2008, lot 149.

SCADS49 Demetrius II (second reign) SC 2167 Corr.

DEMETRIUS II, SECOND REIGN

Silver Drachm, Zeus Nicephorus type

Obv.: Diademed, bearded head of Demetrius II r., fillet border.

Rev.: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΔΗΜΗΤΡΙΟΥ in two lines on r., ΘΕΟΥ ΝΙΚΑΤΟΡΟΣ in two lines on l., Zeus seated l., holding Nike and with l. hand on sceptre.

Reference: CNG EAuction 267, 17 April 2011, lot 154

The controls, which are clear on this coin, may clarify those on SC 2167a.

SCADS48 Demetrius II (second reign) SC 2158Ad

DEMETRIUS II, SECOND REIGN

Silver Drachm, Zeus Nicephorus type

Obv.: Diademed, bearded head of Demetrius II r., fillet border.

Rev.: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΔΗΜΗΤΡΙΟΥ in two lines on r., ΘΕΟΥ ΝΙΚΑΤΟΡΟΣ in two lines on l., Zeus seated l., holding Nike and sceptre.

Left field controls (above and below) Recut lower control (?)

Reference: Joron-Derem, 26 November 2013, lot 57.

Variant controls of SC 2158.

SCADS47 Antiochus VIII SC 2290 Corr.

Silver tetradrachm, Mallian Athena Magarsia type

Obv.: Diademed head of Antiochus VIII r., diadem ends falling straight behind, fillet border.

Rev.: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ in two lines on r., ΕΠΙΦΑΝΟΥΣ on l., facing cult statue of Athena Magarsia holding spear, rosette above each shoulder.

Mintmark (on obv., behind neck): M

Controls (left, beneath inscription, and right, beneath inscription)

Reference: Tupelo, MS, B. Bowlin collection, ex CNG EAuction 229, 10 March 2010, lot 218.

Struck from the same dies as SC 2290, but with the lower r. control added. The form of the left control is also corrected here.

For the Seleucid coinage of Mallus in general, see A. Houghton, “The Seleucid Mint of Mallus And the Cult Figure of Athena Magarsia,” in Studies Mildenberg.

SCADS46 Antiochus VIII

UNCERTAIN MINT, PERHAPS IN CILICIA (ΕΥ MINT)

Silver tetradrachm, standing Athena Nicephorus type

Obv.: Diademed head of Antiochus VIII r., diadem ends falling straight behind, fillet border.

Rev.: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ in two lines on r., ΕΠΙΦΑΝΟΥΣ on l., Athena standing l., holding Nike in extended r. and resting l. on shield, spear behind.

Controls (outer l.) : ΕΥ above ΤΙ.

Reference: Tupelo, MS, B. Bowlin collection, ex CNG EAuction 236, 7 July 2010, lot 200.

The coin is of apparently barbarous style, but the controls are credible and follow the convention of other Cilician mints. The obverse die has been extensively recut.

SCADS43 Antiochus X SC 2427A

UNATTRIBUTED ISSUE OF NORTHERN SYRIA

Royal bronze coinage

Antiochus X bearded/pilei of Dioscuri

Denomination B (21mm, 8.29gm.)

Obv.: Diademed and bearded head of Antiochus X r., diadem ends falling straight behind, dotted border.

Rev.: (ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ) ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ on r., ΕΥΣΕΒΟΥΣ ΦΙΛΟΠΑΤΟΡΟΣ in two lines on l., pilei of Dioscuri, each surmounted by star.

Possible date (in exergue, to l.): ΑKΣ (S.E. 221 = 92/1 B.C.)?

Other mark (in exergue, to r.): ΑΝΤ….(possible other letters).

Enlargement of date(?) and other letters in exergue.

Reference: USA (CT), J. Guberman coll. A dated issue of Antiochus X is unexpected confirmation is needed with a clearer example.

SCADS42 Alexander II SC 2211a Corr.

Silver tetradrachm, Tarsian Sandan altar type

Obv.: Diademed head of Alexander II r., diadem ends falling straight behind, fillet border.

Rev.: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ on r., ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ on l., garlanded altar with baldachin, under which Sandan standing r. on back of horned winged lion-griffin r.

Outer left controls
(above and below)

Reference: CNG EAuction 321, 26 February 2014, lot 187.

The reference object is die-linked to SC 2211 but credibly reflects an issue of Alexander II that clarifies the upper control of SC 2211a.

SCADS39 Demetrius III SC 2456Ad

Royal bronze coinage

Radiate Demetrius III bearded/Hermes on basis

Obv.: Radiate, diademed head of Demetrius III r., with short curly beard, diadem ends falling straight behind, dotted border.

Rev.: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΔΗΜΗΤΡΙΟΥ ΘΕΟΥ in two lines on r., ΦΙΛΟΠΑΤΟΡΟΣ ΣΩΤΗΡΟΣ in two lines on l., Hermes standing l. on square basis, holding palm and caduceus, dotted border.

Controls (outer l.): Ν above Μ

Reference: Shick Vcoins sale, August 2013, lot vb987.

SCADS38 Demetrius III SC 2454Ad

Royal bronze coinage

Radiate Demetrius III, bearded/Nike

Obv.: Radiate, diademed head of Demetrius III r., with short, curly beard, diadem ends falling straight behind, dotted border.

Rev.: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΔΗΜΗΤΡΙΟΥ ΘΕΟΥ in two lines on r., ΦΙΛΟΠΑΤΟΡΟΣ ΣΩΤΗΡΟΣ in two lines on l., Nike advancing r., holding wreath and palm branch, dotted border.

Date (in ex): ΓΚΣ (S.E. 223 = 90/89B.C.)?

Controls (outer l.): Α above ΔΙ

The date may also be read as ΖΙΣ (S.E. 217 = 96/5 B.C.)

Reference: Ancient Imports EBay sale, September 2013.

SCADS37 Demetrius III SC 2454Ad

Royal bronze coinage

Radiate Demetrius III, bearded/Nike

Obv.: Radiate, diademed head of Demetrius III r., with short, curly beard, diadem ends falling straight behind, dotted border.

Rev.: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΔΗΜΗΤΡΙΟΥ ΘΕΟΥ in two lines on r., ΦΙΛΟΠΑΤΟΡΟΣ ΣΩΤΗΡΟΣ in two lines on l., Nike advancing r., holding wreath and palm, dotted border.

Date (in ex): ΗΙΣ (S.E. 218 = 95/4 B.C.)

Reference: Copenhagen, M. Andersen collection, ex Pharaoh Crypt Ebay sale, 6 May 2013.

SCADS36 Philip I SC 2460aCorr.

Silver tetradrachm, Zeus Nicephorus type

Obv.: Diademed head of Philip I r.

Rev.: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΦΙΛΙΠΠΟΥ in two lines on r., ΕΠΙΦΑΝΟΥΣ ΦΙΛΑΔΕΛΦΟΥ in two lines on l., Zeus enthroned l., holding Nike and sceptre, laurel wreath border.

Primary controls (outer left, above and below)

Fronzen control (under throne):

The wrong image was used to illustrate this variety in Seleucid Coins, Part II. It is corrected here.

SCADS35 Antiochus XII SC 2472.1Ad

Silver tetradrachm, local Hadad type

Obv.: Diademed head of Antiochus XII r., with short, curly beard, fillet border.

Rev.: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ ΕΠΙΦΑΝΟΥΣ in three lines on r., ΦΙΛΟΠΑΤΟΡΟΣ ΚΑΛΛΙΝΙΚΟΥ in two lines on l., cult image of Hadad standing facing on double basis, holding barley stalk, flanked by bull foreparts of bull to l. and r., laurel wreath border.

Date (in exergue): ΗΚΣ (S.E. 228 = 85/4 B.C.)

Outer left controls
(above and below)

Reference: San Rafael, California, MNL collection, ex CNG 96, 14 May 2014, lot 552. See Hoover, Houghton and Vesely, p. 336, 9.

This entry corrects the lower control of SC 2472.1, and adds the most recent die study of the Damascus tetradrachms of Antiochus XII.

SCADS33 Antiochus X SC 2426A

Silver drachm, Tarsian Sandan type

Obv.: Diademed head of Antiochus X r., diadem ends falling straight behind, fillet border.

Rev.: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ on r., ΕΥΣΕΒΟΥΣ ΦΙΛΟΠΑΤΟΡΟΣ on l., Sandan standing r., holding double-headed axe in l. hand and flower in r. on back of horned lion-griffin r.

Outer right controls
(above and below)

Reference: San Rafael, California, MNL collection, ex Pecunem 23, 5 October 2014, lot 484.

This is the first coin known for the king at Tarsus. It is especially notable for its use of a pi-control similar to that previously employed by Antiochus IX and Seleucus VI at the city. It is overstruck on a host coin that had this same control, but apparently a different legend. It seems likely that the host is either an unrecorded variety of Antiochus IX drachm or an entirely unknown drachm of Seleucus VI.

SCADS32 Antiochus Hierax SC 836Ad

Silver tetradrachm, Apollo on omphalos type

Obv.: Diademed head of young king r., probably Antiochus Hierax.

Rev.: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ on r., ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ on l., Apollo, slight drapery on thigh, seated l. on omphalos, testing arrow and resting l. hand on grounded bow.

Outer left control (above): SATYR MASK (recut over CRESCENT?)

Outer left, below (a) and exergue (b) controls

Reference: USA (CT), J. Guberman coll., ex VCoins store 2009.

The recut crescent-shaped symbol may perhaps be the top portion of a Satyr mask.

SCADS31 Antiochus Hierax SC 836Ad

Silver tetradrachm, Apollo on omphalos type

Obv.: Diademed head of young king r., probably Antiochus Hierax.

Rev.: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ on r., ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ on l., Apollo, slight drapery on thigh, seated l. on omphalos, testing arrow and resting l. hand on grounded bow, dotted border.

Outer left control(above): SATYR MASK

Reference: Private California collection.

SCADS30 Antiochus Hierax SC836Ad

Silver tetradrachm, Apollo on omphalos type

Obv.: Diademed head of young king r.

Rev.: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ on r., ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ on l., Apollo, slight drapery on thigh, seated l. on omphalos, testing arrow and resting l. hand on grounded bow.

Controls (in exergue): (Uncertain, perhaps CRAB) to l. and XX to r.

Obverse die link with SC 836.1.5.

Reference: Forum VCoins, uncertain date.

SCADS29 Antiochus Hierax SC 835Ad

Silver tetradrachm, draped Apollo on omphalos type

Obv: Diademed head of young king r.

Rev.: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ on r., ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ on l., Apollo, draped, seated l. on omphalos, testing arrow and resting l. hand on grounded bow.

Controls (in exergue): FACING PAN HEAD to l. and FACING LION HEAD to r.

Reference: Roma 7, 22 March 2014, lot 820.

Obverse die link with SC 836.1.5.

SCADS28 Antiochus Hierax SC 835.6Ad

Silver tetradrachm, Apollo on omphalos type

Obv.: Diademed head of young king r., probably Antiochus Hierax.

Rev.: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ on r., ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ on l., Apollo, draped, seated l. on omphalos, testing arrow and resting l. hand on grounded bow.

Obverse die link with SC 835.2-6.

Hoard: 2012 Commerce 190s Hoard.

Reference: Gemini 11, 12 January 2014, lot 230.

SCADS27 Seleucus II

Silver drachm, standing Apollo with bow type

Obv.: Diademed head of Seleucus II r., no border.

Rev.: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ on r., ΣΕΛΕΥΚΟΥ on l., Apollo standing l., testing arrow and resting l. hand on grounded bow, no border

Inner left controls:
a above b

Reference: Copenhagen, M. Andersen collection, ex Joron-Derem, 26 November 2013, lot 14b.

This drachm is associated with the tetradrachms SC 648 and 649. This denomination was previously unknown for “Perhaps Smyrna.”

SCADS26 Seleucus II SC 644Ad

Silver Tetradrachm, Apollo with tripod type

Obv.: Dademed head of Seleucus II r. clean-shaven, dotted border.

Rev.: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ on r., ΣΕΛΕΥΚΟΥ on l., Apollo standing l., testing arrow and resting elbow on tall tripod, no border.

Control (inner l.): DOVE flying l.

Reference: San Rafael, California, MNL collection, ex Roma 7, 22 March 2014, lot 819.

The pellets or dots on the obverse, a number of which form lines or clusters and appear to be artifacts and not die flaws or rust, are unexplained.

SCADS25 Seleucus II SC Ad137 Corr.

Obv.: Diademed head of Seleucus II r. with long sideburn, dotted border.

Rev.: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ on r., ΣΕΛΕΥΚΟΥ on l., Apollo standing l., testing arrow and resting l. elbow on tall tripod, no border.

Controls(?): TWO WINGS, ONE UP THE SECOND DOWN, ON LION-FOOTED PEDESTAL?

Reference: SC Ad 137 = Lanz 151, 30 Jun. 2011, 528,

The reverse is slightly double struck but the control is evidently not the leafy branch that was originally recorded in SC. A sharper example is needed to determine what was intended. The apparent control may actually be a feature on the flan (an overstruck host coin?) rather than an intentional control cut into the die.

SCADS24 Antiochus II SC 518Ad

Silver Tetradrachm, Apollo on omphalos type

Obv.: Diademed head of Antiochus II r.

Rev.: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ on r., ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ on l., Apollo, slight drapery on thigh, seated l. on omphalos, testing arrow and resting l. hand on grounded bow.

Controls (in exergue): ΑΝ ΑΣ

Reference: The New York Sale 3, 12 December 2000, lot 161

SCADS23 Antiochus II SC 518Ad

Silver Tetradrachm, Apollo on omphalos type

Obv.: Diademed head of Antiochus II r.

Rev.: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ on r., ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ on l., Apollo, slight drapery on thigh, seated l. on omphalos, testing arrow and resting l. hand on grounded bow.

Reference: Hirsch 256, 5 May 2008, lot 350

Corrects the reading of SC 518c.

SCADS22 Antiochus II (or Antiochus Hierax) SC 492 Corr.

ANTIOCHUS II (OR ANTIOCHUS HIERAX)

Silver tetradrachm, Apollo on ompnalos type

Obv.: Head of idealized young king to r., wearing winged diadem, dotted border.

Rev.: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ on r., ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ on l., Apollo, slight drapery on thigh, seated l. on omphalos and resting l. hand on grounded bow.

Outer right (a) and exergue (b) controls

Reference: CNG 96, 14 May 2014, lot 537.

This entry makes a minor correction to the exergue control.

SC 492 notes that this coin may be an issue of Antiochus Hierax.

SCADS18 Antiochus IX SC 2347c

EP MINT, IN CILICIA, WEST OF TARSUS

Silver tetradrachm, Athena Nicephorus type

Obv.: Head of Antiochus IX r. fillet border.

Rev.: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ in two lines on r., ΦΙΛΟΠΑΤΟΡΟΣ on l., Athena standing l., holding Nike and resting l. hand on shield, spear behind, laurel wreath border.

Controls (outer l.): EP above N (possibly engraved over another control).

Reference: Tupelo, MS, B. Bowlin collection, ex Gorny & Mosch 191, 11 October 2010, lot 1651.

Obverse die link with SC 2347 and SCADS17 (SC 2347b).

SCADS17 Antiochus IX SC 2347b

ΕΡ MINT, IN CILICIA, WEST OF TARSUS

Silver tetradrachm, Athena Nicephorus type

Obv.: Diademed head of Antiochus IX r., diadem ends falling straight behind, fillet border

Rev.: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ in two lines on r., ΦΙΛΟΠΑΤΟΡΟΣ on l., Athena standing l., holding Nike and resting l. hand on shield, spear behind, laurel wreath border.

Controls (outer l.): ΕΡ above Θ.

Reference: CNG EAuction 236, 7 July 2010, lot 202.

Obv. die link with SC 2347 and SCADS18 (SC 2347c).

SCADS13 Antiochus III SC 1117.3Ad

UNCERTAIN MINT 67, IN NORTHERN MESOPOTAMIA, PERHAPS CARRHAE

Silver tetradrachm, Apollo on omphalos type

Obv.: Dademed head of Antiochus r. (Type Ai), with youthful features, long sideburn, and hair in bangs over forehead, diadem ends falling in gentle waves, dotted border.

Rev.: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ on r., ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ on l., Apollo slight drapery on thigh, seated l. on omphalos, testing arrow and resting l. hand on grounded bow.

Outer left control (a) possibly recut over earlier control (b)

Reference: Private collection, California, ex Pecunem 21, 7 September 2014, lot 316.

Obverse die links with SC 1117.1-3. If the reading of the recut control is correct, it would validate Newell’s original association of Seleucid Coins‘ Uncertain Mint 67 issues with Susa.

SCADS12 Antiochus III SC 1117.2 Corr.

UNCERTAIN MINT 67, IN NORTHERN MESOPOTAMIA, PERHAPS CARRHAE

Silver tetradrachm, Apollo on omphalos type

Obv.: Dademed head of Antiochus III r. (Type Ai), with youthful features, long sideburn, and hair in bangs over forehead, diadem ends falling in gentle waves, dotted border.

Rev.: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ on r., ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ on l., Apollo slight drapery on thigh, seated l. on omphalos, testing arrow and resting l. hand on grounded bow.

Reference: Gorny & Mosch 216, 15 October 2013, lot 2622.

Obverse die links with SC 1117.1-3 and SCADS13 (SC 1117.3Ad).

The control is clear on this example.

SCADS11 Antiochus III SC 1115Ad

PA MINT, IN NORTHERN MESOPOTAMIA

Silver tetradrachm, Apollo on omphalos type

Obv.: Diademed head of Antiochus III r. (Type D), with fleshed out features, touseled, markedly receding hairline, fillet border.

Rev.: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ on r., ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ on l., Apollo, nude, seated l. on omphalos, testing arrow and resting l. hand on grounded bow.

Inner left (a) and inner right (b) controls

Reference: Copenhagen, M. Andersen collection, ex Eukratides VCoins store, April 2013.