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Edmund Cartwright, the son of a large landowner from Marnham, Nottingham, was born in 1743. His brother, John Cartwright, was later to become one of the leaders of the parliamentary reform movement. After being educated at University College, Oxford, Cartwright became rector of the church at Goadby Marwood in Leicestershire.
In 1784 Cartwright visited a factory owned by Richard Arkwright. Inspired by what he saw, he began working on a machine that would improve the speed and quality of weaving. Employing a blacksmith and a carpenter to help him, Cartwright managed to produce what he called a power loom. He took out a patent for his machine in 1785, but at this stage it performed poorly.
In 1787 Cartwright opened a weaving mill in Doncaster and two years later began using steam engines produced by James Watt and Matthew Boulton, to drive his looms. All operations that had been previously been done by the weaver's hands and feet, could now be performed mechanically. The main task of the weavers employed by Cartwright was repairing broken threads on the machine. Although these power looms were now performing well, Cartwright was a poor businessman and he eventually went bankrupt.
Cartwright now turned his attentions to over projects and took out a patent for a wool-combing machine (1790) and an alcohol engine (1797).
In 1799 a Manchester company purchased 400 of Cartwright's power looms but soon afterwards their factory was burnt to the ground, probably by workers who feared they would lose their jobs. This incident influenced other manufacturers from not buying Cartwright's machines.
By the early part of the 19th century a large number of factory owners were using a modified version of Cartwright's power loom. When Cartwright discovered what was happening he applied to the House of Commons for compensation. Some MPs such as Robert Peel, who had been one of those who had made a great deal of money from the modified power loom, supported his claim and in 1809 Parliament voted him a lump sum of £10,000.
Edmund Cartwright retired to a farm in Kent where he died in 1823.
Edmund Cartwright - History
Memorandum on a seventeenth century pedigree of the family of Cartwright.
THE earliest records of the Cartwright family date from the 16th century. At that time there seem to have been two principal branches of the family established at Ossington and Ordsall, and there is a fair amount of evidence, such as frequent intermarriages and documentary claims of cousinship, in favour of the presumption that these branches came from a common ancestor. This ancestor is supposed to have been a certain Hugh Cartwright, who married Maud Coo or Coe, and it is a curious fact that a family of that name was living at Ordsall in the 16th century, as appears from the registers.
The above note, which is reproduced from an old family pedigree of the 17th century, records how the marriage of a certain Edmund Cartwright (probably of Norwell), with Anne Cranmer, resulted in the acquisition of some rich church lands in Kent, and of the manor of Ossington through his brother-in-law, the Archbishop but according to Thoroton, the manor of Ossington was given to a certain Richard Andrews, and it was through a subsequent marriage of Edmund Cartwright with Agnes Andrews, that Ossington passed into the possession of the Cartwright family.
The registers of Ordsall Church, which date back to about 1540, are full of entries of baptisms, as well as marriages and burials of Cartwrights, of whom there appear to have been several families in the place, but the meagre information afforded by the registers makes it impossible to discover if, and to what extent, they were related. Curiously enough the Cartwright entries abruptly cease after the year 1585, and no records have as yet been discovered to shew the cause of this family migration. They appear to have settled at Edingley and Normanton, near Southwell, and a family of Cartwrights are also mentioned in the visitation of 1614, as established at Wheatley, but although Wheatley is not far from Ordsall, there is no evidence to shew that this latter family had any connection with the Ordsall Cartwrights.
The first document, which throws any light on the Ordsall branch of the Cartwright family, dates from the reign of Edward the sixth, and is the will of one Alexander Cartwrighte, of Whitehouses, Ordsall, co. Notts., husbandman, dated March 18th, 1551, and proved at York, May 12th, 1552. Besides various charitable bequests to the poor of Ordsall, of what appear nowadays ridiculously small sums, as for example, "Poor in Almshouses in East Retford 12d," and to the "Poor living in Southend of Castlegate in East Retford 4d," he left several acres of land in Ordsall to his sons Alexander, George, Thomas, and Gregory, with the proviso that they were not to be alienated from the family. To his wife, Isabel, and his son, Gregory, each 4 oxen and an iron-bound wain, son Thomas received one acre of barley and a cowe, Son George was given 2 bullocks etc, and to his Son Alexander 2 bullocks, 2 ewes etc, while his daughter, Isabel, had to be content with 20 Marks, and a bed and bedding. For some unknown reason, he left the residue of his property to his wife and his youngest son, Gregory, thus making him his heir.
Gregory's will was proved at York, in 1574. He desired "to be buried in the Sotheyle of Church of Ordsall," and left to his wife, Elizabeth, "the messuage I now dwell in, and my landes in Ordsall, Thrumpton, and Eaton for nineteen years," after which it was to go to "Son George." A will has also been found of a certain Edmund Cartwright, of Moorhouse, parish Laxton, co. Notts., dated July 23rd, 1580, who leaves an annuity of £6 13s. 4d., from the manor of Ossington, to his son, George, but from internal evidence, it seems practically certain that it was the Ordsall farmer's "Son George," who makes a will in 1612, which begins thus: "In the name of GOD Amen the eight and twentieth day of March accordinge to the computation of the Church of England one thousand six hundred and twelve I George Cartwright of Normanton in the Parish of Sowthwell and the Countie of Nott Gentleman beeinge in good and perfecte memorie (thanks be given to GOD for it) and yet consideringe the mortalitie and uncertaintie of this present lief do make and ordaine this my last Will and Testament in manner and forme followinge." He leaves his "divers landes tentes and hereditaments in Normanton afsd Upton Kirklington and Ordsall . . unto the use and behoof of William Cartwright my sonne and heire apparente and the heires of his bodie lawfully to bee begotten "and failing him to his daughter Ffrances, and after her to his nephew, Richard Denman, of Ordsall. George Cartwright was evidently seized with some mortal illness while his children were mere infants, as he leaves minute directions with his wife as to the education of his "'Sonne' during all the time of his minoritie and nonage in the true religion and feare of GOD and in civilitie learninge and good breeding according to his degree and calling as well in some gramer schole as also in one of the universities of Cambridge or Oxforde as soon as he shall be fitte to go to the same "and he makes" my trustie and welbeloved frendes John Chaworth the elder of Sowthwell afsd esquier and William Cartwright my cousin of Edingley in the Countie of Nott afsd Gent. for the special trust I repose in them my true and lawfull exequutours of this my last Will and Testament."
The registers of Southwell Cathedral shew that George Cartwright was buried on the 8th day of September, 1612, at the early age of forty.
William Cartwright, however, seems to have done credit to his father's anxious care for his education, and is supposed to have been the Colonel Cartwright, who, as a staunch Royalist, took an active part in the siege of Nottingham Castle, himself leading one of the assaults. He is constantly mentioned in Colonel Hutchinson's Memoirs, and was not a favourite with Mrs. Hutchinson, who describes him on one occasion as "growing bold in the exercise of an abusive wit he had."
Another member of the family, one of the Ossington branch, Sir Hugh Cartwright, of Hexgrave Park, near Edingley, was also on the King's side. When Pontefract Castle, the last castle held for King Charles, was surrendered to General Lambert, Sir Hugh and his son, Captain Cartwright, who were supposed to be implicated in the death of the Roundhead, General Rainsborough, at Doncaster, were exempted from the general amnesty as dangerous Malignants, and in order to save them from the vengeance of their enemies, they were left blocked up in a secret chamber with a month's provisions, until, the search being over, they managed to escape, and made their way to Antwerp, where the former died in 1668, and his body being brought to England, was buried at Methwold Church, co. Norfolk. In Bloomfield and Parkin's "History of Norfolk," vol. i, p. 510, we read: "On the pavement about the Communion Table lye several marble gravestones, . . . and one thus inscribed: 'Here lyeth the Body of Sir Hugh Cartwright of Nottingham, Knt, aged 74 and dy'd An Dom 1668.'"
Sir Hugh Cartwright's first wife was his cousin, Mary, daughter of William Cartwright, of Edingley, but the following letter was written, during his exile, to his second wife "att Ansley," and she is supposed to have been a Momford, of Norfolk.
"Antwerp this 19th of September 1666.
My dearest joy and only contentment in this world,
I thank you I have now by this post received a letter from you dated ye 22 of August, and before this I have not received any from you since ye first of July. Now by these you write yt, GOD willing, I shall expect you at Callice in ye latter end of October, where if GOD gives me leave, I will not fail to wayht upon you. And if ye young Gallant 1 hould his resolution for Paris, I am pleased, for as to my owne inclinations, I like France as well to live in as any place whereever I came. But I shall desier to hear often from you, for truly a peece of paper from you is very welcome to mee, and besides ye occasions & resolutions may alter and until such time as I receave a post . . . from my sonne of ye Gentleman's 2 resolution and of ye precise time when I shall attend him, I will not remove hence, for att any time I can bee there in eight dayes, and I shall not desier to bee att Callice above 8 dayes, before I may expect to receive you there. I am confident yt my sonne knowes as well or better then I doe how the prsent trebles are in France, & yt at this prsent the Archduke is wth ye Spanish Army wthin twenty English miles of Paris, and wth partyes of horse makes Rades every day to the gates of Paris, but I write not this to alter their resolutions or to put them in fear more than they shall find cause for, & for myself, I am not affraid but yt I can pass or live safely in one part or other of France, & not come wthin forty or fifty miles of any Army. You write of bringing sugar, I doe thinke you should not, for I know they send sugar from hence to England, good loafe sugar is heare 18 pence, Curants 4 pence, Raysing 5 pence after ye rate of English money, and ye English pound waight, nor doe I think yt there is any thing for man's use that is not to bee had cheaper heare than to be brought over except Ribons, stokings & woollen broad clothes, besides you must know that wee must pay for every pound waight wee carry from Callice unto Paris 4 pence, for it must pass by wagon as we doe, & we ourselves must pay foure pistolle for every person from Callicc to Paris, besides 4 pence ye pound for all ye goods, and it will cost mee as much from this place, where I am to Callice, the journey beeing much what equall.
By day, Edmund Cartwright worked for God as a Church of England minister in Leicestershire. But the moment he got some time to himself, he indulged in his other passion - as a prolific inventor.
Born in 1743 in Nottingham, Cartwright was living though momentous times. The industrial revolution was just getting into gear, and in the North West of England there was a growing supply of machine-spun cotton - in fact more than could be dealt with by the weary weavers who at that time worked by hand.
After a visit to a spinning mill run by pioneer Richard Arkwright, Cartwright set his mind to the problem and in 1785 patented his first water-driven power loom. It was fairly crude but he gradually improved the design and by 1788, he had created a weaving machine with a far greater output than any hand-loom. In 1789 he also patented a wool-combing machine that could do the work of 20 wool workers.
He set up his own factory in Doncaster for spinning and weaving, but despite his mechanical genius - and the addition of a steam engine to supply power - he went bankrupt in 1793.
Fortunately, the story has a happy ending. In 1809, the British government finally recognised his services to the cotton industry and awarded him £10,000 - a fortune at the time. Cartwright finally died in Kent in 1823.
Edmund Cartwright was the inventor of a mechanical weaving loom that could be operated by horses, a waterwheel, or a steam engine. By 1791 this machine could be operated by an unskilled person (usually a child), who could weave three and half times the amount of material on a power loom in the time a skilled weaver using traditional methods could. This invention revolutionized the emerging textile industry in England.
The son of a wealthy landowner, Cartwright was born in Nottingham, England, in 1743. Because his family was rich, he was able to attend prestigious schools, eventually graduating from University College, Oxford. After completing his schooling he became rector of the church at Goadby Marwood in Leicestershire. Although he was employed in a profession he enjoyed, Cartwright had an interest in the inventions happening in the emerging textile industry.
In 1784 Cartwright visited a factory owned by Richard Arkwright (1732-1792). Arkwright had designed and built machinery capable of spinning yarn and thread, but the weaving was still done by independent household weavers. Cartwright, inspired by Arkwright's invention, began working on a powered weaving machine that would improve the speed and quantity of the actual weaving of cloth. Cartwright's first loom was clumsy and ineffective—primarily because he was unfamiliar with the construction and operation of the handlooms. In spite of the fact that the original machine worked poorly, he took out a patent. After employing a local blacksmith and carpenter as consultants, he built two more prototypes and by 1790 had completed a loom capable of weaving wide widths of cloth with complicated patterns. All operations that could be done by the weaver's hands and feet could now be performed mechanically.
Cartwright had established a factory for his looms in 1786. Prior to this, the newly established factories manufactured only thread and yarn. Handloom weavers had been guaranteed a constant supply of thread, jobs, and high wages. The implementation of the power loom worried the local weavers who feared (correctly) that the machines would replace their services. During 1791 his factory was burned to the ground, possibly by a group of local unemployed weavers. (In 1799 a Manchester, England, company purchased 400 of Cartwright's power looms, but soon afterwards their factory was burnt down by another group of unhappy local weavers.)
The once-prosperous hand weavers eventually had great difficulty finding employment, and those who did were forced to accept far fewer wages than they had in the past. In 1807 nearly 130,000 individuals signed a petition in favor of a minimum wage in the factories. The local authorities replied by sending in the military one weaver was killed and others seriously injured.
After the catastrophic fire and worker unrest, Cartwright found himself in financial difficulties, as many other business owners would not buy machinery from Cartwright. He attempted to offset these problems by inventing an ingenious wool-combing machine however, local skilled workers opposed this also. Eventually he went bankrupt and was forced to sell his patents and factories. By the early 1800s, however, a large number of factory owners were using a modified version of Cartwright's power loom. Cartwright, having lost his patent, petitioned the House of Commons for compensation for others using his design. His claim was supported, and in 1809 he was awarded 10,000 pounds. He retired to a farm, where he applied his inventive abilities towards improving machinery used in agriculture. He invented a reaper and wrote pamphlets and essays on animal husbandry as well as using manure as fertilizer. He continued to develop new agricultural inventions until his death in 1823.
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Dictionary of National Biography, 1885-1900/Cartwright, Edmund
CARTWRIGHT, EDMUND, D.D. (1743–1823), the reputed inventor of the power-loom, born 24 April 1743, was the fourth son of William Cartwright of Marnham, Nottinghamshire, where the family had been settled for generations. One of his elder brothers was Major John Cartwright [q. v.] He received his early education at Wakefield grammar school, and at fourteen went to University College, Oxford. When he wished to become a candidate for a fellowship at Magdalen without having graduated, convocation ( Cartwright , Memorial, read to the Society of Arts, p. 6) passed an act enabling him to take his B.A. degree before the regular time. On receiving it, in 1764, he was elected a fellow of Magdalen, proceeding M.A. in 1766. A versifier from an early age, he published anonymously, in 1772, ‘Armine and Elvira, a legendary poem,’ which went rapidly through several editions and was reprinted in an anonymous volume of poems issued by him in 1773. In the essay on the imitation of the ancient ballads prefixed to the third part of the ‘Minstrelsy of the Scottish Border,’ Sir Walter Scott speaks of ‘Armine and Elvira’ as a ‘beautiful piece,’ and admired by Dugald Stewart. Having taken orders and married a lady who appears to have inherited property in Doncaster, Cartwright was presented to the perpetual curacy of Brampton, near Wakefield. In 1779 he became rector of Goadby Marwood, Leicestershire, and published (anonymously) ‘The Prince of Peace,’ an ode deploring the war with the American colonists. At Goadby Marwood he made agricultural experiments on his glebe land, contributed to the ‘Monthly Review,’ and formed an intimacy with Crabbe, who in 1772 became his neighbour as chaplain to the Duke of Rutland at Belvoir. Cartwright was prebendary of Lincoln from 1786 till death.
In 1784 Cartwright paid a holiday-visit to Matlock, near Arkwright's [see Arkwright, Sir Richard ] cotton-spinning mills at Cromford. There Cartwright happened to say in conversation that Arkwright ‘would have to set his wits to work to invent a weaving-mill,’ and argued that it would not be more difficult to make a weaving-machine than it had been to construct the automatic chess-player. From this conversation sprang the modern power-loom, according to the account years afterwards furnished by Cartwright to the contributor of an article on the cotton manufacture in the ‘Encyclopædia Britannica’ (reproduced in Baines's ‘History of the Cotton Manufacture,’ pp. 229–30).
Soon after his return home Cartwright constructed a power-loom without having seen the working of the ordinary hand-loom. His clumsy machine was inadequate as an effective substitute for the hand-loom. Nevertheless he took out a patent for it, 4 April 1785, removing in the same year to Doncaster, where he had become possessed of some property, probably in right of his wife. Having studied the working of the handloom, in 1786—issuing the while a new edition of his poems (mostly commonplace)—he visited Manchester to have a model of his improved machine constructed and criticised by skilful workmen, and to enlist the aid of local manufacturers. Disappointed in this hope, and having taken out two more patents, 30 Oct. 1786 and 18 Aug. 1787, for further improvements in his loom, he set up at Doncaster a factory of his own for weaving and spinning. The power-loom worked there was the parent of that now in use, and in it an ingenious mechanism was substituted for the hands and feet of the ordinary weaver (see drawing of a portion of it, with the improvements subsequently patented in 1790, in appendix C to the Memoir of Cartwright, by his daughter, and description of it there, pp. 64–6 also the drawings of it, with extracts from the specification of 1790, in Barlow , History of Weaving, pp. 236–8). Cartwright's was not the earliest power-loom, but it was the first by which wide cloth, such as calico, was woven for practical purposes ( Barlow , p. 229).
Yorkshire had for centuries been a principal seat of the woollen manufacture, and at Doncaster Cartwright invented a wool-combing machine which contributed greatly to lessen the cost of that manufacture. It was an invention more original than his power-loom. No method of combing wool but by hand appears to have been so much as thought of when Cartwright took out, in 1789, his first patent for a wool-combing machine. Its structure was essentially modified when he took out, in 1790, a second and third patent, followed by a fourth in 1792. It substituted mechanical action for manual. Even in the earlier stages of its development one machine did the work of twenty combers by hand, and by the use of a single set of the machines a manufacturer could save 1,100l. per annum (see drawings and descriptions of it in Memoir, pp. 98–100, and in James , History of the Worsted Manufacture, where its initial value is spoken of disparagingly). Petitions against its use poured into the House of Commons from the wool-combers, some fifty thousand in number. So formidable seemed their opposition that Cartwright, in a counter-petition, expressed his readiness to limit the number of his machines to be used in any one year. The House of Commons appointed a committee to inquire into the matter, and nothing came of the wool-combers' agitation (Journals of the House of Commons, xlix. 322 Cartwright , Memorial, read to the Society of Arts, p. 43).
Cartwright's Doncaster factory is said to have been on a limited scale, until the erection of a steam-engine in 1788 or 1789, though on visiting it Mrs. Crabbe was astonished by its magnitude (Life of Crabbe, by his son, 1847, p. 38). In 1791 a Manchester firm contracted with Cartwright for the use of four hundred of his power-looms, and built a mill in which some of them were worked by a steam-engine, at a saving, it was said, of half the wages paid to the hand-loom weavers. The Manchester mill was burned to the ground, probably by workmen, who feared to be displaced. This catastrophe prevented manufacturers from repeating the experiment. Cartwright's success at Doncaster was obstructed by opposition and by the costly character of his processes in that early stage. By 1793, having spent some 30,000l., he was deeply in debt. He relinquished his works at Doncaster, giving up his property to his creditors, transferring for their benefit also his patent rights to his brothers, John and Charles, and recording in a stoical sonnet his feelings at this destruction of his hopes.
In 1793 Cartwright removed to London, where, in a small house nearly on the site afterwards occupied by the Coliseum, he built a room with the ‘geometrical bricks,’ patented 14 April 1795, whose cost alone would have prevented their general use. He constructed a new steam-engine, for which he took out a patent in 1797, and in which alcohol was wholly or in part to be substituted for water (see drawings in Tredgold , Steam-engine, i. 34–5). He now formed an intimacy with Robert Fulton, co-operating with him in experiments for the application of steam to navigation. Cartwright was one of the arbitrators appointed to settle the terms of the compensation to be given by the British government to Fulton on his suppression of a secret for blowing up ships by submarine navigation. In 1799 Cartwright was for a time candidate for the secretaryship of the Society of Arts, and prepared a ‘memorial,’ afterwards published, which gives some autobiographical details. He had been appointed a prebendary of Lincoln in 1786 ( Le Neve , Fasti, ii. 207) by Thurlow, then bishop of that see.
In 1800 Cartwright's patent for the wool-combing machine had only a few years to run. It was coming into use slowly, but infringements were frequent and costly to resist. He petitioned parliament to prolong his patent for fourteen years, and circulated a ‘case’ in which he told the story of his inventions and his losses by them. After an inquiry by a committee of the House of Commons, a bill prolonging the patent for fourteen years was passed in 1801. When the prolonged patent expired, Cartwright remained a loser by his invention. Cartwright had been again directing his attention to agricultural improvements. In 1793 had appeared a letter from him to Sir John Sinclair on a new reaping machine of his invention, and in June 1801 he received a prize from the board of agriculture for an essay on husbandry. In 1800 the ninth duke of Bedford gave him the management of an experimental farm at Woburn. The duke died in the following spring, and Cartwright preached a funeral sermon which was severely censured, as improper from a clergyman, in a published letter, signed ‘Christianus Laicus,’ addressed to Charles James Fox. The tenth duke of Bedford retained his services until 1807. In that year appeared a volume of affectionately didactic ‘Letters and Sonnets’ addressed by Cartwright to Lord John Russell, then a boy of fifteen. During his stay at Woburn, Cartwright's zealous promotion of agricultural improvement procured him distinctions from the Society of Arts and the board of agriculture. In 1806 the university of Oxford conferred on him his B.D. and D.D. degrees, and he officiated as domestic chaplain to the Duke of Bedford. He remained rector of Goadby Marwood until 1808 at least.
In 1804 Cartwright's patent for the power-loom expired. For several years after his abandonment of the Doncaster factory his power-loom was little used, but, with improvements effected in it, it came gradually into some favour. About 1806 Cartwright found his invention to have become a source of considerable profit to Lancashire manufacturers. He wrote an indignant letter to a Manchester friend. In August 1807 some fifty prominent Manchester firms signed a memorial to the Duke of Portland, as prime minister, asking the government to bestow a substantial recognition on the services rendered to the country by Cartwright's invention of the power-loom. Cartwright petitioned the House of Commons, which on 10 June 1809 voted him 10,000l.
Cartwright now became independent. He bought a small farm at Hollander, between Sevenoaks and Tunbridge, and occupied himself during the rest of his life in cultivating it and in useful inventions, agricultural and general. In his eighty-third year he sent to the Royal Society, which did not publish it, a paper containing a new theory of the movement of the planets round the sun. At Hollander he was kind to the poor and active as a magistrate. Crabbe's son speaks of Cartwright as ‘a portly dignified old gentleman, grave and polite, but full of humour and spirit.’ Inventing to the last, he died at Hastings on 30 Oct. 1823, and was buried in the church of Battle, where his family erected a mural monument to his memory. Cartwright left several children, among them Edmund, rector of Earnley Elizabeth, wife of the Rev. John Penrose, better known as the Mrs. Markham of juvenile historical literature Frances Dorothy [q. v.], the biographer of her uncle, Major Cartwright and Mary, the wife of Henry Eustatius Strickland, no doubt the authoress of the meritorious biography of her father, which was published anonymously, but to the preface of which its writer affixed the signature ‘M. S.’
Rev. Edmund Cartwright
WORKS PROFILE COMMENTARY BIOGRAPHIES REFERENCE AUTHOR AS CRITIC
Edmund Cartwright, credited with inventing the power-loom, was tutored by John Langhorne at the Wakefield Free School before entering University College Oxford in 1760 at the early age of fourteen. In 1764 he became Fellow of Magdalen College (M.A. 1766, D.D. 1806). Cartwright married an heiress, reviewed for the Monthly, and was rector of Brampton, Yorkshire, and Goadby Marwood, Leicestershire, and prebendary of Lincoln (1786). The poem Armine and Elvira reached a ninth edition, though Cartwright was better known for his mechanical inventions and agricultural experiments.
Constantia, an Elegy to the memory of a lady, Mrs. Langhorne. 1768.
Armine and Elvira, a legendary tale. 1771.
The Prince of Peace and other poems. 1779.
Sonnets to eminent men. 1783.
Poems, a new edition. 1786.
A memorial read to the Society for Encouragement of Arts, Manufactures, and Commerce . with an appendix containing letters from the late Sir William Jones. 1800.
A sermon preached . after the interment of the Duke of Bedford. 1802.
On the means of extending the cultivation of corn. 2 vols, 1803.
Letters and sonnets, on moral, and other interesting subjects. 1807.
A sermon . preached 1808.
University College Oxford
Magdalen College Oxford
Bachelor of Arts
Master of Arts
Doctor of Divinity
Edmund Cartwright - History
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(i) Bidders. By participating in this sale, the bidder agrees to be bound by Rupert Toovey & Co. Ltd.’s Conditions of Business. Any buyer acting for any person who is not bidding shall be jointly and severally liable with that person for satisfaction of all arising obligations and liabilities, with the exception of the Auctioneers where they are acting on behalf of commission or other bidders.
(ii) Paddles. All intending bidders are required to register for a paddle bidding number with the Accounts Department prior to the auction. Bidders new to the salerooms will be required to complete a paddle registration form available at the Accounts Office and will be required to present proof of identity, proof of address and details of a valid debit or credit card in their name, which details may be retained on file by the Auctioneers and used to secure payment for purchased lots. The Auctioneer will not accept bids from a bidder in the room who has not registered for a paddle number. When a buyer is successful, the buyer will hold the paddle aloft and the Auctioneer will record the paddle number as the buyer of the lot.
(iii) Commission Bids. Any person unable to attend the auction may request the Auctioneer to bid on their behalf. Bidding forms will be available for clients to complete and hand in at the Accounts Office. All commission bidders will be required to supply details of a valid debit or credit card in their name, which details may be retained on file by the Auctioneers and used to secure payment for purchased lots. Commission bidders may also be required to provide proof of identity and address. Commission bidders are urged to ascertain whether or not they have been successful on the day of the sale or on the Monday following the sale. Lots will be purchased by the Auctioneer on behalf of the commission bidder for the lowest price allowed by other bids and/or reserves if any, up to and including their maximum bid amount recorded. ‘Buy’ bids will not be accepted by the Auctioneers. It is the commission bidder’s responsibility to complete the bidding form correctly and they are urged, therefore, to ensure that the correct lot number(s) and price(s) are recorded. The Auctioneers do not accept responsibility for any consequences arising from neglect or default in executing or failure to execute commission bids.
(iv) Telephone Bids. Any person unable to attend the auction may request to bid on a lot by telephone. This facility is only available by prior arrangement with the Auctioneers, is dependent on the availability of telephone lines, and is only available on lots carrying a lower estimate of at least £300 (e.g. catalogue estimate £300-500). All telephone bidders will be required to supply details of a valid debit or credit card in their name, which details may be retained on file by the Auctioneers and used to secure payment for purchased lots. Telephone bidders may also be required to provide proof of identity and address. The Auctioneers do not accept responsibility for any consequences arising from neglect or default in executing or failure to execute telephone bids.
(v) Condition Reports. Reports on the condition of any lot are offered by the Auctioneers as a statement of opinion only, and not of fact. Rupert Toovey & Co. Ltd. are not liable for any errors or omissions contained therein.
(vi) In the case of a dispute, the Auctioneers reserve the right to re-offer any lot.
(vii) The bidding increments will be at the sole discretion of the Auctioneer.
(viii) Responsibility for risk, loss or damage to any lot falls to the bidder upon the fall of the hammer or, if the lot is purchased privately, to the purchaser on the day when the contract is made. The Auctioneers are not liable for any loss or damage occurring to a lot during clearing. Buyers may accept assistance from Rupert Toovey & Co. Ltd. staff members during clearing, but any loss or damage occurring to lots will be at the buyers’ risk.
9. Liability of Auctioneers and Sellers –
(i) Goods sold are not new and all goods are sold with all faults and imperfections and errors of description. Illustrations in the catalogue and any other illustrations provided are for identification only colours and appearance may differ to the actual item(s) due to the limitations of the printing process.
(ii) Bidders should prior to the sale satisfy themselves as to the condition of each lot and whether or not in their own judgment the lot accords with the description.
(iii) Neither the Auctioneers nor the seller, nor their servants and agents, are responsible for errors of description or for the authenticity of any lot.
(iv) Neither the Auctioneers nor the seller, nor their servants and agents, give any warranty whatsoever other than hereinafter contained to any buyer in respect of any lot any express or implied conditions or warranties are hereby excluded.
10. Rupert Toovey & Co. Ltd. reserves the right to reproduce illustrations and to publish sale results.
11. Electrical Goods. Goods offered for sale which were once operated by electricity may not comply with statutory requirements and are offered for sale for display and historical research purposes only these goods are not suitable for connection to the mains electricity supply. It is imperative that anyone wishing to use these goods for their original purpose have them checked by a qualified electrician prior to such use.
12. Where a member of the public causes damage to a lot (or part thereof) the Auctioneers reserve the right to:
(i) sell the aforementioned without reserve and to hold that specific individual liable for the amount of any difference between the hammer price and the reserve or lower estimate, whichever be the higher
or (ii) hold that specific individual liable for the cost of restoration where appropriate
or (iii) hold that specific individual liable for the full amount of the reserve price or lower estimate, whichever be the higher.
N.B. Except where full payment has been made under Condition 12(iii), title to the lot will remain solely with the seller.
13. Rupert Toovey & Co. Ltd. draw your attention to ‘GENERAL CONDITIONS AND DEFINITIONS APPLICABLE TO BIDDERS, BUYERS AND SELLERS’ and ‘IMPORTANT NOTICE TO BIDDERS AND BUYERS’ below.
14. Lots entered into this sale are subject to Reserve Prices.
15. Certain property sold at auction may be subject to laws governing export from the country where it was purchased and import into another country. It is the buyer’s responsibility to be aware of these restrictions and obtain any relevant licenses.
16. Rupert Toovey & Co. Ltd. reserve the right to amend any or all of their Terms and Conditions of Business at any time. Further details on request.
N.B. References to ‘The Auctioneer’ and ‘The Auctioneers’ include Rupert Toovey & Co. Ltd., its directors, employees, consultants, servants and agents.
GENERAL CONDITIONS AND DEFINITIONS
APPLICABLE TO BIDDERS, BUYERS AND SELLERS
1. The Auctioneer sells as agent for the seller and as such is not responsible for any default by seller or buyer.
2. Any representation or statement by the Auctioneers in any catalogue as to ownership, attribution, genuineness, origin, date, age, provenance, condition or estimated selling price is a statement of opinion only and the Auctioneers, their servants or agents hereby disclaim responsibility for the correctness of such opinions.
(i) ‘Hammer Price’ means the price at which a lot is knocked down by the Auctioneer to the buyer.
(ii) ‘Balance Due’ means the hammer price in respect of the lot sold together with any premium, value added tax chargeable and additional charges and expenses, e.g. storage charges and insurance, in pounds sterling.
(iii) ‘Sale Proceeds’ means the net amount due to the seller being the hammer price of the lot sold less commission at the stated rate and expenses and any other amounts due to the Auctioneers from the seller.
4. The Auctioneer has the right at his absolute discretion without giving any reason to refuse any bid, to advance the bidding as he may decide, to withdraw or divide any lot, to combine any two or more lots and, in the case of a dispute, to put up any lot for auction again.
5. Rupert Toovey & Co. Ltd. at its absolute discretion has the right to refuse admission to its premises or attendance at its auctions by any person.
N.B. References to ‘The Auctioneer’ and ‘The Auctioneers’ include Rupert Toovey & Co. Ltd., its directors, employees, consultants, servants and agents.
IMPORTANT NOTICE TO BIDDERS AND BUYERS
1. Your attention is drawn to our terms and conditions.
2. We operate a Paddle Bidding System. All prospective purchasers intending to bid in the room must first obtain a bidding paddle from the office. All new prospective purchasers intending to bid in the room must complete a Paddle Registration Form to be handed to the office before the commencement of the sale in order to obtain a bidding paddle. Proof of identity, proof of address and valid credit or debit card details will be required from all new prospective purchasers.
3. A Buyer’s Premium at the rate of 22.5% plus VAT (27% inclusive of VAT) will be charged on the hammer price of each lot purchased.
4. We are pleased to execute commission bids for those unable to attend the sale. Commission Bidding Forms are available in the front reception and should be handed in to the office. Commission bids may also be left via our website, up to midnight on the day prior to the sale at the latest. We can also arrange for prospective purchasers to bid by telephone but prior arrangements must be made at least one day before the sale. Telephone bidding is subject to availability of telephone lines and is only available on lots carrying a lower catalogue estimate of at least £300 (e.g. catalogue estimate £300-500). Bids placed by telephone, fax, e-mail, via our website or via other websites are accepted only at the sender’s risk. We do not accept responsibility for any consequences arising from neglect or default in executing or failure to execute commission bids or telephone bids. Proof of identity, proof of address and/or valid credit or debit card details will be required from all commission and telephone bidders.
5. Whilst an indication of damage is given in some instances, an absence of such advice does not imply that a lot is free from defect. Prospective purchasers are advised to inspect in detail any lot on which they intend to bid, to satisfy themselves as to the condition of the lot and as to whether or not in their judgement the lot accords with the description. Our porters will be pleased to assist in making any lot more accessible for a detailed inspection.
6. Your attention is drawn to the Catalogue Amendments sheets available at the office and at the saleroom counters throughout view days and sale days. Descriptions and estimates of extra lots, entered in the sale subsequent to the catalogue going to press, and amendments to catalogue descriptions and/or estimates are advised on these sheets. As changes to catalogue descriptions and estimates are made throughout the week of the sale, it is important for prospective buyers to check the latest version of the Catalogue Amendments sheet prior to the sale for any changes which may affect lots on which they intend to bid.
7. Electrical Goods. Those lots in this sale which were once operated by electricity may not comply with statutory requirements and are offered for sale for display and historical research purposes only these lots are not suitable for connection to the mains electricity supply. It is imperative that anyone wishing to use these goods for their original purpose have them checked by a qualified electrician prior to use.
8. Payment for all purchased lots must be made by 5.00 pm on the Wednesday following the sale at the latest. Payment is accepted in Pounds Sterling by cash, cheque, bank draft or telegraphic bank transfer. Purchasers will be held liable for any expenses arising from their method of payment. Goods paid for by cheque will not be released to clients unknown, or known clients at the auctioneers’ discretion, until their cheques have been cleared. Cheque clearance takes eight bank processing days from the day of paying-in.
Payment is also accepted by debit and credit cards bearing the ‘VISA’, ‘V PAY’, MasterCard’ and ‘Maestro’ symbols. A surcharge of 3% plus VAT (3.6% inclusive of VAT) of invoice total is payable by the buyer if paying by credit card or by V PAY card. There is no surcharge if payment is made by debit card, with the exception of V PAY.
Card-not-present transactions: the maximum debit or credit card payment accepted when the cardholder is not present is £2,500. Multiple card-not-present payments to cover an invoice total in excess of £2,500 are not accepted. Card-not-present transactions are subject to our compliance requirements and are only accepted from buyers whose cards are registered to a verifiable address in the United Kingdom. It is not possible to make card-not-present payments by V PAY card.
9. All purchased lots must be cleared from the saleroom by 5.00 pm on the Wednesday following the sale at the latest. No lots may be cleared without first being paid for in full. On sale days, clearing is not permitted whilst the auction is in progress, only at the conclusion of each morning and afternoon session. Thereafter, we are open for clearing on the Monday, Tuesday and Wednesday following the sale between 9.00 am and 5.00 pm. Any lots not collected by 5.00 pm on the Wednesday following the sale may be removed to store and be subject to removal expenses and storage charges payable by the buyer, as detailed in the conditions of business printed at the back of this catalogue. (Goods awaiting collection subject to cheque clearance may not incur storage charges during the cheque clearance period.)
10. Carriage of purchased lots. It is the buyer’s responsibility to arrange for the collection of purchases by a third-party carrier, if necessary, within the timescale detailed in (9) above. We do not provide a carriage service ourselves but, if required, we can provide contact details for third-party carriers who may be able to assist.
Packing & posting of purchased lots. We do not undertake either the packing or the despatch by post/courier/shipper of any purchased lots ourselves. Buyers requiring these services may choose to contact the specialist worldwide posting and shipping company Mail Boxes Etc., who can be contacted at Guildford (Tel: 01483 453131, E-mail: [email protected]), Horsham (Tel: 01403 265005, E-mail: [email protected]) or Brighton (Tel: 01273 706020, E-mail: [email protected]).
No lots will be released to a third-party carrier without first being paid for in full.
Cartwright oli radikaaliaktivisti John Cartwrightin nuorempi veli.  Hän kävi kuningatar Elisabetin perustamaa koulua Wakefieldissä ja opiskeli Oxfordin yliopistossa, ja hänestä tuli Englannin kirkon kappalainen. Uransa hän aloitti Goadby Marwoodin seurakuntapappina Leicestershiressä. Vuonna 1783 hän oli vanhempana pappina Lincolnin tuomiokirkossa Lincolnshiressä.
Cartwright keskittyi kudonnan mekanisointiin. Kehruukone ja teollinen valmistus oli jo olemassa. Hän suunnitteli ensimmäisen kutomakoneensa vuonna 1784 ja patentoi sen 1785, mutta se osoittautui arvottomaksi. Vuonna 1789 hän patentoi uudenlaiset kangaspuut, jotka toimivat perustana hänen myöhemmille keksinnöilleen. Jotta kangaspuiden mekanisointi olisi taloudellisesti järkevää, yksittäisen koneen ei pitäisi vaatia omaa käyttäjää tai koneen tuottavuuden pitäisi olla huomattavasti suurempi kuin normaalien kangaspuiden. Cartwrightia avusti kehitystyössä Zach Dijkhoff -niminen vanhempi mies.
Cartwright lisäsi kangaspuihin positiivisen irrotusliikkeen, loimilankojen ja kudelangan pysäytyksen ja loimenlankojen asetuksen kangaspuiden ollessa toiminnassa. Hän aloitti kutomon Doncasterissa, käytti näitä kangaspuita ja huomasi niissä monia puutteita. Hän yritti parantaa koneen toimintaa monin tavoin, kuten lisäämällä akselin, jossa oli epäkeskisiä pyöriä vaikuttaakseen loimirimoihin (niisivarsiin) eri tavalla, parantamalla lyöntimekanismia, lisäämällä pysäytysmekanismin lopettamaan toiminnan, kun sukkulan ei onnistunut saapua sukkulapesään, estämällä sukkulan kiertyminen sen ollessa pesässä ja kiristämällä kangasta automaattisesti toimivilla ohjaimilla. Cartwrightin tuotantolaitos joutui ulosmitatuksi omistajiltaan 1793.
Vuonna 1791 Cartwright sai suostuteltua Grimshaw'n veljekset mukaan rakentamaan Manchesteriin suurta tehdasta, joka olisi ollut varustettu hänen kutomakoneillaan. Tehdas kuitenkin paloi vuonna 1791 useiden uhkausten jälkeen todennäköisesti tuhopolttona, jonka takana oli kangaspuiden käyttäjien pelot. Muut sijoittajat olivat uhkausten vuoksi haluttomia lähtemään Cartwrightin projekteihin mukaan.  
Vuonna 1792 Cartwright sai viimeisen kutomateknisen patentin, jossa esiteltiin useilla sukkulapesillä varustetut kangaspuut ruutukuvioiden ja vinoraitojen tekemistä varten. Hänen työnsä olivat kuitenkin tuloksettomia, sillä tuli ilmeiseksi, ettei millään, vaikka kuinka täydellisellä mekanismilla voisi onnistua niin kauan kuin loimilankojen asetus oli mahdollista vain kudonnan keskeydyttyä. Hänen yrityksensä tehdä loimiasetus kudonnan aikana epäonnistuivat. Vuonna 1803 tämän ongelman ratkaisi William Radcliffe avustajansa Thomas Johnsonin kanssa keksimällä loimikehyksen ja lisäämällä räikkämekanismin kankaan siirtoon.
Vuonna 1809 Cartwright sai parlamentilta 10 000 Englannin punnan palkinnon keksinnöistään. Vuonna 1821 hänet valittiin Royal Societyn jäseneksi. 
Cartwright patentoi myös villankarstauskoneen vuonna 1789 ja köydenpunontakoneen vuonna 1792. Hän myös suunnitteli höyrykoneen, joka toimi alkoholilla veden sijasta. 
Cartwright osti parlamentilta saamillaan palkintorahoilla pienen maatilan Hollanderista lähellä Sevenoaksia Kentissä. Hän kuoli Hastingsissa 30. lokakuuta 1823.  
CARTWRIGHT, Hugh (by 1526-72), of London and West Malling, Kent.
b. by 1526, 1st s. of Edmund Cartwright of Ossington, Notts. by Agnes, da. of Thomas Cranmer of Sutton Notts. educ. ?Trinity Hall, Camb. 1534. m. Jane, da. of Sir John Newton alias Cradock of East Harptree Som. and Henham, Glos., s.p.2
Surveyor, ct. augmentations, Kent 1550-4 j.p. Kent 1558/59-d. commr. Rochester bridge 1571.3
Hugh Cartwright was the nephew of Archbishop Cranmer. His return to the first Parliament of Edward VI’s reign was doubtless the archbishop’s work: in what appears to have been his first experience of the Commons he was chosen by a recently enfranchised Cornish borough where the Arundells of Lanherne were supreme. Presumably through his work in the augmentations he became known to Sir Thomas Arundell during the late 1540s, and this link explains his choice of seat. Arundell was dead by the time the next Parliament was called and Cartwright was not re-elected for Mitchell, nor is it likely that he was found a seat elsewhere. He was not to reappear in the Commons until after Cranmer’s execution, and although he lived near Rochester he may then have relied on the patronage of his neighbours the Brookes, to whom he was later related by marriage. Cartwright attracted some kind of notice during this Parliament as his name was one of a group marked with a circle on a list of its Members.4
In May 1549 Cartwright joined with William Hyde, then augmentations surveyor in Kent, in the purchase for £710 of former monastic lands in the county. The property included the chapel of Womenswould, for defacing which, and removing the lead, Cartwright and Hyde were complained of in the Star Chamber by the inhabitants of the parish. Cartwright in his answer asserted that the chapel was not the parish church, as the plaintiffs alleged, and that he had been granted by the King ‘all the lead, timber, stone, glass, iron and bells of the same chapel and also the mansion house of the curate there’, which he had lawfully taken into his possession. The court found in favour of the plaintiffs and ordered Cartwright to tile the church: for persistent refusal to obey this decree he was in November 1552 imprisoned and fined £50. Cartwright succeeded Hyde as surveyor of Kent in June 1550.5
Although his fortunes were thus bound up with the Reformation, Cartwright demonstrated his loyalty to Mary by supporting the crown against Sir Thomas Wyatt II in 1554. He was placed on the commission of the peace for Kent in the first year of Elizabeth’s reign and in 1564 Archbishop Parker described him as conformable. He appears to have played little part in the life of the county and may, indeed, have spent some of his time in Nottinghamshire, where he had inherited his father’s manor of Ossington. But it was as of West Malling, esquire, that he sued out a general pardon in 1553 and this was still the way in which he described himself when he came to make his will on 10 Dec. 1571, leaving to his wife all his household stuff and all the profits of the dissolved abbey of West Malling. The income from the rest of his lands, except the third from the manor of Ossington due to the Queen, he left to his brother Thomas Cartwright until William, Thomas’s son and Hugh’s heir, became 21. He appointed Thomas and William Cartwright the executors of his will, which was sealed and delivered on 6 Feb. 1572 and proved on 5 July 1572. In a case in the court of requests, however, Jane Cartwright was described as an executor, with Thomas Cartwright, of her late husband. William Dabridgecourt, acting on behalf of William Cartwright, the Queen’s ward, contested the validity of the inventory of Hugh Cartwright’s possessions.6