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(AGS-26: dp. 2,580 (f.); 1. 285' 3~"; b. 48'; dr. 15'; s.
15 k. (tl.); cpl. 44; cl. Silas Bent)
Silas Bent (AGS-26), an oceanographic survey ship, was laid down in March 1964 by the American Shipbuilding Co. at Lorain, Ohio; launched on 16 May 1964; sponsored by Miss Nancy M. McKinley and Mrs. Jeffrey R. Grandy; and was delivered to the Military Sea Transportation Service (now the Military Sealift Command) in July 1965.
Silas Bent—the first of a new class of oceanographic survey ships—is manned by a Civil Service crew and operated by the Military Sealift Command as an integrated system for the gathering of vital oceanographic data in both underway and on station modes. The data she collects is recorded in a form immediately usable by computers. She is under the technical control of the Naval Oceanographic Office in Suitland, Maryland.
The oceanographic survey ship completed her shakedown cruise during the winter of 1965 and 1966. Since that time, she has been conducting oceanographic research primarily in the northern Pacific, between Alaska and Japan. In May 1968, after only six days on station, she and scientists from the Naval Oceanographic Office located an ammunition-laden Liberty s11ip sunk in the North Pacific. In 1972, she visited Japan, for the 2nd annual Oeean Development Conferenee held at Tokyo. During the conference, there were numerous tours and briefings held on Silas Bent describing, for the ocean scientists of the world, her capabilities for measuring bathymetric depth, magnetic intensity, gravity, surface temperature, seismic reflection, sound velocity, ambient light, and salinity. As of mid-September 1974, Silas Bent is engaged in special operations in thc area of Kodiak, Alaska.
TAGS 26 Silas Bent Survey Ship
The Silas Bent class of surveying ships were designed specifically for surveying operations. They have a bow propulsion unit for precise maneuverability and station keeping. The two similar units of the Wilkes class were recently discarded, with WilkesT-AGS-33 transfered to Tunisia on 29 September 1995. On 29 September 1999 Silas Bent was transferred to the government of Turkey, stricken from the Naval Oceanographic Office fleet to make room for the newer, more luxurious and state-of-the-art ships of the PATHFINDER class. USNS Elisha Kent Kane (T-AGS-27) was struck from the Naval Register on 14 March 2001 and sold under the Security Assistance Progrm to Turkey as of that date.
Survey Ships gather data which provides much of the military's information on the ocean environment. Oceanographic and hydrographic survey ships are used to study the world's oceans. The collected data helps to improve technology in undersea warfare and enemy ship detection. The oceanographic and hydrographic survey ships' multibeam, wide-angle precision sonar systems make it possible to continuously chart a broad strip of ocean floor. Military Sealift Command's Special Missions program supports worldwide oceanographic programs with ships which perform acoustical, biological, physical and geophysical surveys.
Dyn Marine Services of Virginia, Inc.(DMS) a unit of DynCorp, manages, operated, and maintained these ships for the Naval Oceanographic Office (NAVOCEANO) in Mississippi. DMS provided logistics, operations, engineering, and manning support for these US Naval oceanographic ships which were coordinated from the DMS Reston office. The ships were operated worldwide conducting ocean surveys at the direction of NAVOCEANO, with Commander Military Sealift Command (COMSC) acting as the Administrative Command.
SILAS BENT was the model for the first of the newest and best of the Navy's oceanographic fleet. In the mid-1960s, the Navy was well along in its TENOC (Ten Years of Oceanography) program to upgrade the oceanographic survey fleet. Prior to this, Naval oceanography and hydrography was conducted with aging warships, converted to oceanographic use. Among the ships employed in this duty were storied names such as converted minesweepers, USS REQUISITE (AGS-18), USS SHELDRAKE (AGS-19), USS PREVAIL (AGS-20) and USS TOWHEE (AGS-28) a former fleet tug, the USS SERANNO (AGS-24) and converted stores ships, USS TANNER (AGS-16) and USS MAURY (AGS-15), the big boys of hydrography and the first to bear these illustrious names. NAVO even had frequent use of a submarine, ARCHERFISH (AGSS-311).
These ships, except for ARCHERFISH, would all find their respective analogs in the new fleet. Other than the research-oriented AGORs, though, the centerpiece of the new ships was the SILAS BENT, a "medium class" oceanographic survey ship designed to replace the SAN PABLO (AGS-30) and USS REHOBOTH (AGS-50), both converted Navy seaplane tenders.
American Ship Building Company of Lorain, Ohio, started building the SILAS BENT in October 1963. She was delivered to the Navy in July 1965. Others of her class were soon to follow: USNS KANE (T-AGS-27), USNS WILKES (T-AGS-33) and USNS WYMAN (T-AGS-34), although WYMAN was not to serve as an oceanographic survey ship but rather as a bathymetry ship configured specifically to support OSP surveys.
When she first became operational, SILAS BENT was probably the most sophisticated ocean-ographic survey ship anywhere. For the first time, the heart - or rather brain - of the collection management system was a computer, which was virtually unheard of at that time. There were no computers being constructed specifically for oceanographic survey ships, so the first ones used aboard the BENT-class ships were "borrowed" from submarines. Her equipment suite employed a centrally integrated Central Data Recording System that managed the digital time and navigation-referenced logging of bathymetry, magnetics, gravity, and on-station digital logging of temperature, salinity pressure, sound speed and even ambient light. All these parameters were displayed in real-time for the operator at a central console. The system, built by Texas Instruments, was the "serial number one" version of what was called the Shipboard Survey System. The concept and technology were advanced, and although not all the expectations were immediately realized, the "envelope" was pushed and pushed very hard. The result was that advancements were much more quickly achieved and the future years made more productive sooner because of it.
SILAS BENT had many other measurement capabilities, too. She had installed systems for seismic profiling, coring and other bottom-sampling equipment, plankton-collection systems, underwater cameras including a photo lab, mechanical bathythermograph system (XBTs had not yet arrived) and a full chemical analysis suite for oxygen, salinity and nutrient determinations. To top it off, she had a meteorological laboratory, complete with weather balloons (with helium gas) and radiosonde equipment. This was, indeed, the Navy's first truly multi-purpose, multi-mission capable oceanographic survey ship.
A group designated the "AGS Task Team," led by Robert Seaton, had NAVO responsibility for the outfitting and the shakedown of the SILAS BENT and her sister ships. The members of the group picked, acquired and installed the equipment suite, including such minute items as the glassware required for the expected Knudsen titrations.
In the Cold War years, SILAS BENT most often sailed the deep, Soviet submarine-infested waters of the northern Pacific - from the U.S. west coast, east to Korea and from the Philippine Sea to the Bering Sea, though occasional forays were made to places such as Tahiti for special project work.
Occasionally, environmental support to naval forces included going places not often allowed in those days such as the Sea of Okhotsk, known to some as the "Lair of the Bear." She actually made several visits there, but perhaps the most memorable was in 1986 when she "followed" the USS NEW JERSEY (BB-62) task force into the Sea of "O." The powerful battleship force stayed there only a couple of days and garnered lots of press, but SILAS BENT slipped in by herself shortly thereafter and spent the next two months successfully surveying that important body of water - alone.
After the Cold War ended, the surveying focus shifted to littoral regions such as the Yellow Sea, the East and South China seas and the Sea of Japan. SILAS BENT was ordered to the Arabian Gulf when the Gulf War brought the Arabian Gulf to greater prominence. It was the first of the NAVO oceanographic survey ships in that area. SILAS BENT even journeyed as far west as the Mediterranean Sea during that time period for the turnover of crewing responsibilities from Military Sealift Command. Finally, in the late 1990s after going it alone in terms of oceanographic surveying for over 30 years, she was at last joined in the Western Pacific by other multipurpose oceanographic survey ships - first the USNS SUMNER (T-AGS-61) and later the USNS BOWDITCH (T-AGS-62).
Silas Bent III was born on 10 October 1820 in St. Louis, Missouri, a son of a judge of the Missouri Supreme Court, also called Silas, with deep family roots in Massachusetts Bay Colony   He married Ann Elizabeth Tyler of Louisville, Kentucky on 5 November 1857 and they had three children Mary Lawrence Bent, Lucy (Bent) McKinley, and Silas Bent IV, who was a journalist. 
Bent was appointed midshipman at age 16 and served in the U.S. Navy for the next 25 years, during which he became well versed in the science of oceanography. He crossed the Atlantic Ocean five times, the Pacific Ocean twice, rounded Cape Horn four times and the Cape of Good Hope once.
He was serving in Preble in 1849 when that brig sailed into Nagasaki, Japan, to secure the release of 18 shipwrecked American sailors imprisoned by the Japanese. He was flag lieutenant in Mississippi, Commodore Matthew C. Perry's flagship during the expedition to Japan between 1852 and 1854.
He made hydrographic surveys of Japanese waters. The results of his survey were published by the government in 1857 in Sailing Directions and Nautical Remarks: by Officers of the Late U.S. Naval Expedition to Japan.
In 1860, Lt. Bent was detailed to the Hydrographic Division of the Coast Survey, but resigned from the Navy on 25 April 1861 at the outbreak of the American Civil War, apparently because of Southern sympathies.
He returned to St. Louis upon resigning from the Navy and took up the management of his wife's estate. Lt. Bent died on 26 August 1887 at Shelter Island, Long Island, New York, and was buried in Louisville, Kentucky.
Silas Bent—the first of a new class of oceanographic survey ships—was manned by a Civil Service crew and operated by the Military Sealift Command as an integrated system for the gathering of vital oceanographic data in both underway and on-station modes. The data she collected was recorded in a form immediately usable by computers. She was under the technical control of the Naval Oceanographic Office in Suitland, Maryland.
The oceanographic survey ship completed her shakedown cruise during the winter of 1965 and 1966. Since that time, she had been conducting oceanographic research primarily in the northern Pacific, between Alaska and Japan. In May 1968, after only six days on station, she and scientists from the Naval Oceanographic Office located an ammunition-laden Liberty ship sunk in the North Pacific.
In 1972, she visited Japan, for the 2nd annual Ocean Development Conference held at Tokyo. During the conference, there were numerous tours and briefings held on Silas Bent describing, for the ocean scientists of the world, her capabilities for measuring bathymetric depth, magnetic intensity, gravity, surface temperature, seismic reflection, sound velocity, ambient light, and salinity.
As of mid-September 1974, Silas Bent engaged in special operations in the area of Kodiak, Alaska.
USNS Silas Bent (T-AGS-26)
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You can start receiving your Social Security retirement benefits as early as age 62. However, you are entitled to full benefits when you reach your full retirement age. If you delay taking your benefits from your full retirement age up to age 70, your benefit amount will increase.
If you start receiving benefits early, your benefits are reduced a small percent for each month before your full retirement age.
To find out how much your benefit will be reduced if you begin receiving benefits from age 62 up to your full retirement age, use the chart below and select your year of birth. This example is based on an estimated monthly benefit of $1000 at full retirement age.
Full Retirement and Age 62 Benefit By Year Of Birth
- If you were born on January 1 st , you should refer to the previous year. If you were born on the 1 st of the month, we figure your benefit (and your full retirement age) as if your birthday was in the previous month. If you were born on January 1 st , we figure your benefit (and your full retirement age) as if your birthday was in December of the previous year. You must be at least 62 for the entire month to receive benefits. Percentages are approximate due to rounding. The maximum benefit for the spouse is 50 percent of the benefit the worker would receive at full retirement age. The percent reduction for the spouse should be applied after the automatic 50 percent reduction. Percentages are approximate due to rounding.
Before You Make Your Decision
There are advantages and disadvantages to taking your benefit before your full retirement age. The advantage is that you collect benefits for a longer period of time. The disadvantage is your benefit will be reduced. Each person's situation is different. It is important to remember:
Silas Bent—the first of a new class of oceanographic survey ships—was manned by a Civil Service crew and operated by the Military Sealift Command as an integrated system for the gathering of vital oceanographic data in both underway and on-station modes. The data she collected was recorded in a form immediately usable by computers. She was under the technical control of the Naval Oceanographic Office then located in Suitland, Maryland. The oceanographic survey ship completed her shakedown cruise during the winter of 1965 and 1966. The ship was assigned operations including the Navy&aposs ASW/USW Oceanwide Survey Project supporting antisubmarine and undersea warfare weapons systems, primarily in the northern Pacific.  
The ship completed the first full year of ASW/USW Oceanwide Survey Project, an effort to perform comprehensive surveys of strategic ocean areas, during fiscal year 1967. The first of the year was spent in the Atlantic with work in the Labrador Sea followed by a search for the reported American Scout Seamount.  The June 1966 survey found no evidence of a seamount with no soundings less than 2,362 fathoms (14,172ਏt 4,320 m) but did find strong returns from the Deep Scattering Layer that could be mistaken for shoals.   Following additional surveys in the Gulf of Maine and north of Bermuda the ship was transferred to the Pacific in December 1966. The remainder of the fiscal year was spent surveying north of Hawaii into the Gulf of Alaska. 
On 8 August 1968 Silas Bent departed Hakodate, Japan for surveys east of Kamchatka but was diverted on 12 August to an area south of Amchitka Island, Alaska to assist in the search, termed CHASE VI SALVOPS, for the Liberty ship Robert L. Stevenson which was to be scuttled with a load of ammunition but failed to immediately sink and sunk in an unknown position. After six days on station the survey ship located the lost ship using a deep towed magnetometer and narrow beam echosounder with confirmation by photographs using a deep sea camera.   After the search the ship returned to Japan for regular survey operations with a limited survey in the Sea of Okhotsk before transit to San Francisco arriving 30 October. On departure from San Francisco to Sasebo, Japan between 15 and 28 March 1968 the ship conducted underway transit data and planted current meter and thermister array buoys in the Sea of Japan. From 11 April to 14 May the ship conducted joint acoustic operations with the RV F. V. Hunt which was also assigned work for the ASW/USW Surveys Project.   The two ships continued operations in the Sea of Japan and Sea of Okhotsk into June 1968. 
In 1972, she visited Japan, for the 2nd annual Ocean Development Conference held at Tokyo. During the conference, there were numerous tours and briefings held on Silas Bent describing, for the ocean scientists of the world, her capabilities for measuring bathymetric depth, magnetic intensity, gravity, surface temperature, seismic reflection, sound velocity, ambient light, and salinity. As of mid-September 1974, Silas Bent engaged in special operations in the area of Kodiak, Alaska.  The ship conducted surveys for about a month in the Sea of Okhotsk beginning on 25 September 1986. 
USNS Silas Bent was transferred under the Security Assistance Program to the Republic of Turkey 29 September 1999 and stricken from the Naval Vessel Register on 28 October 1999. 
About Charles M. Russell ('the cowboy artist')
Charles Marion Russell (March 19, 1864 – October 24, 1926), also known as C. M. Russell, Charlie Russell, and "Kid" Russell, was an artist of the Old American West. Russell created more than 2,000 paintings of cowboys, Indians, and landscapes set in the Western United States and in Alberta, Canada, in addition to bronze sculptures. Known as 'the cowboy artist', Russell was also a storyteller and author. The C. M. Russell Museum Complex located in Great Falls, Montana houses more than 2,000 Russell artworks, personal objects, and artifacts.
Russell's mural titled Lewis and Clark Meeting the Flathead Indians hangs in the state capitol building in Helena, Montana. Russell's 1918 painting Piegans sold for $5.6 million dollars at a 2005 auction.
Art was always a part of Russell's life. Growing up in Missouri, he drew sketches and made clay figures of animals. Russell had an intense interest in the wild west and would spend hours reading about it. Russell would watch explorers and fur traders who frequently came through Missouri. Russell learned to ride horses at Hazel Dell Farm near Jerseyville, Illinois on a famous Civil War horse called "Great Britain". Russell's instructor was Col. William H. Fulkerson who had married into the Russell family. At the age of sixteen, Russell left school and went to Montana to work on a sheep ranch.
Russell came to Montana in 1880 at the age of 16. After an unsuccessful stint working on a sheep ranch, he found work with a hunter and trapper turned rancher named Jake Hoover, who owned a ranch in the Judith Basin, and from whom Russell learned much about the ways of the west. The two men remained lifelong friends. After a brief visit to his family in 1882, he returned to Montana, where he remained for the rest of his life. He worked as a cowboy for a number of outfits, and documented the harsh winter of 1886-1887 in a number of watercolors. Russell was working on the O-H Ranch in the Judith Basin of Central Montana at the time, when the ranch foreman received a letter from the owner, asking how the cattle herd had weathered the winter. Instead of a letter, the ranch foreman sent a postcard-sized watercolor Russell had painted of gaunt steer being watched by wolves under a gray winter sky. The ranch owner showed the postcard to friends and business acquaintances and eventually displayed it in a shop window in Helena, Montana. After this, work began to come steadily to the artist. Russell's caption on the sketch, "Waiting for a Chinook", became the title of the drawing, and Russell later created a more detailed version which is one of his best-known works.
Beginning in 1888, Russell spent a period of time living with the Blood Indians, a branch of the Blackfeet nation. It is believed that much of his intimate knowledge of Native American culture came from this period. Upon returning to white culture in 1889, he found the Judith Basin to be filling up with settlers, so worked in various more open places for a couple of years before settling in the area of Great Falls, Montana in 1892 in an attempt to make a living as a full-time artist.
In 1896, Russell married his wife Nancy. He was 32 and she was 18. In 1897, they moved from the small community of Cascade, Montana to the bustling county seat of Great Falls, where Russell spent the majority of his life from that point on. There, Russell continued with his art, becoming a local celebrity and gaining the acclaim of critics worldwide. As Russell was not skilled in marketing his work, Nancy is generally given credit in making Russell an internationally known artist. She set up many shows for Russell throughout the United States and in London creating many followers of Russell.
In 1913, Russell painted Wild Horse Hunters, which depicts riders capturing wild horses, each band of which is dominated by a stallion. He used as much color as an artist could on his mountain landscapes. Russell the artist arrived on the cultural scene at a time when the "wild west" was being chronicled and sold back to the public in many forms, ranging from the dime novel to the wild west show and soon evolving into motion picture shorts and features of the silent era, the westerns that have become a movie staple. Russell was fond of these popular art forms, and made many friends among the well-off collectors of his works, including actors and film makers such as William S. Hart, Harry Carey, Will Rogers and Douglas Fairbanks. Russell also kept up with other artists of his ilk, including fellow Old West painter Edgar Samuel Paxson, painter Edward "Ed" Borein and Will Crawford the illustrator.
On the day of Russell's funeral in 1926, all the children in Great Falls were released from school to watch the funeral procession. Russell's coffin was displayed in a glass sided coach, pulled by four black horses.
A collection of short stories called Trails Plowed Under was published a year after his death. Also, in 1929, Russell's wife, Nancy, published a collection of his letters in which was titled Good Medicine.
Many Russell paintings and bronze works are displayed in the Amon Carter Museum in Fort Worth, Texas, along with the other most prominent western artist Frederic Remington. Additional major collections of Russell art can be found at the Montana Historical Society museum in Helena, Montana and the C.M. Russell Museum in Great Falls, Montana.
Along with Jeannette Rankin, the first female member of the United States Congress, Russell represents Montana in the National Statuary Hall Collection in the United States Capitol.
In 1960, Charles M. Russell Elementary School was built in Missoula, Montana. In 1965, a high school was built on the north side of the Missouri River in Great Falls, Montana and named Charles M. Russell High School, in honor of Russell. Ian Tyson's 1987 album, Cowboyography, includes a song titled "The Gift" telling the story of Russell. Michael Nesmith, of Monkees fame, recorded a song titled "Laugh Kills Lonesome" which was inspired by, and describes the contents of, a well-known Russell painting of the same name. Native Blackfeet folk singer Jack Gladstone wrote a song dedicated to Russell titled "When the Land Belonged to God." The song describes Russell's painting of the same name.
In 1991, Russell was inducted into the St. Louis Walk of Fame. Some of Russell's paintings were shown during the credits of the ABC television series How the West Was Won, starring James Arness.
The Charles M. Russell National Wildlife Refuge is named for Russell, a World War II Liberty Ship, SS Charles M. Russell, was named in his honor and launched in 1943 in Portland, Oregon.
Russell's Piegans sold in 2005 for $5.6 million, more than double the highest price his work had sold for a few years earlier. At auction in 2008, Russell's oil painting The Hold Up (20 Miles to Deadwood) sold for $5.2 million, and his bronze sculpture Buffalo Hunt (which depicted two Native Americans attacking a running bison) sold for $4.1 million. In July 2009, Russell's 1907 watercolor and gouache The Truce went for $2.03 million to an anonymous phone bidder. Russell's 1911 18 inches (460 mm) by 13 inches (330 mm) bronze sculpture, Bronc Twister, auctioned in 2008 for $805,000r above the $300,000 pre-auction estimate.
In July 2011, the price of Russell's work soared again. His 1892 oil painting Water for Camp (depicting Native American women dipping pots into a stream) and his 1924 watercolor A Dangerous Sport (in which two cowboys lasso a mountain lion) sold for nearly $1.5 million each.
Russell's works comprised a wide variety of topics, including major historical events and everyday life in the west. His work was noted for the frequency with which he portrayed well-known events from the point of view of Native American people instead of the white viewpoint. He was noted for a keen eye to the social undercurrents of society and the meticulous authenticity with which he portrayed the clothing and equipment of both cowboys and Native people.
His portrayals of women has drawn critiques and assessment from historians studying women in the west. The contrasting levels of sensuality in his depictions of white and native women is noted in his artistic transference of sexuality from white to Native women, so as to conform to the moral standards and perceptions of women in his time. Most of Russell's portrayals of white women are shown as "pure" and non-sexual, other than those paintings specifically depicting prostitutes. In contrast, his series of five "Keeoma" paintings and related images show a sensual native woman, with accompanying legends that Keeoma was a real person that Russell had loved. However, photographs show that the body model for these images was actually Russell's wife, Nancy, who in doing so, critics note, was able to express her sexuality in a way generally not allowed "decent" white women of the time.
Statues and major public works
1880 United States Federal Census about C. M. Russell Name: . M. Russell Age: ग Birth Year: ফt 1863 Birthplace: Missouri Home in 1880: Saint Louis, St Louis (Independent City), Missouri Race: White Gender: Male Relation to Head of House: Son Marital Status: Single Father's Name: . S. Russell Father's Birthplace: Missouri Mother's Name: May M. Russell Mother's Birthplace: Missouri Neighbors: View others on page Occupation: Mfg. Clerk Cannot read/write:
Idiotic or insane: View image Household Members: Name ge C. S. Russell े May M. Russell ॅ S. M. Russell ड S. P. Russell ङ C. M. Russell ग E. M. Russell औ G. Russell ऑ W. E. Russell E. Kendell घ A. Ostermann ड E. Mantle ङ
1900 United States Federal Census about Charles Russell Name: harles Russell [Charlie Russell] Age: व Birth Date: Mar 1865 Birthplace: Missouri Home in 1900: Great Falls, Cascade, Montana [Cascade] Race: White Gender: Male Relation to Head of House: Head Marital Status: Married Spouse's Name: Nancy Russell Marriage Year: Years Married: Father's Birthplace: Missouri Mother's Birthplace: Missouri Occupation: View on Image Neighbors: View others on page Household Members: Name ge Charles Russell व Nancy Russell ढ Josephine Wright क
1920 United States Federal Census about Charles M Russell Name: harles M Russell Age: ॕ Birth Year: ফt 1865 Birthplace: Missouri Home in 1920: Great Falls Ward 4, Cascade, Montana Race: White Gender: Male Relation to Head of House: Head Marital Status: Married Spouse's Name: Nancy C Russell Father's Birthplace: Missouri Mother's Birthplace: Virginia Home owned: Own Able to Read: Yes Able to Write: Yes Neighbors: View others on page Household Members: Name ge Charles M Russell ॕ Nancy C Russell ू Jack C Russell [3 4/12]
Charles Marion Russell Birth: Mar. 19, 1864 Death: Oct. 24, 1926
Painter. Charlie Russell was the "other" artist (besides Frederic Remington) who chronicled life in the Wild West. Unlike Remington, Russell settled permanently in the west (Montana) and wholeheartedly embraced everything life there had to offer. He was a "real" cowboy, lived with a mountain man and was an adopted brother of the Blackfoot tribe. His oils, watercolors and bronzes reflect an intimate knowledge of his subjects, and no one was more surprised than he when they began fetching high prices. When he died, he was so famous in Great Falls at that time and even children were dismissed from school to watch his funeral procession. (bio by: Bona Rae Villarta)
Cause of death: Heart attack
Search Amazon for Charles Russell
Burial: Highland Cemetery Great Falls Cascade County Montana, USA
Maintained by: Find A Grave Record added: Jan 01, 2001 Find A Grave Memorial# 2443
The Terrible Ten (Kansas Historical Society)
Although Silas was only in his teens, his bravery, skill with a gun, and sense of humor made him one of the most popular fighters among the Jayhawkers. He became a member of an elite group of Jayhawkers who raided pro-slavery towns, kidnapped slaves to bring them into freedom, and helped imprisoned Underground Railroad conductors escape jail.
Though they called themselves the "Jayhawker Ten," the group was commonly known as either the "Immortal Ten" by those they fought with - or the "Terrible Ten" by those they fought against.
Silas was particularly skilled at helping people escape jail. In late 1859, he was contacted to help with a high-profile prison break. John Brown, a famous abolitionist and family friend of the Soules, had tried to organize a revolt of armed slaves in Harper's Ferry, Virgnia. The revolt failed and Brown was sentenced to death.
Silas was supposed to get himself arrested, and from there try to sneak Brown out of prison. Silas never got the chance to do so - when Brown learned a rescue attempt was being planned, he sent a message that he would rather become a martyr for his cause. John Brown was executed on December 2, 1859.
Silas was then asked to help free two of John Brown's followers who had also been imprisoned. Silas pretended to be drunk, yelling and tripping in the streets, until he was thrown into jail overnight for public drunkenness. From there, he was able to make his way to where the two men were held. They rejected his offer of rescue, saying they would follow in John Brown's footsteps and be executed as well.
Silas was disillusioned after his failed rescue attempts in Virginia. He did not think it was right that Brown and his men would rather die than continue to fight. While in Virginia, he received word from his family that the "Terrible Ten" were being hunted in Kansas. They warned him not to return right away. Silas decided to take time off from his life as a Jayhawker and moved to Boston, where he had lived as a child.
He spent a year in Boston, working as a printer in a publishing company. There he became friends with the poet Walt Whitman.
In mid-1860, Silas learned that his father had gotten ill and passed away. Silas' brother William, who was also tired of years of fighting, moved to Colorado after their father's death.
William told Silas he had successfully mined quartz outside of Denver, and invited his brother to join him in Colorado. Silas agreed.
Silas Bent AGS-26 - History
January 8, 1865 – John Chivington musters out of the army, and Colonel Thomas Moonlight takes command of the
Denver Military District. Although Chivington has been technically a civilian since September of , he is now officially out of
the reach of military prosecution for his conduct at Sand Creek.
On this same day, Captain Silas Soule writes a letter to his mother stating:
- “I spent New Year’s day on the battle ground counting dead Indians. There were not as many killed as was
reported. There was not more than one hundred and thirty killed, but most of them were women and children
and all of them scalped. I hope the authorities at Washington will investigate the killing of those Indians. I think
they will be apt to hoist some of our high officials. I would not fire on the Indians with my Co. and the Col. said he
would have me cashiered, but he is out of the service before me and I think I stand better than he does in regard
to his great Indian fight . . .”
The Letters of Silas S. Soule – Recounting His Experiences in the Colorado Territory - 1861-1865. Western History/Genealogy
Dept., Denver Public Library.
January 11, 1865 – Chief of Staff Maj. General Henry W. Halleck officially orders General Curtis to investigate the conduct
of Chivington’s command at Sand Creek:
- “Statements from respectable sources have been received here that the conduct of Colonel Chivington's
command towards the friendly Indians has been a series of outrages calculated to make them all hostile.”
(United States, Congress, Joint Committee on the Conduct of the War, "Massacre of the Cheyenne Indians," Report of the Joint
Committee on the Conduct of the War at the Second Session Thirty-eighth Congress, Volume III, Part VI., Washington, Government
Printing Office, 1865. p.74.)
- “I will be glad to save the few honest and kindly disposed, and protest against the slaughter of women and
children although, since General Harney's attack of the Sioux many years ago at Ash Hollow, the popular cry of
settlers and soldiers on the frontier favors an indiscriminate slaughter, which is very difficult to restrain. I abhor
this style, but so it goes from Minnesota to Texas. I fear that Colonel Chivington's assault at Sand creek was
upon Indians who had received some encouragement to camp in that vicinity under some erroneous supposition
of the commanding officer at Lyon that he could make a sort of "city of refuge" at such a point. However wrong
that may have been, it should have been respected, and any violation of known arrangements of that sort should
be severely rebuked. But there is no doubt a portion of the tribe assembled were occupied in making assaults
on our stages and trains, and the tribes well know that we have to hold the whole community responsible for
acts they could restrain, if they would properly exert their efforts in that way.”
Although Colonel Chivington is officially a civilian and immune to military court-martial, the army nevertheless orders a
special military commission to gather evidence and call witnesses in its own investigation into the Sand Creek affair. In
addition to the hearings ordered by the War Department and the House of Representatives, the existing Joint Special
Committee of Congress initiates a third inquiry shortly thereafter. The Joint Committee had been established before the
Sand Creek attack for the purpose of monitoring the general treatment of all Indian tribes by military and civilian entities.
January 20, 1865 – Captain Soule appointed Assistant Provost Marshal in Denver by Colonel Moonlight. Among his first
duties is to investigate reports that the stock captured at Sand Creek, along with much of the stock procured from local
ranchers to be put in service of the 3rd Regiment, is unaccounted for. Accusations run rampant that many 3rd Regiment
officers and soldiers, as well as some 1st Regiment men, have either kept the stock for themselves, or sold it. As word
spreads that Soule is among the contingency of “high officials” that reported the atrocities at Sand Creek, his authority to
investigate the 3rd Regiment rankles Chivington supporters in Denver.
January 21, 1865 – Fearing that he will be left holding the bag for the massacre at Sand Creek, Major Scott Anthony
resigns his commission and musters out of the army. He, too, is now immune from military court-martial.
February 1, 1865 – Colonel Moonlight officially convenes the military investigation into the Sand Creek Massacre. He
appoints the three highest-ranking officers of the Colorado 1st Regiment that were not present at Sand Creek to preside over
the hearings. Ironically, Lt. Colonel Samuel Tappan, Chivington’s most ardent critic and foe, outranks Captain Edward
Jacobs and Captain George Stilwell, and he will preside over the hearings.
Denver City is dividing into two camps. Indian war parties are escalating unprecedented winter attacks in reprisal for the
Sand Creek Massacre, further proving that Chivington has lied about killing over 500 Cheyenne warriors. The majority of
citizens now realize that Chivington’s attack at Sand Creek did more harm than good. Some of the “Bloody Thirdsters,”
however, believe Soule, Wynkoop and Sam Tappan are the architects of a conspiracy to ruin their hero Chivington.
February – May 1865 – The military commission takes testimony in Denver and at Fort Lyon from officers, soldiers,
officials and civilians involved in the affair at Sand Creek. Colonel Moonlight stipulates that the hearing is not a trial, but
rather an investigation into charges that the 3rd Regiment massacred Indians under the protection of the government and to
fix responsibility and ensure justice to all. Chivington is allowed to present evidence and witnesses, and to cross-examine
witnesses introduced by the army. Chivington enlists the services of a Denver attorney and Major Jacob Downing (an
attorney and one of the key officers who led the Sand Creek attack). On the eve of the hearings, Chivington publicly
announces that he will personally pay $500 to anyone who kills an Indian or those who sympathize with them.
The hearings are heated and contentious. With few exceptions, all evidence and testimony against Chivington comes from
1st Regiment officers and soldiers, and Chivington’s defense witnesses are officers and soldiers from the 3rd Regiment.
Despite all evidence to the contrary, the defense continues to insist that hundreds of Indian warriors were killed at Sand
Creek, very few women and children were killed, and no scalping, mutilating and other atrocities occurred.
The most damning testimony against Chivington is given by Major Wynkoop, Lieutenant Cramer and Captain Soule. Both
Wynkoop and Soule, once regarded by Chivington as his most trusted officers, are severely chastised on the stand by
Chivington and Downing in an attempt to deflect the mounting evidence against Chivington.
Throughout February, March and April, Captain Soule receives anonymous death threats, and several unsuccessful attempts
to assassinate him are made. Assistant Adjutant General George Price will later testify that Soule told him he believed, if he
is killed, Chivington will attempt to attack his character in order to nullify his testimony in the hearing.
March 15-18, 1865 – Committee on the Conduct of the War takes testimony in Washington from Governor Evans, Jesse
Leavenworth, John Smith, Scott Anthony, Samuel Colley and several soldiers and Denver officials.
April 1, 1865 – Captain Silas Soule marries Hersa Coberly in a private ceremony in Denver. The couple takes up
residence in town.
April 14, 1865 - The Stars and Stripes is ceremoniously raised over Fort Sumter. That night, Lincoln and his wife Mary see
the play "Our American Cousin" at Ford's Theater. At 10:13 p.m., during the third act of the play, John Wilkes Booth shoots
the president in the head. Doctors attend to the president in the theater then move him to a house across the street.
April 15, 1865 - President Abraham Lincoln dies at 7:22 in the morning. Vice President Andrew Johnson assumes the
April 23, 1865 – Around midnight, Captain Silas Soule investigates gunshots fired near his home. Soule is assassinated
by Private Charles W. Squier , 2nd Colorado Cavalry, on present-day 15th St. between Lawrence and Arapaho in Denver.
Squier, although shot in the hand by Soule, escapes with accomplice William Morrow.
It’s speculated that Squier murdered Soule both for Soule’s testimony against Chivington and his investigation into missing
stock and equipment believed stolen by members of 3rd Colorado Cavalry Volunteers. Squier had been convicted of the
attempted murder of mountain man Mariano Medina six months earlier, but the conviction was later overturned due to a
jurisdictional “technicality.” Although never proven, many speculated that Chivington sanctioned Soule’s murder.
April 26, 1865 – Captain Soule is buried with full military honors in Denver. The funeral is attended by Cramer, Anthony,
Evans, and a large contingency of 1st Regiment soldiers (Wynkoop not present due to his assignment at Ft. Lyon).
Chivington, who once regarded Soule like a son, is conspicuously absent. The ever eroding support of Chivington has now
dwindled to just the hard-core Indian haters. Although many Denver citizens were puzzled by Soule and Wynkoop’s betrayal
of Chivington, the witty and likeable Soule was regarded a true military hero. As the rumors of Chivington’s involvement in
Soule’s murder flourish, Denver City’s patience with the “Fighting Parson” is running out.
May 1865 – After Soule’s assassination, his ominous remarks to George Price months earlier come true. Chivington
presents witnesses at the military hearing who attempt to implicate Soule in a conspiracy with John Smith and Sam Colley to
profit from the Indian war with the Cheyennes. Soule is accused of cowardice, drunkenness and thievery. The
commissioners angrily dismiss Chivington’s transparent ploy.
May 30, 1865 – The military investigation into the Sand Creek Massacre concludes. Transcripts are submitted to the
War Department. Although all three government investigations resulted in the severe censure of Chivington and Anthony, no
legal action was taken against them. Governor Evans, however, was blistered with criticism that would soon result in his
removal from office.
Early June 1865 – Acting on a tip from locals, Private Charles W. Squier is arrested in Las Vegas, New Mexico by
Lieutenant James Cannon , a New Mexico soldier who was present at the Sand Creek Massacre. Cannon gave damaging
testimony against Chivington at the military hearing.
June 12, 1865 – Lieutenant Cannon brings Private Squier to Denver. Squier will face court-martial for desertion and the
murder of Captain Soule.
June 14, 1865 – Lieutenant Cannon is found dead in his hotel room in Denver. A postmortem examination reveals
Cannon died of a lethal mixture of liquor and morphine. Cannon was seen drinking and gambling at a Denver saloon before
his death, and witnesses reported hearing a struggle in his room later that night. Many soldiers of the time were addicted to
alcohol and morphine, but the timely and coincidental circumstances of his death fuel speculation that Chivington's
“Thirdsters” poisoned him. No evidence is ever produced to prove that Cannon was murdered, however.
July 18, 1865 – Secretary of State Seward sends letter to Evans, recommending his resignation:
- "Sir, I am directed by the President to inform your that your resignation of the office as Governor of Colorado
Territory would be acceptable. Circumstances connected with the public interest make it desirable that the
resignation should reach him without delay."
(Colorado State Archives)
October 5, 1865 – Just days before the commencement of his court-martial trial, Private Charles W. Squier escapes from
the Denver jail with the help of three conspirators. Over the years, several alleged sightings of Soule’s murderer are
reported, but Squier will never be brought to justice. Squier, who was harbored by his elder half-brother and noted
archaeologist, E.G. Squire, drifted for a number of years in the East until his death in 1869 from injuries suffered in a railroad
accident in New York.
1865 -1869 – The Dog Soldiers and their Sioux and Arapaho compatriots went on a bloody rampage throughout Kansas,
Nebraska and eastern Colorado in reprisal for the Sand Creek Massacre. They were finally defeated in the Battle of Summit
Springs , Colorado in 1869. The surviving Dogmen scattered and joined the Northern Cheyenne and Sioux warriors above
the Republican. Before the hostile Indians were eventually subdued in the late 1870s, this alliance scored one final victory at
the Little Big Horn River in 1876, where they annihilated General George Custer's 7th Cavalry, under the leadership of Sioux
chiefs, Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse . . .
November 27, 1868 - Nearly four years to the day, then Colonel George Custer’s 7th Cavalry kills Black Kettle and his
wife in a surprise dawn attack on his village at the Washita River (present day Oklahoma). Black Kettle, disgraced in the
eyes of his people after Sand Creek, never managed to bring the Dog Soldiers under control. He nevertheless tirelessly
campaigned for peace between the Cheyennes and whites, and participated in subsequent treaty negotiations. He was
camped at the Washita under orders of the U.S. military.
September 12, 1891 – Edward W. Wynkoop dies in Santa Fe, NM.
After being fully exonerated in the Sand Creek affair, Wynkoop was promoted and served for several years as Indian Agent to
the Cheyennes and Arapahos. Wynkoop was instrumental in arranging treaties and agreements to compensate the
families of those killed at Sand Creek, but all government promises to the Indians were eventually broken. Wynkoop angrily
resigned when Black Kettle and his wife were killed at Washita. He moved to Pennsylvania for a time to join in the family iron
business, which later fell on hard financial times. Wynkoop then ventured back to the west in government service, and
eventually ended up in New Mexico, where he was warden of the federal penitentiary. Wynkoop forever harbored bitter hatred
for Chivington, not only for the Sand Creek Massacre, but for the murder of his dear friend Silas Soule, whom Wynkoop
insisted was killed by order of Chivington. Wynkoop died at the age of 55 of Bright’s Disease, a malady stemming from
numerous injuries and wounds suffered on the rugged prairie as a young man.
October 4, 1894 – John M. Chivington dies in Denver, CO.
Chivington’s political career ended after his attack at Sand Creek. He resigned as elder of the Methodist church and
wandered for several years, with stops in California, Nebraska, Canada and Ohio. In the interim, his wife and son died, and
he made scandalous headlines in 1868 when he married his son’s widow in order to make a claim on his son’s freighting
business. He soon thereafter abandoned his daughter-in-law bride, and was arrested several times on charges ranging
from forgery to assault. Chivington was later soundly defeated in another attempt to enter politics in Ohio. Chivington
returned to Denver in 1883, where a few of his old army cronies welcomed him. He was soon elected as Sheriff of Arapahoe
County, and later assigned to the Denver coroner’s office. Scandal continued to follow Chivington for the rest of his life, as
he was once charged with perjury as sheriff, and later arrested when, as Denver Coroner, he admitted to stealing $800 from
the pockets of a corpse. Upon his death to cancer in 1894, the Rocky Mountain News called Chivington “one of Colorado’s
greatest heroes.” At his funeral, the Methodist minister, Reverend Dr. Robert McIntyre, said of Chivington:
- “I never in my life knew a man who so represented the soldierly element in Christianity as did the man whom we
are here to honor . . . We shall not look upon his likes again.”
(Rocky Mountain News, October 8, 1894)
Fate of others involved in the Sand Creek affair:
Major Scott Anthony – After leaving Denver after Sand Creek, Anthony later returned and worked first in real estate, and
then for Evans’ Denver Tramway Company. He bitterly condemned Chivington in the years following Sand Creek, but - ever
the noble hypocrite – Anthony was among those who hailed the return of the Fighting Parson in 1883, and he proudly served
as a pallbearer at Chivington’s funeral. Anthony died at Denver in 1903.
Bent Family – Perhaps the best friend of the Cheyennes and Arapahos, St. Louis trader William Bent’s efforts to maintain
the peace with whites unraveled after the Sand Creek Massacre. Bent’s Cheyenne wife was soon thereafter killed by Union
Soldiers, and Bent died alone of pneumonia in 1869. His youngest son, Charley, survived the Sand Creek attack, but
became a murderous renegade and was killed by Pawnees in 1868. Oldest son Robert Bent continued to work as an army
interpreter and scout until his death in 1889. Middle son, George Bent, survived the massacre and joined the Dogmen raids
until their defeat in 1869. He married Black Kettle’s niece, and lived peaceably on a reservation until his death in 1916.
George became the best known of the Bent family, eventually compiling a half-century of Cheyenne history published by
historian George E. Hyde.
Dog Soldier Chief Bull Bear – The only Dog Soldier leader who supported Wynkoop’s effort to make peace went into
a rage after Sand Creek. He joined numerous war parties that brought devastation to the Plains in the five-year reprisal for
Chivington’s massacre. After the Dogmen were defeated in 1869, Bull Bear surrendered and moved his family to the
Darlington Agency reservation in Oklahoma, where he became a Christian and peaceably lived among the whites until his
death in 1904.
Lieutenant Joseph Cramer – Resigned from the military and became sheriff of Dickinson County, Kansas. He fell ill
from complications of injuries received in military service and died in 1870 at the age of 31.
Major Jacob Downing – Amassed a fortune in cattle and horses in Denver. Was the major developer of north Denver
and present-day Lakewood, CO. He died in Denver in 1907.
Arapaho Chief Left Hand – Mortally wounded at Sand Creek, the Arapaho leader died several days later with the
Dogmen and Sioux at their Smoky Hill camp.
Arapaho Chief Little Raven – Continued to campaign for peace with the whites. He visited President Ulysses Grant
and received a peace medal before his death at Oklahoma in 1889. In a belated but sincere gesture, the City of Denver
named a street in 1994 to honor the great Southern Arapaho Chief.
Colonel George Shoup – Although second in command of the Third Regiment at the Sand Creek Massacre, Shoup
seemed to fall through the cracks of accusations and scandal, and mustered out of the army unscathed. H e went on to
become first Governor and then Senator, representing the state of Idaho. He died at Boise, Idaho in 1904.
Samuel Tappan moved to New York City after Sand Creek, and became a political activist in the Indian reform movement,
serving many years on the Indian Peace Commission. Tappan adopted one of three Indian children who survived the Sand
Creek Massacre, but the young girl died while attending a school in New York just a few years later. Tappan died in
Washington D.C. in 1913, and was buried at Arlington National Cemetery.
List of known casualties in the Sand Creek Massacre
By the very nature of ancient Indian culture, most historical data predating the 20th Century is provided through the
interpretation of white historians, for Indian history was related by storytellers and passed on in the oral tradition prior to the
1900s. It is impossible to identify every Cheyenne and Arapaho person who died at Sand Creek, particularly the women and
children. The following list was compiled from Gary Roberts’ Sand Creek – Tragedy and Symbol , official military records,
and the 1982 issue of the Northern Cheyenne Tribal News, which provides a partial list of Cheyenne and Arapaho casualties
at Sand Creek: