Did barracks exist in the middle ages?

Did barracks exist in the middle ages?

We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.

In many medieval RTS games soldiers come out of a building named 'Barracks'. Where did medieval soldiers actually train ? Did such specialised buildings exist ? Most peasants probably got no training at all, and nobles trained at home I suppose, but what about levy troops that did train ?

While the concept of the barracks was in use in Roman times, the concept of a standing army fell out of use by the Middle Ages:

The use of mercenaries by the English is not surprising, since the old "feudal" system of raising armies (a system that had never really worked on a large scale) had been pretty much abandoned in Europe.

As such, knights and the like did have specialized training areas (as under livery and maintenance), but the bulk of armies was composed of mercenaries and the self-trained. This is, incidentally, why the English longbow and quarterstaff took off; the bow was already used by peasants to hunt, and the quarterstaff was popular among the peasantry for self-defense.

Main keywords of the article below: exist?", middle, published, "did, really, exist, hans-ulrich, niemitz, 1995, paper, ages, titled.

Dr. Hans-Ulrich Niemitz published a paper in 1995 titled "Did the Early Middle Ages Really Exist?" in which he claims they did not. [1] If the Middle Ages didn't exist, then Muhammad and the initial spread of Islam couldn't have occurred - at least not when we think it did - which opens up a whole other can of timeline worms (Read my upcoming comic: Timeline Worms !). [2] Even outside of refuting Illig's specific claims, there's a ton of evidence that the Middle Ages did, in fact, exist. [2]

THE CONSPIRACY THEORY: No wonder the Dark Ages were so dark--they didn't really exist. [3]

The Phantom Time Theory says that the years AD 614 through 911, a period commonly known in standard history as the Early Middle Ages, never happened. [4] Illig says that the Middle Ages - a period that includes the collapse of the Roman Empire, the rise of Islam, the rise (and fall) of the Byzantine Empire, and the Viking Age, among other foundational epochs - didn’t happen, and were at some point made up by the academic establishment, through a series of blunders and a heavy reliance on antique documents, which he believes are unreliable. [4] According to German historian Heribert Illig, the year is actually 1720, the Gregorian calendar is a lie, and a chunk of Middle Ages was completely made up. [1] MEANWHILE, BACK ON EARTH: Needless to say, historians aren't convinced that a large chunk of the Middle Ages were faked. [3] It is not inconceivable that kingdoms and the Roman Catholic Church of the Middle Ages saw it politically and socially feasible to task the monks (who were really the only class of people for whom literacy was widespread) to the recording of history as the Church or a particular kingdom or royal family saw fit. [5] For most of the Middle Ages (ie the Fifth to Fifteenth Centuries) not only did the Church not bother pursuing so-called witches, but its teaching was actually that witches did not even exist. [6] The late Middle Ages shade imperceptibly into the equally vague period known as "the Renaissance": and it was during "the Renaissance" (and, later, during "the Reformation" and "the Enlightenment") that people began talking about the "the Middle Ages" or even "the Dark Ages," writing off the preceding ten centuries as a useless detour. [7] Middle Ages, the period in European history from the collapse of Roman civilization in the 5th century ce to the period of the Renaissance (variously interpreted as beginning in the 13th, 14th, or 15th century, depending on the region of Europe and on other factors). [8] Still others argue for the inclusion of the old periods Middle Ages, Renaissance, and Reformation into a single period beginning in late antiquity and ending in the second half of the 16th century. [9] Some scholars have advocated extending the period defined as late antiquity ( c. 250- c. 750 ce ) into the 10th century or later, and some have proposed a Middle Ages lasting from about 1000 to 1800. [9] In the Sixteenth Century and again in the Eighteenth Century, ie after the Middle Ages, there were periods in which doctors claimed bathing was harmful and in which people avoided washing too regularly. [6] I want to put in a good word for the early Middle Ages as a time period that is well worth studying, and not just because it produced a lot of interesting texts and beautiful art. [7] Although once regarded as a time of uninterrupted ignorance, superstition, and social oppression, the Middle Ages are now understood as a dynamic period during which the idea of Europe as a distinct cultural unit emerged. [9] When we talk about the Middle Ages, typically, we’re just talking about Europe--you could theoretically talk about "medieval" China if you want to designate the same group of centuries, but since Chinese history is divided into a completely different set of periods based on its own civilizational timeline, that doesn’t make a lot of sense. [7] In his lecture there, Horst Fuhrmann, president of the Monumenta Germaniae Historica, described how some documents forged by the Roman Catholic Church during the Middle Ages were created hundreds of years before their "great moments" arrived, after which they were embraced by medieval society. [5] Migration period, also called Dark Ages or Early Middle Ages, the early medieval period of western European history--specifically, the time (476-800 ce ) when there was no Roman (or Holy Roman ) emperor in the West or, more generally, the period between about 500 and 1000, which was marked by frequent warfare and a virtual disappearance of urban life. [10] During late antiquity and the early Middle Ages, political, social, economic, and cultural structures were profoundly reorganized, as Roman imperial traditions gave way to those of the Germanic peoples who established kingdoms in the former Western Empire. [9] It has been traditionally held that by the 14th century the dynamic force of medieval civilization had been spent and that the late Middle Ages were characterized by decline and decay. [9] In the Middle Ages millions of women were burned by the Inquisition as witches and witch burnings were a common occurrence in Medieval times. [6] It clearly says Early Middle Ages, not the entire era that includes the other two time periods. [5] …historical period sometimes called the Dark Ages, Late Antiquity, or the Early Middle Ages. [10] The period of European history extending from about 500 to 1400-1500 ce is traditionally known as the Middle Ages. [8] I started watching The Early Middle Ages by Professor Daileader and couldn't stop. It is a fascinating period that is often overlooked in history classes. [11] It was written by an elderly scholar of 20 th -century history who, by his own admission, had never studied the Middle Ages before, or consulted any primary sources from the period. [7] The Middle Ages was a period of filth and squalor and people rarely washed and would have stunk and had rotten teeth. [6] Most people, if they think of the Middle Ages at all, think of them as the "Dark Ages," the long stretch of obscure barbarism between the glory that was Rome and the other glory that was the Renaissance. [7] Many historians have questioned the conventional dating of the beginning and end of the Middle Ages, which were never precise in any case and cannot be located in any year or even century. [9] For starters, it’s a huge swathe of historical time: the Middle Ages encompass approximately the years 500-1500. [7] The Church did not teach that the earth was flat at any time in the Middle Ages. [6] Contrary to the myth and to the popular misconception, there is not one single example of anyone being burned at the stake for anything to do with science in the Middle Ages, nor is there any example of science being suppressed by the Medieval Church. [6] The Hollywood image of Medieval warfare as unskilled, disorganised chaos where knights bent on individual glory led armies of peasant levies has its origin largely in one book - Sir Charles Oman's The Art of Warfare in the Middle Ages (1885). [6] Soap first began to be used widely in the Middle Ages (the Romans and Greeks did not use soap) and soap makers had their own guilds in most larger Medieval towns and cities. [6] …Renaissance were known to the Middle Ages as well, while the Classical texts "discovered" by the humanists were often not originals but medieval copies preserved in monastic or cathedral libraries. [8] Britannica Classic: The Medieval Mind The tensions and conflicts of the Middle Ages are conveyed through its architecture and through the writings of medieval Christians. [8] By the second half of the Middle Ages (1000-1500 AD) the wind and water-powered agarian revolution of the previous few centuries made Christian Europe into a rich, populous and expanding power. [6] Communication in the Early Middle Ages was not quite what it is today, and information rested in so very few hands that I'm inclined to say those years could not have reliably had everyone (throughout Europe, or throughout the world) on the same page. [5] Even in the early Middle Ages, all kinds of high-status goods were transported from very distant shores to various European lands: silk from China spices from Asia, brought to Europe via the Middle East amber and furs from the Baltic. [12] The Middle Ages, the book confidently informed us, were a thousand-year period during which literally nothing happened. [7] The early Middle Ages (500-1000), however, still get a pretty bad rap: it’s thought of, even by some academics, as a period of cultural and technological stagnation. [7] As Professor Daileader points out, given the period's dismal reputation and its temporal remoteness from the 21st century, one might wonder why the histories of the later Roman Empire and the Early Middle Ages should command our attention. [11] Even if its accomplishments pale somewhat in comparison to those of the Late Middle Ages or the Italian Renaissance, those later developments are nonetheless built upon foundations established during the Early Middle Ages. [11] Typically, the giant block of "the Middle Ages" is split into roughly three parts: the early Middle Ages (500-1000), the high Middle Ages (1000-1300), and the late Middle Ages (1300-1500). [7]

The Phantom Time Hypothesis suggests that the early Middle Ages (614-911 A.D.) never happened, but were added to the calendar long ago either by accident, by misinterpretation of documents, or by deliberate falsification by calendar conspirators. [5] There are records BEFORE and AFTER the Middle Ages which have the correct, ie., REAL TIME dates in correlation with expected visits by Halleys Comet. [5] Although Neil deGrasse Tyson cautions Flat Earthers that their thinking is " five centuries regressed," educated people in the Middle Ages never believed the world was flat. [7] When people talk about "the Renaissance’, they usually mean the very self-conscious embrace of classical models in literature, art, architecture and learning found at the end of the Middle Ages. [12] The idea that people in the Middle Ages did not wash is based on a number of misconceptions and myths. [6] There were some witch trials in the Middle Ages, and these became more widespread in German-speaking lands in the 15th century, but those doing the prosecuting were almost always civic authorities rather than ecclesiastical ones. [12] Far from being persecuted by the Church, all of the scientists of the Middle Ages were themselves churchmen. [6] None of this is anything especially new: white supremacists have a well-documented fondness for the Middle Ages, or rather, whatever Wonderbread version of the Middle Ages was being acted out on Hollywood soundstages in the 1950s. [7] This article is about some years that we're introduced during the Early Middle Ages. [5] How should we think of the Middle Ages, then? Well, I don’t know. [7] This belief in universal love crops up too in one of the best-beloved works of the high Middle Ages, the "Showings" of Julian of Norwich, which is the first known work in English by a female author. [7] For much of the Middle Ages, the main message that churchmen gave in regard to magic was that it was foolish nonsense that didn’t work. [12] Here we go, below is a list of comet sightings listed in history that span the Middle Ages and are confirmed with back-calculations of expected dates of visits by Halleys Comet. [5] Rome may not have "fallen" in the dramatic fashion that’s sometimes popularly imagined, but the societies that were once territorially encompassed by the western Roman Empire did change a lot during the Middle Ages. [7] Such concerns as this VeryInteresting article brings up are the mental gymnastics of a modern age, hardly of interest to the pragmatism of the Middle Ages. [5] To understand fully the High Middle Ages or the Italian Renaissance, it is necessary to understand the Early Middle Ages," he states. [11] If these events (whose dates can be readily calculated from now, ie. halleys Comet visits every 76yrs) appear in the correct places within the Middle Ages then the Middle Ages must have existed. [5] Surely this, especially when compared with other astronomical and natural events (I'm sure there would be records of earthquakes and more importantly volcanic eruptions that could be easily dated) would be more than sufficient to prove that the Middle Ages existed. [5] I just realised. Middle Ages culture was strongly influenced by astronomical events such as eclipses and cometary visits. [5] By this reasoning the Middle ages occured because they are documented by their correct dates in historical accounts with reference to actual events. [5] T he Middle Ages are in the public imagination these days more than they were previously--and not just because of all of us have at least one friend who won’t shut up about Game of Thrones. [7] Christian moralists and churchmen in the Middle Ages did warn against excessive bathing. [6] Many of the songs have strong affinities with Arab musical forms, reflecting the fact that much of the Iberian peninsula was under Muslim governance throughout the Middle Ages, and that there was, despite frequent political and religious conflicts, considerable cultural interchange between Christian and Islamic kingdoms. [7] The Middle Ages famously features great examples of extreme religiosity: mystics, saints, the flagellants, mass pilgrimage, and the like. [12] It says nothing about the Middle Ages so you couldn't base your opinion on the bible even if it were a true text. [5]

According to quantum mechanics nothing really exists in a stable state unless it is observed. [5]

The doctrine of the resurrection of the body in the Middle Ages -- people's ways of thinking about what comes back at the end of time -- was really a way of thinking about identity in all three senses of the word: who I am, what characterizes me, and most importantly for the medieval discussion, how one can be the same person not only over time, but into eternity. [13] It was really as a result of that that I decided that I wanted to work on the Middle Ages. [13] Without that aspect of overwhelming religion, he said, "you can't really get the same exact feeling of what it would have been like to be in the Middle Ages and fight similar wars." [14]

Dr. Hans-Ulrich Niemitz published a paper in 1995 titled Did the Early Middle Ages Really Exist? in which he claims, no they did not. [15]

Timeline The Middle Ages or medieval time is believed to have started with the fall of the Roman Empire in 476 and to have lasted about 1,000 years until about 1450. [16] Two caveats: Middle Ages are roughly defined as the time between the fall of the Roman Empire in A.D. 476 and the Protestant Reformation, which began in 1517 and wrapped up around 1648, though historians do quibble about the exact definition of "medieval." [14] Another reason why the Middle Ages are often called the Dark Ages is because, compared with other eras, historians don't know as much about this time. [17] As for logic, the great historian of logic I. M. Bocheski (, pp. 10-18) remarked that the later Middle Ages was--along with the ancient period from roughly 350-200 BCE and the recent period from Boole and Peano on--one of the three great, original periods in the history of logic. [18] Ferris: Beginning in the 1980s you made a name for yourself in medieval history with your works such as Jesus as Mother: Studies in the Spirituality of the High Middle Ages, and Holy Feast and Holy Fast: The Religious Significance of Food to Medieval Women. [13] While the early middle ages had produced few orgininal literary works, the high middle ages produced all sorts of impressive stuff: plays, satires, poems, etc. One of the best examples of medieval literature is the Song of Roland. [19] While it is important to emphasize this absence of primary texts of Greek philosophy in the Latin Middle Ages, it is also important to recognize that the medievals knew a good deal about Greek philosophy anyway. [18] The most impressive achievements of the medieval universities were in theology and philosophy, and the revival off these disciplines is another source of ethical guidance and emotional fulfillment in the high middle ages. [19]

The period between the Romans and this idealization in the early modern era became called the medium aevum-- the "ages in the middle," or the Middle Ages. [20] The idea of the whole Middle Ages as a "dark age" therefore actually comes from the early modern Renaissance and humanist movements and their denigration of their immediate forebears and idolization and idealization of the Greeks and Romans. [20] My students usually think of the Middle Ages as a time of Barbarism and superstition, a "dark age" when civilization had collapsed. [19] Bynum: The most fundamental misconception among the general public is that the Middle Ages was a dark and bleak time characterized by rampant misogyny and therefore by an almost complete lack of -- to use the current buzzword -- female "agency." [13] His authority has been felt much more broadly, and for a much longer time, than Aristotle's, whose role in the Middle Ages was comparatively minor until rather late. [18] Oxford and Cambridge also date from the early-thirteenth century, although their period of greatest vigor in the Middle Ages came in the late-thirteenth and early-fourteenth century. [18] Roughly speaking, the Dark Ages corresponds to the Middle Ages, or from 500 to 1500 AD. This period has traditionally been thought of as dark, in the sense of having very little scientific and cultural advancement. [17] Southerners are drawn to the Middle Ages as a period that is both the root of some modern things and "other than" modern things also it is a complicated legacy that is not all "good." [13] &hellip In view of all this disagreement over the duration of the Middle Ages, perhaps we should content ourselves with saying that our period extends from the close of the classical period to the beginning of the Renaissance. [18] The idea that there was no innovation in the Middle Ages is simply wrong--it was a period of remarkable inventiveness. [20] Many of the greatest universities (Oxford, Cambridge, etc.) get their start during this period and much of what we do in the universities of today is a direct hold-over from the middle ages. [19] Those with an animus against Christianity in general and the Catholic Church in particular like to cling to the old idea of the Middle Ages as a "dark age" because it suits their preconceptions about religion and forms a neat little fable where modernity is "good" and the medieval period is "bad." [20] Some scholars perceive Europe as having been plunged into darkness when the Roman Empire fell in around 500 AD. The Middle Ages are often said to be dark because of a supposed lack of scientific and cultural advancement. [17] The Middle Ages begin, we are told, with the death of Theodosius in 395, or with the settlement of Germanic tribes in the Roman Empire, or with the sack of Rome in 410, or with the fall of the Western Roman Empire (usually dated C.E. 476), or even as late as the Moslem occupation of the Mediterranean. [18] They also didn't pay much attention to Greek and Roman science, logic, and philosophy, since that had already been revived in the Middle Ages, but they idolized Greek and Roman literature, drama, and history instead. [20] They denigrated the beautiful and technically advanced architecture of the later Middle Ages as barbaric (it's still called "gothic" to this day) and aped Greek and Roman styles. [20] This illustrates both the preeminence of the University of Paris in the thirteenth century and the increasing internationalization of education in the later Middle Ages in general. [18] Basically, everything the Middle Ages knew about logic up to the middle of the twelfth century was contained in these books. [18] Aquinas enjoyed a far greater authority in the late-nineteenth and the first half of the twentieth century than perhaps he ever did in the Middle Ages. [18] Most medievalists today put an emphasis on the "ages" part -- plural! Most would say that there are at least two middle ages -- an early medieval period that is a preparation and then a Middle Age proper running from around 1050 right on down to Luther and the Reformation of the sixteenth century. [13] Ferris: You have devoted an enormous amount of time exploring the role of women in the Middle Ages, everything from saints to mystics to heretics. [13] The prejudice against the Middle Ages is also driven by some strong cultural currents in our own time. [20] Our modern conception of the Middle Ages, which emerged out of the Victorians’ fascination with Neo-Gothic and Pre-Raphaelite aesthetics, was actually based upon these early modern retellings of medieval life. [21] C., 1984, "Medieval: The Middle Ages," Speculum, 59: 745-56. (Presidential address to the annual meeting of the Medieval Academy of America, 1984.) [18] My students are always saying to me, "Not much happened in the Middle Ages, did it?" Well, it was more than a thousand years. [13] Now Western Europe was not doing so well in the early part of the Middle Ages. [19] Why was Western Europe so successful during the Middle Ages? What was the secret of that success? What did that society do right? Perhaps the easiest way to put it (and I bet you can guess) is that Western European society during the Middle Ages did an excellent job providing physical security, ethical guidance and emotional fulfillment to its members. [19] Despite the misogyny, which was rampant, and which in some ways got worse in the later Middle Ages, there were clearly women who reacted against it. [13] In the later Middle Ages there were probably more women visionaries than men, and some of them -- for example Catherine of Siera or Joan of Arc -- had enormous influence. [13] Some of the misconceptions about women in the Middle Ages are simply misconceptions about people in the Middle Ages. [13] People in the early Middle Ages were every bit as intelligent as their Roman-era forebears and also just as smart as we are. [20] Slavery In the Middle Ages, there were people whose lives were governed by their lords. [16] Recently, I have also been looking at what we can call literature of entertainment -- the things people in the high Middle Ages wrote about the marvels of the world, travel literature, chronicles, and collections of miracles and ghost stories. [13] Debate continues to rage among historians over whether the Middle Ages were, indeed, dark or not. [17] The myth of the Middle Ages as a "dark age" does not lie in the fact that things declined markedly after the fall of Rome--they did. [20] The other reason is almost the contradiction of that: The Middle Ages in many ways is not like the modern world. [13] The Galenic way of thinking about the body in the Middle Ages -- that the body is basically a set of four humors -- is very different from the way of thinking that begins to prevail in the Renaissance with Vesalius and others, who think of the body in terms of anatomy and organ systems. [13] William R. Ferris: The Middle Ages, which is your scholarly world, runs from the fall of the Roman Empire to Renaissance humanism. [13] The end of the Middle Ages in about 1450 led to the beginning of the Renaissance. [16] We talk about the Middle Ages because the Renaissance humanists thought of a middle age that came between them and classical antiquity. [13] We do not actually understand modern constitutional government if we do not understand the central and later Middle Ages. [13] The resultant rise in production levels and standards of living from these technologies, combined with the end of the waves of invasion and greater political stability, paved the way for an upswing in the later Middle Ages. [20] He was subject to ecclesiastical censure during his lifetime, a fact that no doubt contributes to the relatively few explicit citations of him in the later Middle Ages. [18] When the series is criticized for its violence, treatment of women, or willingness to ice beloved characters, rejoinders from Martin and his defenders often amount to “that&aposs just what life was like in the Middle Ages. [21] No doubt such violence existed in the Middle Ages, historians say, but women had some protections. [14] Ferris: Let me ask you about your most recent book, The Resurrection of the Body, which looks at how men and women in the Middle Ages viewed the relationship between themselves and their bodies. [13] The originators of the notion of the Middle Ages were thinking primarily of the so called "Latin West," the area, roughly speaking, of Roman Catholicism. [18] Boethius is one of the main sources for the transmission of ancient Greek philosophy to the Latin West during the first half of the Middle Ages. [18] Except for roughly the first half of the Timaeus, the Middle Ages did not know the actual texts of Plato. [18] In the case of Plato, the Middle Ages for all practical purposes had only the first part of the Timaeus (to 53c), hardly a typical Platonic dialogue, in a translation and commentary by a certain Calcidius (or Chalcidius). [18] During the first part of the Middle Ages, Platonic and neo-Platonic influences dominated philosophical thinking. [18] A world that actually reflected daily life in the High Middle Ages (12th-century Europe) would be one without large cities or global networks. [21] Hyman, Arthur, Walsh, James J., and Williams, Thomas (eds.), 2010, Philosophy in the Middle Ages: The Christian, Islamic and Jewish Traditions, 3rd edition, Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing Company 1st edition, 1978 2nd edition, 1983. [18] Prior to Abelard, philosophy in the Middle Ages had not been an exclusively academic affair. [18] The beginning of the Middle Ages is called the Dark Ages because the great civilizations of Rome and Greece had been conquered. [16] The Dark Ages is a term often used synonymously with the Middle Ages. [17] Important to the survival of western Europe during the early Middle Ages was the rise of an occasional great leader, e.g. a man like the Frankish king Charlemagne (768-814). [19] Another tremendously successful civilization developed in Western Europe during the Middle Ages. [19] There has been a shift from looking at institutions, politics, and government as the building blocks of much what is considered to be typical of the Western tradition, including liberalism and constitutional government, to looking at the Middle Ages as different and more "primitive." [13] In metaphysics, the Middle Ages has a well deserved reputation for philosophical excellence. [18] Several reference works I have consulted simply assert that the Middle Ages ended in 1500, presumably on New Year's Eve. [18] Bynum: There is plenty of work to be done, for both Middle Ages. [13] Entertainment Music and art were important in the Middle Ages. [16] Important in terms of ethical guidance and emotional fulfillment in the High Middle Ages is a revival of art. [19] The chairman of the National Endowment for the Humanities, William R. Ferris, spoke recently with medievalist Caroline Walker Bynum about the legacy of the Middle Ages to the modern world. [13] Although the Consolation is justly famous, both in our own day and in the Middle Ages, Boethius's long-term importance probably rests more on his translations and commentary activity. [18] What I was exploring was the way in which that doctrine -- and the complicated need to figure out what that doctrine meant -- became throughout the Middle Ages a way of thinking about self. [13] I probably knew that I wanted to study the Middle Ages long before I knew that doing it as a historian was going to be the particular disciplinary route. [13] In 1991 Heribert Illig suggested that much of what we know of the early Middle Ages did not take place. [22] Another terminus often given for the Middle Ages is the so-called "Revival of Learning," that marvelous era when Humanist scholars "discovered" classical texts and restored them to mankind after the long Gothic night. [18] The barbarians were prevalent in most of the European nations of the Middle Ages. [16]

The Middle Ages of the European world covers approximately 1,000 years of art history in Europe, and at times extended into the Middle East and North Africa. [23] You'll notice that a great deal of the debunkery here involves 14th century England, thanks to works like The Time Traveler's Guide to Medieval England by Ian Mortimer and the works of Joseph Gies and Frances Gies (although another source, Misconceptions About the Middle Ages, covers a bit more ground). [24] The fact is, in the Early Middle Ages, the North Atlantic region was warming up so much so that at the opening of the High Middle Ages (1100 AD), the region was 100 years into an event now known as the Medieval Warm Period. [25] The Late Middle Ages, in contrast, was a period of contraction and crisis, the age of the Black Death, the Great Western Schism, and the 100 Years War. [26] While the term dark ages is no longer widely used, it may best be described as Early Middle Ages -- the period following the decline of Rome in the Western World. [27] Just as the devastating invasions of the ninth and tenth centuries were followed by the rebirth and expansion of European society in the Central Middle Ages, so too the "calamitous" fourteenth century was followed by another period of prodigious growth and change. [26] This term, "the Middle Ages," was first used by Italian intellectuals during the Renaissance of the fifteenth century to denigrate the period that separated them from the authors and artists they so admired in classical antiquity (ancient Greece and Rome). [26] In its origins, the concept of the Middle Ages frames the period negatively as a time of cultural backwardness, a period in which the accomplishments of classical civilization were eclipsed by ignorance and superstition. [26] James G. Patterson, in his essay "The Myth of the Mounted Knight" from Misconceptions About the Middle Ages, explains that while the image of the mounted knight might have been a popular one during Medieval times, it didn't match the reality of warfare. [24] In her essay "Witches and the Myth of the Medieval 'Burning Time,'" from Misconceptions About the Middle Ages, Anita Obermeier tells us that during the 10th century, the Catholic Church wasn't interested in trying witches for heresy it was more interested in eradicating heretical superstitions about "night-flying creatures." [24] Benedictine monasticism is also an enduring legacy of medieval creativity: in the United States alone there are over fifty monasteries that follow the rule St. Benedict of Nursia wrote in the sixth century AD. The most obvious enduring institutional legacy of the Middle Ages, indeed, is the very institution we are in today: the university. [26] This image of early medieval kingship nicely sums up the cultural accomplishment of the early Middle Ages: it shows how Germanic traditions, Christianity, and the remains of Roman culture came together to form something new. [26] It introduced the idea of realistic images in art and it laid the groundwork for the Romanesque period which was to come in the High Middle Ages. [25] Even in my church history classes, after I've spent weeks arguing that we need to study each period of church history fairly, recognizing that every generation has its shares of both flaws and successes, I find students struggling to believe that there's anything worth learning from the church in the Middle Ages. [28] This period, known to historians as the Early Middle Ages, is still referred to by most laymen as the Dark Ages. [25] The Early Middle Ages is generally dated from the fall of the Western Roman Empire (476 CE) to approximately 1000, which marks the beginning of the Romanesque period. [23] The Early Middle Ages began with the fall of the Roman Empire and ended in the early 11th century its art encompasses vast and divergent forms of media. [23] Art became more stylized, losing the classical naturalism of Graeco-Roman times, for much of the Middle Ages. [23] If you were wanting to die a martyr by starvation, the Early Middle Ages were not the time to do it! As a consequence of the excellent weather and greater agricultural knowledge, the West did extremely well. [25] This is a sticky topic, but the fact is, during the Early Middle Ages, Europe had a united Church, an agreed upon canon of the Bible, and a well developed philosophical tradition. [25] Well, Uncle Fulbert remained upset by all this, and eventually sent some men to teach Abelard a lesson: They cut off his genitals! The people of Paris (being French, even in the Middle Ages) had complete sympathy with their hero Abelard, but Abelard himself was mortified. [29] Now I live on a Flat Earth where the Middle ages never existed. WTF is going on anymore with the past present and future. Blacks in 2017 acting like they are still forced to pick cotton. !00 year old statues all of a sudden pissing people off. the list goes on. [15] The first universities emerged in Western Europe in the Central Middle Ages and universities like George Mason are the direct descendants of these medieval associations of masters and students. [26] New interpretations of religious life were created in the central Middle Ages, most of them responding to the new conditions in medieval society. [26] With these chronological divisions in mind, let's begin our exploration with the beginnings of medieval civilization in the Early Middle Ages. [26] Scholars still use this term, "The Middle Ages," but our view of the period is very different from that of the Renaissance men who coined the phrase. [26] We now turn to what are called the Middle Ages, roughly the period from 1000 to 1400 ad. [29] The period we are going to study this week is called the Middle Ages. [26] The Middle Ages were not a time in which faithful Christians virtually disappeared. [28] Two of the major emporia of the early Middle Ages, Quentovic and Dorestad, were already in existence and trading with England and Denmark at this time. [30] While this eventually lead to some very tough laws, living under the legal system in the Early Middle Ages was probably the best time to live as it was still flexible and fair for the majority. [25] According to German Historian Heribert Illig the year is actually 1720, the Gregorian calendar is a lie, and a chunk of Middle Ages was completely made up. [15] The early Middle Ages, and Charlemagne's empire, came to an end when Magyar, Saracen, and Viking invasions ravaged Europe in the ninth and tenth centuries. [26] Another major difference between older narratives of the origins of the Middle Ages and current ones is the characterization of the Germanic peoples and how they entered Europe. [26] It's easy to think that people in the Middle Ages were easily divided into very broad classes: royals, nobles, knights, clergy, and toiling peasants at the very bottom. [24] Instead of a sudden "fall" of Rome in the fifth century and consequently an equally sudden beginning of the Middle Ages in either 410 or 476, we now think of a gradual transition. [26] This close relationship between the Christian Church and European rulers is a key characteristic of political life in the Middle Ages. [26] This was because over the Central Middle Ages, the leaders of the Christian Church had become monarchs. [26] This act set an extremely important precedent: the papacy throughout the Middle Ages claimed the right to crown or legitimate rulers and conversely, rulers viewed themselves as divinely ordained and as protectors of the Christian Church. [26] William of Occam, although he was a devout Christian, is often considered the turning point from the religious worldview of the Middle Ages to the scientific worldview of the Renaissance and the Modern era. [29] Fortunately for modern students of history, the term is now officially known as the Early Middle Ages a name which has no connotations at all. [25] In the Early Middle Ages we witness the birth of an astonishing and beautiful history of art and building. [25] The Classical Education (still used today in some schools) was the system used by the Universities which were created in the Early Middle Ages (the first in history). [25] In sum, from the birth of entrepreneurial capitalism to the foundation of Europe's first universities, the Middle Ages created much that is still vital and important in our world. [26] Traditional narratives of the origins of the Middle Ages used to begin with images of barbarians suddenly sweeping into western Europe and destroying the Roman Empire. [26] Contrast this image of the pope with a much earlier depiction this is Pope Gregory the Great, the most famous pope of the early Middle Ages. [26] The Hundred Years' War marked the beginning of a key political transition from the "feudal" monarchies of Middle Ages (in which monarchs had spread and consolidated their power by making vassals of powerful nobles) to "national" monarchies in which both nobles and people looked to the monarch as king of "France" or "England" more than as feudal overlord. [26] That's usually the best people can say about the middle ages. [28] Throughout the early Middle Ages, the decline of the Roman world was in full motion as various tribes assumed local power in the former provinces. [30] Its theology, its array of spiritual practices, and its governing structures (the papacy, the Roman curia, councils) were developed during the Middle Ages. [26] With the ruralization of European life in the early Middle Ages, monasteries most all of them located outside of cities, some in very isolated places became extremely important Christian institutions. [26] Besides the universities, other aspects of European culture in the central Middle Ages were connected with the rise of strong monarchies. [26] They formed new KINGDOMS that were the basis of European political development in the Middle Ages. [26] Europeans invented new heavier plows so that they could cultivate the heavier and more fertile soils of river valleys (as opposed to the lighter soil of the hillsides where agriculture was concentrated in the early Middle Ages). [26] Although still highly aristocratic, European society had achieved a great deal over the Central Middle Ages. [26] After the millennium, from 1000 to 1300, we call the "Central Middle Ages" and from 1300 to roughly 1400, is called the "Late Middle Ages." [26] Certainly monarchs developed increasingly efficient administrative methods over the Central Middle Ages and by the late Middle Ages national sentiment is more discernible. [26] In the late Middle Ages (the 1200s), Aristotle excited a lot of thought in the monks and scholars of the universities. [29] Something you might not expect about servants in English households in the late Middle Ages: they were overwhelmingly male. [24] Hugh Capet (r. 987-996) founded the line of kings -- called, from his name "Capet", the Capetians -- that would rule France into the late Middle Ages. [26] Population decline, relocations to the countryside, invasion, and migration began in Late Antiquity and continued in the Early Middle Ages. [23] None of this means that we should be blind to the failures of the church in the Middle Ages. [28] If you read a lot of books or watch a lot of movies with pseudo-Medieval settings, you may come away with a mistaken impression that you know what life in the Middle Ages was like. [24] Most illuminated manuscripts of the Early Middle Ages had lavish book covers decked with precious metal, ivory, and jewels. [23] A rise in illiteracy during the Early Middle Ages resulted in the need for art to convey complex narratives and symbolism. [23] A common belief during the Middle Ages was that women were more lustful than men. [24] In addition to enduring institutions, the Middle Ages contributed enduring monuments to Western Civilization. [26] Another contribution to western culture that some scholars attribute to the Middle Ages is romantic love. [26] The Byzantine Empire and Islam would continue to influence and have contact with the West over the Middle Ages. [26] The papacy had always claimed to have power over all Christians, and they had had their own state from the early Middle Ages. [26] We shouldn't be surprised to discover that Christians in the Middle Ages often struggled to identify the right courses of action and draw the right conclusions. [28] This was followed by baptism, which in the early middle ages was encouraged to take place on the two great Christian festivals of Easter and Pentecost (Whitsuntide). [31] Most of what we associate with childhood, however, existed for children in the middle ages: upbringing at home, play, special treatment according to age, and training for adult life and work. [31] Many scholars also place the origins of other significant characteristics of our modern world in the Middle Ages. [26] One might also argue that the modern "state" originated in the Middle Ages. [26] The concentration of historians on adults in the middle ages does insufficient justice to the fact that about one third of the population was usually under the age of 14. [31] He wrote a rule (or guide) for monastic life called the Benedictine Rule that was used by monastic communities throughout Western Europe during the Middle Ages and is still used by monastic communities today. [26]

What we call fashion did not exist during the Early Middle Ages, as clothing styles did not change quickly and people of a lower economic strata did not attempt to emulate the elite. [32] Traditionally, the Middle Ages is said to have begun when the West Roman Empire formally ceased to exist in 476. [33]

The comment has been made that all historical eras are arbitrary definitions and, therefore, how the Middle Ages is defined really has no significance. [34] The Middle Ages, or Medieval Times, in Europe was a long period of history from 500 AD to 1500 AD. That's 1000 years! It covers the time from the fall of the Roman Empire to the rise of the Ottoman Empire. [35] The Early Middle Ages, also known as the Dark Ages, or medieval times, refers to that period in European history after the fall of the Roman Empire. [32] When people use the terms Medieval Times, Middle Ages, and Dark Ages they are generally referring to the same period of time. [35]

In the early fifteenth century it was believed history had evolved from the Dark Age to a Modern period with its revival of things classical, so scholars began to write about a middle period between the Ancient and Modern, which became known as the Middle Age. [33] The Middle Ages form the middle period in a traditional division of European history into three "epochs": the classical civilization of antiquity, the Middle Ages, and the modern era. [33] In European history, the period from 400s AD until 900s AD was known as the Early Middle Ages. [36] During the Middle Ages, between about 900 and 1300, Europe experienced one of the longest periods of sustained growth in human history. [37] The period of the Middle Ages is usually dated from the fall of the Western Roman Empire in the fifth century to the beginning of the Renaissance in the fifteenth century. [33] Generally, the medieval era is divided into three periods: the Early Middle Ages, the High Middle Ages, and the Late Middle Ages. [34] Brown championed the idea of Late Antiquity, a period that was culturally distinct from both the preceding Empire and from the rest of the Middle Ages. [33] The middle period (the High Middle Ages) follows, a time of developed institutions of lordship and vassalage, castle-building and mounted warfare, and reviving urban and commercial life. [33] Although the term Middle Ages covers the years between 500 and 1500 throughout the world, this timeline is based on events specifically in Europe during that time. [35] It is equally hard to determine exactly when the Middle Ages ended, for decisive events leading to the modern age took place at different times. [38] The end of the Middle Ages can be characterized as a transformation from the medieval world to the early modern one. [34] Inventing the Middle Ages by Norman Cantor Writing from experience and with authority, Cantor makes the evolution of modern scholarship in medieval studies accessible and entertaining. [34]

RANKED SELECTED SOURCES(42 source documents arranged by frequency of occurrence in the above report)

The phantom time hypothesis is a historical conspiracy theory asserted by Heribert Illig. First published in 1991, it hypothesizes a conspiracy by the Holy Roman Emperor Otto III, Pope Sylvester II, and possibly the Byzantine Emperor Constantine VII, to fabricate the Anno Domini dating system retrospectively, in order to place them at the special year of AD 1000, and to rewrite history [1] to legitimize Otto’s claim to the Holy Roman Empire. Illig believed that this was achieved through the alteration, misrepresentation and forgery of documentary and physical evidence. [2] According to this scenario, the entire Carolingian period, including the figure of Charlemagne, is a fabrication, with a “phantom time” of 297 years (AD 614–911) added to the Early Middle Ages.

The hypothesis has never attracted any support from historians.

Heribert Illig

Illig was born in 1947 in Vohenstrauß, Bavaria. He was active in an association dedicated to Immanuel Velikovsky, catastrophism and historical revisionism, the Gesellschaft zur Rekonstruktion der Menschheits- und Naturgeschichte (English: Society for the Reconstruction of Human and Natural History). From 1989 to 1994 he acted as editor of the journal Vorzeit-Frühzeit-Gegenwart (English: Past-Early-Present). Since 1995, he has worked as a publisher and author under his own publishing company, Mantis-Verlag, and publishing his own journal, Zeitensprünge (English: Leaps in Time). Outside of his publications related to revised chronology, he has edited the works of Egon Friedell.

Before focusing on the early medieval period, Illig published various proposals for revised chronologies of prehistory and of Ancient Egypt. His proposals received prominent coverage in German popular media in the 1990s. His 1996 Das erfundene Mittelalter (English: The Invented Middle Ages) also received scholarly recensions, but was universally rejected as fundamentally flawed by historians. [3] In 1997, the journal Ethik und Sozialwissenschaften (English: Ethics and Social Sciences) offered a platform for critical discussion to Illig’s proposal, with a number of historians commenting on its various aspects. [4] After 1997, there has been little scholarly reception of Illig’s ideas, although they continued to be discussed as pseudohistory in German popular media. [5] Illig continued to publish on the “phantom time hypothesis” until at least 2013. Also in 2013, he published on an unrelated topic of art history, on German Renaissance master Anton Pilgram, but again proposing revisions to conventional chronology, and arguing for the abolition of the art historical category of Mannerism. [6]


The bases of Illig’s hypothesis include: [7][8]

  • The scarcity of archaeological evidence that can be reliably dated to the period AD 614–911, the perceived inadequacies of radiometric and dendrochronological methods of dating this period, and the over-reliance of medieval historians on written sources.
  • The presence of Romanesque architecture in tenth-century Western Europe, suggesting the Roman era was not as long ago as conventionally thought.
  • The relation between the Julian calendar, Gregorian calendar and the underlying astronomical solar or tropical year. The Julian calendar, introduced by Julius Caesar, was long known to introduce a discrepancy from the tropical year of around one day for each century that the calendar was in use. By the time the Gregorian calendar was introduced in AD 1582, Illig alleges that the old Julian calendar should have produced a discrepancy of thirteen days between it and the real (or tropical) calendar. Instead, the astronomers and mathematicians working for Pope Gregory XIII had found that the civil calendar needed to be adjusted by only ten days. (The Julian calendar day Thursday, 4 October 1582 was followed by the first day of the Gregorian calendar, Friday, 15 October 1582). From this, Illig concludes that the AD era had counted roughly three centuries which never existed.


  • The most difficult challenge to the theory is through observations in ancient astronomy, especially those of solar eclipses cited by European sources prior to 600 AD (when phantom time would have distorted the chronology). Besides several others that are perhaps too vague to disprove the phantom time hypothesis, two in particular are dated with enough precision to disprove the hypothesis with a high degree of certainty. One is reported by Pliny the Elder in 59 AD [9] and one by Photius in 418 AD. [10] Both of these dates and times have confirmed eclipses. In addition, observations during the Tang dynasty in China, and Halley’s Comet, for example, are consistent with current astronomy with no “phantom time” added. [11][12]
  • Archaeological remains and dating methods such as dendrochronology refute, rather than support, “phantom time”. [13]
  • The Gregorian reform was never purported to bring the calendar in line with the Julian calendar as it had existed at the time of its institution in 45 BC, but as it had existed in 325 AD, the time of the Council of Nicaea, which had established a method for determining the date of Easter Sunday by fixing the vernal equinox on March 21 in the Julian calendar. By 1582, the astronomical equinox was occurring on March 10 in the Julian calendar, but Easter was still being calculated from a nominal equinox on March 21. In 45 BC the astronomical vernal equinox took place around March 23. Illig’s “three missing centuries” thus correspond to the 369 years between the institution of the Julian calendar in 45 BC, and the fixing of the Easter Date at the Council of Nicaea in 325 AD. [14]
  • If Charlemagne and the Carolingian dynasty were fabricated, there would have to be a corresponding fabrication of the history of the rest of Europe, including Anglo-Saxon England, the Papacy, and the Byzantine Empire. The “phantom time” period also encompasses the life of Muhammad and the Islamic expansion into the areas of the former Roman Empire, including the conquest of Visigothic Iberia. This history too would have to be forged or drastically misdated. It would also have to be reconciled with the history of the Tang dynasty of China and its contact with Islam, such as at the Battle of Talas. [12][15]


  1. ^ Hans-Ulrich Niemitz, Did the Early Middle Ages Really Exist? pp. 9–10.
  2. ^ Fomenko, Anatoly (2007). History: Chronology 1: Second Edition. Mithec. ISBN 2-913621-07-4.
  3. ^ Johannes Fried: Wissenschaft und Phantasie. Das Beispiel der Geschichte, in: Historische Zeitschrift Band 263,2/1996, 291–316. Matthias Grässlin, Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung 1. Oktober 1996
  4. ^ EuS 1997 Heft 4. Theo Kölzer (Bonn University) refused to contribute, and the journal printed his letter of refusal instead in which Kölzer criticizes the journal for lending credibility to Illig’s “abstruse” idea. A favourable review was published by sociologist Gunnar Heinsohn, which later led to a collaboration between Illig and Heinsohn until 2011, when Heinsohn left the board of editors of Illig’s journal and published his rejection of Illig’s core idea that the figure of Charlemagne is a high medieval fiction.
  5. ^ Michael Borgolte. In: Der Tagesspiegel vom 29. Juni 1999. Stephan Matthiesen: Erfundenes Mittelalter – fruchtlose These!, in: Skeptiker 2/2001
  6. ^Meister Anton, gen. Pilgram, oder Abschied vom Manierismus (2013).
  7. ^ Illig, Heribert (2000). Wer hat an der Uhr gedreht?. Econ Verlag. ISBN 3-548-75064-8.
  8. ^ Illig, Heribert. Das erfundene Mittelalter. ISBN 3-548-36429-2.
  9. ^ Pliny the Elder. Natural History (Book II) Archived 2017-01-01 at the Wayback Machine, accessed 14 June 2017
  10. ^ Photius. Epitome of the Church History of Philosturgius, accessed 4 May 2016
  11. ^ Dieter Herrmann (2000), “Nochmals: Gab es eine Phantomzeit in unserer Geschichte?”, Beiträge zur Astronomiegeschichte 3 (in German), pp. 211–14
  12. ^ Jump up to: ab Dutch, Stephen. “Is a Chunk of History Missing?”. Archived from the original on 27 May 2011. Retrieved 14 May 2011.
  13. ^ Fößel, Amalie (1999). “Karl der Fiktive?”. Damals, Magazin für Geschichte und Kultur. No. 8. pp. 20f.
  14. ^ Karl Mütz: Die „Phantomzeit“ 614 bis 911 von Heribert Illig. Kalendertechnische und kalenderhistorische Einwände. In: Zeitschrift für Württembergische Landesgeschichte.Band 60, 2001, S. 11–23.
  15. ^ Adams, Cecil. “Did the Middle Ages Not Really Happen?”. Retrieved 9 July 2014.
  • Illig, Heribert: Enthält das frühe Mittelalter erfundene Zeit? and subsequent discussion, in: Ethik und Sozialwissenschaften 8 (1997), pp. 481–520.
  • Schieffer, Rudolf: Ein Mittelalter ohne Karl den Großen, oder: Die Antworten sind jetzt einfach, in: Geschichte in Wissenschaft und Unterricht 48 (1997), pp. 611–17.
  • Matthiesen, Stephan: Erfundenes Mittelalter – fruchtlose These!, in: Skeptiker 2 (2002).

The espionage system in medieval times

As the espionage system developed it got more complex.

People that were of low status or even invisible to the higher lords were spies.

They could gain potential information while not being noticed.

These people were from various rankings, from street orphans to merchants and all the way to military members.

With the rise of the Catholic Church, its dominance was expanding.

Fifty percent of the Church’s subjects didn’t want to be controlled by the church and they had to improvise.

A complex system of espionage was used by the church that could bribe and blackmail everyone.

The church gained massive power with its espionage system because they had extensive networks throughout society.

Later with the Crusades and the Inquisition the church gained more power and used espionage to eliminate enemies.

Rape in the Middle Ages

Woodcut illustration of the rape of Lucretia by Sextus Tarquinius (artist Zainer Johannes, XVI century) Source: Flickr, Provenance Online Project (POP)

Rape is a crime of violence that modern, enlightened society has chosen to punish strenuously. Rape is also a sexual crime resulting in the victimization of women and children. During the Middle Ages, however, neither intent nor a sense of personal responsibility was attached to rape: women had few if any advocates, living in a society that marginalized them and preferring to see rape as the product of carnal intentions or “diabolical desire.” Historians researching available records and literature demonstrate that punishments were comparatively mild and in many instances women, unable to press their accusations, were arrested on charges of false appeal.

Women in the Early Middle Ages

Among the Germanic cultures encountered first by Romans and beyond the fourth century by Christian missionaries, rape was treated as theft within the parameters of the wergild system. Christianity did little to improve the status of women, often reinforcing notions that males were intrinsically superior to females.

Women were viewed as weaker creatures, the progeny of Eve, and therefore more prone to sin than the male. Sexuality was equated with procreation. Even among the Medieval nobility, rape – as defined under modern law, was punished mildly and seen as a “prelude” to marriage, impacting a woman’s honor more than her rights as a person, especially if forced sex was not accompanied by violence.

Reporting and Punishing Rape

Research demonstrates rape was not always reported and perpetrators represented all social classes. Historian John M. Carter, in his study of rape in Medieval England, writes that, “Clerics, or those claiming to be clerics, formed the largest percentage of rapists.” Carter’s study is confined to the 13 th and 14 th Century at a time English Common Law was still competing with separate Church courts. Ecclesiastical courts tended to treat an allegation of rape with less severity than evolving secular courts.

Punishment of rape, however, may have been impacted by social class as well as who comprised the legal authority. Carter, for example, concludes that, “…when a community was willing to kill or mutilate a man for rape, the crime was considered a felony when the community was not willing to kill or mutilate a man for rape, the crime was considered less than a felony (possibly a trespass).” Additionally, poor women without means to appeal could be charged with a false accusation and further victimized through prison sentences.

Punishments in Renaissance Venice

The suicide of Lucretia, by artist Jörg Breu the Elder (16 century).

Guido Ruggiero, studying late 14 th Century society in Venice, notes disparities in punishments relative to social class: “When rape struck down the social hierarchy, it could virtually disappear as a crime.” Ruggiero notes that the victimization of women was “merely an extension” of a society used to sexual exploitation, especially among women without social status. The absence of moralistic language and records of slight punishments for rape suggest that Renaissance society, at least as depicted in Venice, was not concerned with sexual violence against women and may have viewed the modern conclusions governing power and control in rape situations as a normal part of the male-female relationship.

The listing of punishments also suggests that rape was not treated seriously. According to Ruggiero’s study, the rape of a seven-year old child resulted, in one instance, in one year of jail. In another case, three men broke into a house, raped the owner’s wife, and took property. Despite premeditation (and, in modern terms conspiracy) and theft, each man received a year in jail.

Distinctions existed between married women, unmarried virgins, and children. In several documented cases, rape perpetrators judged guilty of violating an unmarried woman were obliged to pay a fine which would be used as a dowry once the girl married. Such examples, however, may not have applied to rural peasant women or the urban poor. Researchers note that few documents – if any, recount the plight of the poor, especially in the early Middle Ages.

Possible Impacts of a Patriarchal Society

The Middle Ages was a male-dominated society guided morally by a patriarchal hierarchy. This may help account for the marginalization of women, leading to sexual violence and rape. Historian Albrecht Classen argues that, “Understanding how this form of violence was viewed and dealt with…” enables contemporary society to better cope with the realities of rape and devise attitudes that afford protection in the future.

Although he does not conclude that male-dominated societies will produce more instances of sexual violence, Classen does note that patriarchal societies tend to “sweep…under the carpet” instances of rape and sexual violence. This view corroborates other studies of rape in the Middle Ages that link notions of gender to the non-equality of sexes.

Danielle Regnier-Bohler, “Literary and Mystical Voices,” A History of Women: Silences of the Middle Ages, Christine Klapisch-Zuber, editor (The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1992)

John Marshall Carter, Rape in Medieval England: An Historical and Sociological Study (University Press of America, 1989)

Albrecht Classen, Sexual Violence and Rape in the Middle Ages: A Critical Discourse in Premodern Germany and European Literature (De Gruyter, 2011)

Frances and Joseph Gies, Women in the Middle Ages (Harper & Row, 1978)

Guido Ruggiero, The Boundaries of Eros: Sex Crime and Sexuality in Renaissance Venice (Oxford University Press, 1985)

Did barracks exist in the middle ages? - History


In the Middle Ages all books were hand-written original works of art. These “illuminated” manuscripts were so called because of their frequent incorporation of gold or sometimes silver leaf onto the page. Illumination comes from the Latin word illuminare, meaning “light up,” and when one sees one of these brilliant manuscripts in person, the term makes sense.

The earliest surviving illuminated manuscripts date from the 5th century, though it was not until about 1100 that the production of manuscripts began to flourish in earnest. This “golden age” of manuscript illumination lasted until the arrival of Gutenberg’s printing press in 1450-55, signaling the beginning of the end of hand-made illuminated manuscripts.

During the early Middle Ages most books were used by priests and monks for liturgical purposes. New books appeared most often when a new monastery was founded. Books began to be produced for individuals as well as religious institutions as early as the 12th century. The movement of books into the secular world encouraged the increase of lay workshops run by professional scribes.

Most illuminators were humble craftsmen who set up shop. Some were independent, itinerant artists who traveled from place to place looking for commissions. The best held the rank of court artists at the exclusive service of a wealthy patron.

Illuminators usually belonged either to the painter’s guild or another guild involved in the book trade. Most illuminators remained anonymous until the late Middle Ages. With the gradual rise in status from artisan to artist, more illuminators in the late Middle Ages began to sign their work, and often also included a small pictorial representation of themselves somewhere in the work.

The whole process of book illumination was very time-consuming and costly, thus the illuminated manuscript was a luxury item for wealthy customers. With the advent of book printing, the sumptuous illuminated codices went out of fashion. Although the early printed books were often made to resemble illuminated manuscripts, by way of hand coloring, the art of book illumination gradually disappeared in the course of the sixteenth century.

Material may not be reprinted without express permission.
All rights reserved.

Architecture in the Middle Ages

The end of Roman Empire not only disturbed the political, social and educational culture of Middle Ages, but also, it influenced the architecture of the Middle Ages in a significant manner. The essential aspect of this change was the increasing influence of Christianity and Church in political and cultural matters. The Church virtually became the major power to manage the life style of people of Middle Ages.

Another significant reason that evolved various innovative steps in architecture of the Middle Ages was the tumultuous invasions by the barbarians and the evolution of feudal system during the Middle Ages.

Classes of architecture of the Middle Ages:

Medieval architecture can be divided in two classes namely, religious architecture and military architecture. Kings and lords of medieval period offered immense help for the spread of Christianity. As a result, they helped Church building programs. The temples of pagan and Roman religion were not designed for large gatherings.

However, to spread Christianity, it was necessary to create Church buildings where large meetings could be held easily. To provide enough space, early Christians opted for a specific architectural design which is known as basilica. This design consisted of a nave, transepts and altars. Later on, those cathedrals which were influenced by Justinian significantly used the byzantine architectural style and created huge domes. They also made use of a Greek cross.

In order to protect their land and to provide protection for serfs, Lords created castles and fortified walls which later on became most significant non-religious examples of architecture of the Middle Ages.

Furthermore, architecture of the Middle Ages can also be studied under different time spans as Pre-Romanesque Architecture, Romanesque Architecture and Gothic Architecture. With changing influences of Church and feudalism, architectural styles of Middle Ages gradually changed from Romanesque architecture to Gothic architecture.

During the early Middle Ages, most of the innovative architectural styles were influenced by modernization as architectural works were influenced by Italian, northern, Spanish, and Byzantine inputs. These architectural styles also showed the impact of religious and political competition between kings and the clergy.

Romanesque Architecture

Romanesque architectural styles were influenced by Roman architecture with significant modernizing techniques. This architectural style was used during 800-1100 A.D. It is considered as the first important architectural style that was developed after the collapse of Roman Empire. It was still related with Roman architecture because of the use of Roman barrel vault and Roman arch in the buildings of this period.

During the period of Romanesque architectural style, the stones used for creating buildings were cut with precision. The use of Roman arch system enabled constructors to support heavy stones at the middle while the barrel vault system was used to support the stone roofs.

Gothic architecture

Gradually, architecture of the Middle Ages went through a significant change and constructors started to produce building with perpendicular architecture which is also known as the Gothic architecture. This building and construction style was used during the period of 1200 – 1500 A. D. Gothic arch structures were light and spacious and they helped in creating airy structures that helped in creating high structures with proper light.

Gothic architectural buildings had wider windows and doors than those of Pre-Romanesque and Romanesque buildings. Because of the use flying buttress, the buildings of Gothic architectural style were strong as they used higher number of towers and pillars. Gothic style also gave way for decorative architecture as for example, in form of gargoyles.

Famous buildings representing architecture of the Middle Ages

At the beginning of this period, people took time to settle and develop. Thus, the Pre-Romanesque architectural styles were not used significantly as people were engaged in building small churches. However, a few Roman emperors created huge Churches such as Hagia Sophia of Constantinople (now knows as Istanbul).

In Western Europe, Charlemagne gave way to the creation of the palace of Aachen. During the same time, Arabs got hold of the southern and eastern Mediterranean and they built great palaces such as the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem and various great mosques like Kairouan.

By 1000 A.D., Romanesque architecture of the Middle Ages came in light and people began building bigger castles and churches. Some of the famous churches of this time were the St. Mark’s Church in Venice, Toulouse and St. Germain des Prés in France, and Baptistery at Pisa. Furthermore military architecture also developed during this period which was significant by Germany’s Bromserburg and Tower of London.

By the coming of 1200 A.D., people started building Churches and castles based on Gothic architectural style. They created churches in Italy at Florence and Pisa. Similarly in France, the cathedral of Laon, of Paris, of Amiens, of Reims, of Chartres, and of Rouen was created with Gothic style of architecture. In England, the Westminster Abbey was created in Gothic architectural style.

Soon Gothic style was also experimented in Italy at Milan, and in Germany at Cologne, Bremen, Freiburg, Munster and Regensburg. The Louvre and the Conciergerie were the two castles built by the Capetian kings of France in Paris who also produced various castles on the outskirt of Paris including the castle of Vincennes. The castle of Heidelberg was built in Germany by the Holy Roman kings. Gothic architectural style became significant in Spain after the defeat of Islamic rulers by Reconquista, who created a Gothic cathedral at Seville.

However, all these significantly beautiful and strong churches and castles which were produced in Romanesque and Gothic style suggested the power and prosperity of the feudal aristocratic class. The peasants and serfs on the other hands were exploited by the members of nobility. The basic purpose of all these Gothic Churches and castles was either to spread influence of Christianity or to protect and to ensure security against invaders, barbarians and Islamic rulers.

During the Middle Ages, people used a combination of water clocks, sun dials, and candle clocks to tell time though none of those could tell time to the minute. While the best water clocks told time to the quarter hour, it wasn’t until the wide use and improvement of mechanical clocks that people could tell time to the minute.

Even though the minute hand may have existed as early as the late 15th century, Jost Burgieven (pictured left) is credited with inventing it in 1577. Still, it took over a century for the technology to spread as the minute hand wasn’t widely added to clocks until the 1680s.

2. For most of the Middle Ages, clocks rang seven or eight times in a day, not twenty-four.

Since most Christian monks adhered to a tight schedule of work and prayer, they were some of the first timekeepers in Medieval Europe. For most of the Medieval period, a 24 hour day was divided into eight liturgical designations: Vigils (currently called Matins and was also referred to as Nocturns), Matins (currently called Lauds), Prime, Terce, Sext, None, Vespers, and Compline.*

Strangely, the only mention of the bells ringing for Vigils that I have found comes from David Ewing Duncan. In his book, Calendar: Humanity’s Epic Struggle to Determine a True and Accurate Year, Duncan suggests that medieval cities weren’t always consistent in recognizing the first hour of the day and a medieval traveler “might end up at his destination at midnight to hear the…first hour rung.” Considering most historians accept the theory that medieval people participated in segmented sleep, this seems odd.** How did people wake up without the sound of a bell? Did people rise naturally on their own? Or, since the term Matins replaced the term Nocturns, is there some confusion about when the bells actually rang? I’d love to know.

Historian Robert Ekirch considers this engraving from 1595 to be evidence of segmented sleep during the Renaissance.

By the end of the Middle Ages, wide use and improvements in mechanical clocks changed the way people kept time. I’ll discuss that in another section.

*It’s worth noting that most cities’ bells rang for other events, announcing the opening of markets, beginning of curfews, and start of special holidays.

**Whether Medieval laymen slept through the entire night is a hot topic. In his book, At Day’s Close: Night in Times Past, historian Roger Ekirch references over five hundred documents that suggest laymen went to bed around 9 p.m., slept for 3 to 4 hours, got up for 1 to 2 hours for prayer and possibly sex, and then went back to sleep until Prime. But even Ekirch recognizes that not all people followed the same sleeping pattern as does historian Jean Verdon. Historians refer to this sleep pattern as segmented sleep.

3. The length of an hour depended on the time of year and where you lived.

This sculpture on the side of Chartres Cathedral shows an angel carrying a sundial, a device used to tell time during the Middle Ages.

For most of the Middle Ages, the time between sunrise and sunset was divided into twelve equal portions just like it was in ancient Rome. The time from sunset to sunrise was also divided into twelve equal segments. This worked well on the equinoxes when the length of a daytime hour equaled a nighttime hour, but by the 2nd century b.c.e., people recognized how confusing this could be to travelers during the winter and summer months.

Imagine living in Oslo, Norway during the Middle Ages. With only approximately 6 hours of sunlight on Christmas that would make a daylight hour for them only 30 minutes long. Now travel to Naples, Italy where they have over nine hours of sunlight. A daylight hour for them on Christmas would last about 50 minutes.

Ian Mortimer sheds light on how the medieval hours related to modern time-telling in his book The Time Traveler’s Guide to Medieval England. Mortimer says most people rose for the Prime bells, which rang at dawn. They struck for the 3rd hour of the day at Terce (mid-morning), the 6th hour at Sext (noon), again for the 9th hour at None (mid-afternoon) and once more for the 12th hour at Compline (a little after sunset). The chart below shows how bells of London would ring at different times depending on the season.

Table 1: Canonical bells in 12th Century London

4. You Couldn’t Waste Time, and Time Couldn’t Cost You Money.

People living in the Middle Ages believed time belonged to God. Therefore, it wasn’t theirs to waste. The question arose in the 13 th century on whether merchants and craftsman could charge fees for unsettled debts (i.e. late fees). The Franciscans, who were asked to settle one particular case, decided no. Why? Because only God owns time and charging for it seemed unethical. Some likened late fees to usury (the sinful charging of interest) which was condemned for much of the Middle Ages.

5. Dante Alighieri made the first literary reference to clocks that struck the hours.

In 1320, Dante Alighieri (pictured left) referred to a clock that struck the hours in his work, The Divine Comedy. It is considered the first literary reference to that type of clock. We know that by the 1350s this technology spread to England since King Edward III used them in his palaces. By the end of the 14th century, mechanical clocks could be found in several cathedrals and palaces throughout England. The clocks didn’t show time with an hour hand but struck a bell to signify the time. Since mechanical clocks relied on mechanisms rather than sunlight to tell time, the hours became the same length year round. The reliance on clock time was not immediate and people referred to time in two ways: solar time and time of the clock. The latter of which was later shortened to the phrase o’ clock, which we still use today.

Andrea Cefalo is a Medieval fiction author and history blogger. Her debut novel The Fairytale Keeper, was a quarter-finalist in Amazon’s 2013 Breakthrough Novel Contest. The sequel–The Countess’s Captive—was published earlier this year. She is currently working on the third book in her series.

Did barracks exist in the middle ages? - History

There were three main types of soldiers during the Middle Ages: foot soldiers, archers, and knights. The knights were heavily armored soldiers who rode on horseback. Only the wealthiest nobles could afford to be a knight. They needed very expensive armor, weapons, and a powerful war horse.

The first knights of the Middle Ages fought for Charlemagne, the King of the Franks, in the 700s. In order to fight battles across his large empire, Charlemagne began to use soldiers on horseback. These soldiers became a very important part of his army.

Charlemagne began to award his best knights with land called "benefices". In return for the land, the knights agreed to fight for the king whenever he called. This practice caught on through much of Europe and became standard practice for many kings for the next 700 years. If you were a son born into the family of a knight, you generally became a knight as well.

    The Knights Templar - The Knights Templar were established in the 1100s. They wore white mantles with red crosses and were famous fighters during the Crusades. Their headquarters was in the Al-Aqsa Mosque on the Temple Mount in Jerusalem. The knights refused to retreat in battle and were often the first to lead the charge. In the Battle of Montgisard, 500 Knights of the Templar led a small force of just a few thousand men in victory over 26,000 Muslim soldiers.

There were also orders of chivalry. These orders were meant to imitate the military orders, but were formed after the Crusades. One of the most famous of these orders is the Order of the Garter. It was founded by King Edward III of England in 1348 and is considered one of the highest orders of knighthood in the United Kingdom.

By the end of the Middle Ages, the knight was no longer an important part of the army. This was for two main reasons. One reason was that many countries had formed their own standing armies. They paid soldiers to train and fight. They no longer needed lords to come fight as knights. The other reason was a change in warfare. Battle tactics and new weapons such as longbows and firearms made the heavy armor the knights wore cumbersome and useless. This made it much easier to arm a soldier and pay for a standing army.

Gargoyles History – Church Gargoyles a representation of hell?

Gargoyles History dates back to antiquity. Gargoyles can be discovered in Ancient Egyptian, Ancient Roman and also Old Greek design although they are most frequently associated with Medieval Gothic architecture. Ancient history, myths, tales and pagan religions abound with stories of frightening and amazing animals. Creatures that fired the imagination. Creatures you would only ever satisfy in your worst nightmares. Maybe the Middle ages church wanted to convey a terrifying perception of heck as well as enforce that there was security as well as sacredness inside the church. The adversary would certainly be a most unacceptable, and entirely unorthodox, picture to permit on a church – great gargoyles, would, nonetheless have a comparable, scary emotional result. Rock masons had free option of their gargoyles need to show or appear like. It is an interesting reality that there is no 2 gargoyles which are specifically the very same!

Watch the video: Why You Wouldnt Survive In Medieval time