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The photo below is of an (as yet) unidentified (English) family member and is from the London studio of Hermann Ernst. There is nothing printed on the back. The photo is part of a collection, the dates of which range from the mid 1860s to about 1916 or 1918.
At the moment, this lady could be any one of about 10 to 12 relatives. As we know her age in this photo, having even an approximate date ( + / - 5 years) could narrow down the number of possibles to as few as 2 or 3.
Information on Hermann Ernst's London studio, unlike many others of the period, is hard to find. Pages such as RCS Photographers Index and Victorian and Edwardian Photographs make no mention of Hermann Ernst. The only information I've found is that Hermann Ernst was a photographer and / or photographic studio owner from Hannover. The English translation of his German Wikipedia page offers very little. A date, 1865, is mentioned but the translation as to its significance is a little unclear. Also, there is no mention of his London studio.
Following the link to the page of Ludwig Hoerner, a researcher and source of the above information hasn't helped as I can't access any of his works which might have the information I'm looking for.
The best clue so far is this circa 1885 photo but it's from Hannover and the card style is quite different. I've only found one other photo online from the same studio as our photo (Waverly Place, St. Johns Wood NW); the design is closer to ours but no date is given. For the moment, I'm assuming that our family photo was taken later than 1885 as the design seems more modern (but this is really just a guess).
Can anyone put an approximate date on this photo? It seems that a big step in the right direction would be establishing when Hermann Ernst's studio in St. Johns Wood was in business. Also, the hairstyle and dress may provide further clues.
I think we can narrow down your date-range to 1891-1903.
According to the Directory of London Photographers, 1841-1908, by Michael Pritchard, Hermann Ernst's studio was only in St. Johns Wood between those dates. After that it moved to premises in Finchley Road, where it remained until after 1908 (the last date covered by the directory).
His entry in the directory reads:
1 Waverley Pl, St Johns Wood N.W.
14 Finchley Road N.W.
An alternative source would be the London Post Office directories for the period. A few of these are available online, and others can be searched on Ancestry if you have a subscription (or at a Local library). The extract below is from the directory for 1899 (the only one I have at home for that period):
Some of these may also be available from the University of Leicester Special Collections which have a number of directories available to search and view online.
Geologic Time Scale: Eons, Eras, and Periods
The geologic time scale is a system used by scientists to describe Earth's history in terms of major geological or paleontological events (such as the formation of a new rock layer or the appearance or demise of certain lifeforms). Geologic time spans are divided into units and subunits, the largest of which are eons. Eons are divided into eras, which are further divided into periods, epochs, and ages. Geologic dating is extremely imprecise. For example, although the date listed for the beginning of the Ordovician period is 485 million years ago, it is actually 485.4 with an uncertainty (plus or minus) of 1.9 million years.
13 thoughts on &ldquo Bible Timeline 1996 BC Birth of Abraham &rdquo
How old was Moses when he left pharaohs house after he murdered the Egyptian.
Find that amazing. Am reading Gen 22 Abraham was told to sacrifice Isaac. He had to travel for two Days and on the third day ABBA provided a lamb. 1 day is as a 1000 for 2000 years Israel wandered and On The 3rd day ABBA gave His soon.
Interesting History. Thanks for publishing it. By Gregg L. Friedman MD
The bible does not say when Abraham was born, so you cannot refer to the bible. The book of Jasher states that Tera was 38 when he begat Haran, and that Tera was 70 when he begat Abram, and that Haran was 32 at the time.
The two thousand years (two days) of wandering Jewish People is wonderful thought. God provided a Lamb (the promised son, Jesus Christ) exactly as the promised son of Abraham, Isaac. Just as Abraham had to slaughter his son, so God gave His only Son to be truly slaughtered for our redemption. Every chapter in the Bible has reference to the saving and finished work of Jesus.
How can Abraham be born in 1996 BC when another pages says his son Issac was born in 2065 BC?
Michael are you referring to one of our pages or another site on the web. Since the Bible does not give specific dates there are different approaches on putting together a chronology. Thank you!
Hello! New guy here? What B.C. year did Abram leave Ur of the Chaldees? And what year did the War of 9 Kings occur (around when Abram rescued Lot)? Your answers would be MUCH appreciated. Thank you in advance!
Well, do the math in Genesis 12:4b NIV it says “Abram was 75 years old when he set out from Haran.” Which means that 1996 BC + 75 = he set out from Ur in 1921 BC. The next question: I’m not sure. It was before Abram had Ishmael, and Abram was exactly 86, meaning that the War of 9 Kings most likely took place between 1920 BC and 1910 BC.
the Bible doesn’t specifically state the year of Abrahams birth. However, the Bible does state the ages of each patriarch when they died…Adam 930 from creation…so if you do the math, Abraham was born in year 1948 from Creation. Abraham was 58 when Noach died. Then is says Abraham was 100 years old when Isaac was born. There are 76 years in between the death of Abraham and the birth of Yosef son of Jacob (Israel). So if Abraham died at age 175 and was born in 1948, he died in year 2123 from Creation. Yosef was born in year 2199 from Creation. Yosef lived for 110 years. So, Yosef died in year 2309 from Creation. Levi died in 2332, 23 years after Yosef. Levi lived to be 137, so Levi was born in year 2195. Abraham was 86 when Ishmael was born in year 2034. Christ was born 2166 years from the birth of Father Abraham, 2066 years from the birth of Isaac. 2030 years from when Isaac was taken to be sacrificed. Christ was crucified in 4147 at the age of 33. We are now at 6132 in Ancient Hebrew calendar. not 5780. 5780 – 3412 = 2368 the birth of Moses. 5780 – 3448 = 2332 the death of Levi. 3448 + 666 = 4114 the birth of Christ. 4114 – 1948 = 2166, 2166 divided by 28 is 77. 28 letters in the first verse of Hebrew bible. בראשית ברא אלהים את השמים ואת הארץ
Biblical time lines are a foolish task…but understandable if you consider the OT to be recorded actual history rather that edited oral traditions passed down from generation to generation that included mythic stories from other religious traditions that came before Judaism was born from the loins of Abram. Metaphor is a much better way to read and understand the OT. And Usher’s date? Set them aside entirely. They are provided through a literalist reading of of the canonical texts by much of Christianity. The Jewish scholars treat the OT texts far differently than many Christians in and out of academia do.
Thank you for this information. There are 2 points I’m sharing.
#1- It’s useful to keep the record of different timeline variables in mind when making calculations for us. Because our timeline records are based on the calendar when the time frames were decided as being 365 days in 1 year for 3 years and 366 in 1 year every four years. When the timelines are calculated by moons, by seasons, it means there are variations to what is a year. This means the variations in dating for a year are also variations that influence the date information we read.
#2- When factoring Abraham’s birth we are then able to factor when Noah’s flood ended, AND began. The flood is calculated to be 352 years before Abraham was born, this means with archeological timelines the information that’s 353 before Abraham’s birth is pre-flood information…So knowing when Abraham was born is a really interesting factor.
Glass Manufacturing History
By the time of Crusades, glass manufacturing was developed in Venice and it became glassmaking center of the western world. In 1291 glassmaking equipment was transferred to the island of Murano. During 15th century Venetian glass blower, Angelo Barovier, crated cristallo, nearly colorless, transparent glass. By the late 1500’s, many Venetians went to northern Europe seeking better life where they established factories and brought the art of Venetian glassblowing.
By 1575, English glassmakers were made glass in Venetian fashion. In 1674, an English glassmaker George Ravenscroft invented lead glass.
The first glass factory in the United States was built in Jamestown, Virginia in 1608.
In the early 1800’s, there was a great demand for window glass which was called crown glass. In the 1820s, the age of blowing individual bottles, glasses and flasks was ended by the invention of a hand-operated machine. In the 1870s, the first semi-automatic bottle machine was introduced.
After 1890, glass use, development and manufacture began to increase rapidly. Machinery has been developed for precise, continuous manufacture of a host of products. In 1902, Irving W. Colburn invented the sheet glass drawing machine which made possible the mass production of window glass. In 1904, the American engineer Michael Owens patented automatic bottle blowing machine.
In 1959 new revolutionary float glass production was introduced by Sir Alastair Pilkington by which 90% of flat glass is still manufactured today.
What is the approximate date of this photo? - History
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Sue, nickname for one of the most complete and best-preserved skeletons of Tyrannosaurus rex. The fossil was dated to approximately 67 million years ago. Measuring 12.8 metres (42 feet) long, Sue is among the largest known skeletons of T. rex. The specimen was found on August 12, 1990, on South Dakota’s Cheyenne River Sioux reservation, on a cattle ranch owned by Maurice Williams. It was discovered by American marine archaeologist and paleontologist Susan Hendrickson, the scientist for whom the specimen is named, as she searched the property with American paleontologist Peter Larson.
For the next 10 years the specimen was the subject of an intense custody battle. Shortly after the discovery was made, Larson paid $5,000 to Williams—who was one-fourth Native American and whose land was held in trust by the United States government for tax-relief purposes—for the right to excavate the skeleton. Sue was subsequently shipped to the headquarters of the Black Hills Institute for Geological Research in Hill City, South Dakota, for restoration. As news about the discovery traveled, however, Larson began to receive sizable offers for the specimen, and Williams, the Cheyenne River Sioux, and the federal government began to raise questions about its legal ownership and to seek its return. Williams alleged that he had granted Larson the right to search for fossils on the property but not the right to excavate and claim them. The case was further complicated by the fact that the specimen’s sale required the consent of the U.S. Department of the Interior because of Williams’s existing legal arrangement with the federal government. Williams neither sought nor received such permission.
Federal agents seized the bones in 1992 on the grounds that government permission had not been granted for the removal of the fossil from federal lands. A U.S. district court ruled in April 1993 that the fossil was to remain property of the trust, and the U.S. Supreme Court validated the ruling of the lower court in October 1994. Sue became the property of Williams and the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA).
The BIA gave Williams permission to sell Sue and suggested that the fossil be auctioned. This move was controversial in the eyes of many scientists, who feared the commercialization and possible private collection of scientifically important specimens. Nevertheless, in 1996 the art auction firm Sotheby’s was chosen to conduct the sale, which was held in October 1997, with nine bidders in the running. After only about eight minutes, Chicago’s Field Museum of Natural History—backed by McDonald’s Corporation, Walt Disney World Resorts, and the California State University system—emerged as the winner, purchasing Sue for $8,362,500. Disney was given a replica for exhibition at Walt Disney World, and McDonald’s received two replicas that would be taken on tour.
The remainder of Sue’s preparation for display was carried out in the McDonald’s Fossil Preparation Laboratory at the Field Museum in full view of spectators. Because the dinosaur’s 1.5-metre- (5-foot-) long skull was too heavy (272 kg [600 pounds]) for the skeleton to support, a life-size cast was mounted to the rest of the skeleton for the exhibit. Sue’s actual skull was displayed on the museum’s second-floor balcony. The fossil has been on permanent display at the Field Museum since May 17, 2000.
Possible Date for Christ's Resurrection
Many scholars believe that Christ died and rose from the dead again in AD 30 (see our April 7 story). Even more prefer a date in AD 33, although champions of several other dates can also be found. If the events recorded in the gospels took place in AD 33, then this day, April 23, 33 is the probable date for Christ's resurrection.
No other event like it has been recorded in history. The significance of the first Easter is breathtaking. In fact, the witness of the apostles and believers across the ages is that without the resurrection, there could be no Christianity. The cross of Christ makes no sense without his triumphant restoration to life. It was the resurrection which explained his death as a sacrifice for sins. It was the resurrection which vindicated his teaching: he was no liar. It is the resurrection that gives us hope of a new, eternal life: as Christ rose, so will we. It is the one fact that the apostles and early church constantly held forth as the vindication of their message. It is the oldest traceable doctrine of the early Christian liturgy. Even notable anti-Christian scholars admit that the early church held the resurrection as fact, however much those same scholars hope to show that the church was mistaken in its belief.
The records we have tell us that Christ was buried. His tomb was sealed and soldiers posted around it. About dawn of the first day of the new week (Sunday) an earthquake shook the tomb. The guards fell senseless. An angel rolled back the stone. Some of Christ's female followers were on their way to the tomb to anoint his body. They wondered how they would roll away the stone. Imagine their surprise when they found it rolled back and the body gone! They supposed it had been removed and laid somewhere else. Weeping, one of them asked a gardener if he knew where the body had been taken. Then she recognized the "gardener" as Jesus himself.
The women rushed back to tell the disciples. Peter and John raced to the tomb. All was as the women had said. An angel assured the men Christ was risen. Afterward, Jesus appeared several times to his disciples (sometimes passing through walls) and to his brother James. Paul lists a number of appearances, including one to over 500 people at once. "And then he appeared to me as if to one born late," he said.
All arguments against the resurrection must take into account the eyewitness testimony of the early disciples, the great church that sprang from them, the witness of changed lives around the world, and the empty tomb. Modern dimensional mathematics at least suggests the plausibility of Christ's appearances.
The church has long insisted that the Christian life would be impossible without the resurrection, for through it Christ removed the sting of death from all those who believe in Him.
Dunne, P. (2006). Pete Dunne's essential field guide companion. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, New York, USA.
Ehrlich, P. R., D. S. Dobkin, and D. Wheye (1988). The Birder's Handbook. A Field Guide to the Natural History of North American Birds, Including All Species That Regularly Breed North of Mexico. Simon and Schuster Inc., New York, USA.
Lowther, Peter E. (1993). Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater), version 2.0. In The Birds of North America (P. G. Rodewald, editor). Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, New York, USA.
Lutmerding, J. A. and A. S. Love. (2019). Longevity records of North American birds. Version 1019 Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Bird Banding Laboratory 2019.
North American Bird Conservation Initiative. (2014). The State of the Birds 2014 Report. US Department of Interior, Washington, DC, USA.
Partners in Flight (2017). Avian Conservation Assessment Database. 2017.
Sauer, J. R., J. E. Hines, J. E. Fallon, K. L. Pardieck, Jr. Ziolkowski, D. J. and W. A. Link. The North American Breeding Bird Survey, results and analysis 1966-2013 (Version 1.30.15). USGS Patuxtent Wildlife Research Center (2014b). Available from http://www.mbr-pwrc.usgs.gov/bbs/.
Sibley, D. A. (2014). The Sibley Guide to Birds, second edition. Alfred A. Knopf, New York, NY, USA.
How Did That Happen?
Not counting the domestic dog, who has been our partner for at least 15,000 years, the animal domestication process started about 12,000 years ago. Over that time, humans have learned to control animal access to food and other necessities of life by changing the behaviors and natures of their wild ancestors. All of the animals that we share our lives with today, such as dogs, cats, cattle, sheep, camels, geese, horses, and pigs, started out as wild animals but were changed over the hundreds and thousands of years into more sweet-natured and tractable partners in farming.
And it's not just behavioral changes that were made during the domestication process--our new domesticated partners share a suite of physical changes, changes that were bred it either directly or indirectly during the domestication process. A reduction in size, white coats, and floppy ears are all mammalian syndrome characteristics bred into several of our domestic animal partners.
What is the approximate date of this photo? - History
The Feel-Good Guide to Sports, Travel, Shopping & Entertainment
Welcome to summer!
In North America, the first day of summer is marked by the summer solstice, which occurs this year on Sunday, June 20, 2021 at exactly 11:32 PM EDT.
This year, the sumer solstice is also Father's Day in the US. So it's also the perfect day to celebrate Dad with a frosty one -- or a trip to the beach, or the great outdoors!
All about Summer solstice
Sol + stice derives from a combination of Latin words meaning "sun" + "to stand still."
As the days lengthen, the sun rises higher and higher until it seems to stand still in the sky, a pivotal moment in the seasonal calendar.
As a major celestial event, the Summer Solstice results in the longest day and the shortest night of the year.
Because the Earth revolves around the sun tilted slightly, things heat up differently on the planet north to south. While the Northern hemisphere celebrates in June, people in Australia, South America, and other populations in the Southern hemisphere celebrate their longest day of the summer in December.
Awed by the great power of the sun, civilizations have for centuries celebrated the first day of summer otherwise known as the Summer Solstice, Midsummer (see Shakespeare), St. John's Day, or the Wiccan Litha.
The Celts & Slavs celebrated the first day of summer with dancing & bonfires to help increase the sun's energy. The Chinese marked the day by honoring Li, the Chinese Goddess of Light.
Summer solstice is celebrated every year at dawn as crowds gather at Stonehenge in the UK.
Perhaps the most enduring modern ties with Summer solstice is the present-day belief of a "lucky" wedding in June which echoes back to an ancient Druids celebration of Summer solstice as the "wedding of Heaven and Earth".
How Summer solstice is celebrated today
Today, the day is still celebrated around the world, most notably in England at Stonehenge, where thousands gather to welcome the sunrise on the Summer solstice.
Throughout Europe, other pagan spirit gatherings or festivals are still common in June, when groups assemble to light a sacred fire, and stay up all night to welcome the dawn. In Paris, the day is marked with free concerts during an annul music festival.
In the U.S., the city of Santa Barbara in California holds the nation's most talked-about Summer solstic celebrations -- featuring a parade, performance artists, and other entertainment during a festival that lasts a full three days.
On the East Coast, New York City traditionally ushers in the solstice with a music concert at the Cathedral of St. John the Divine as a more risqué celebration happens in Brooklyn at the annual Coney Island Mermaid Parade.
Summer Solstice fun facts
Pagans called the Midsummer moon the "Honey Moon" for the mead made from fermented honey that was part of wedding ceremonies performed at the Summer solstice.
Ancient Pagans celebrated Midsummer with bonfires when couples would leap through the flames for good luck (in the belief that the higher the jump, the higher your summer crops would grow.)
More about summer solstice around the Web:
On the Web, discover more about the topic, where and how Summer solstice is celebrated around the world along with related history, folklore and rituals that mark the much-awaited long, bright days of summer .
Summer Solstice - Good overview of its history, customs & holidays, illustrations, date & time charts and related resources, from Wikipedia.
Summer Solstice Celebrations - Ancient & Modern - Check out a detailed discussion about how the day has been celebrated over the centuries, and in many cultures, with suggested reading.
BBC Religion - Summer Solstice - A brief overview of Pagan rituals and ceremonies with related resoures for more facts & information.
The Pagan Festival of Litha - The origins of Druidic Summer Solstice celebrations and their meaning in the natural cycle of seasons.
When was Jesus Christ born?
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A careful analysis of Scripture, however, clearly indicates that December 25 couldn't be the date for Christ's birth. Here are two primary reasons:
First, we know that shepherds were in the fields watching their flocks at the time of Jesus' birth (Luke 2:7-8 Luke 2:7-8  And she brought forth her firstborn son, and wrapped him in swaddling clothes, and laid him in a manger because there was no room for them in the inn.  And there were in the same country shepherds abiding in the field, keeping watch over their flock by night.
American King James Version× ). Shepherds were not in the fields during December. According to Celebrations: The Complete Book of American Holidays, Luke's account "suggests that Jesus may have been born in summer or early fall. Since December is cold and rainy in Judea, it is likely the shepherds would have sought shelter for their flocks at night" (p. 309).
Similarly, The Interpreter's One-Volume Commentary says this passage argues "against the birth [of Christ] occurring on Dec. 25 since the weather would not have permitted" shepherds watching over their flocks in the fields at night.
Second, Jesus' parents came to Bethlehem to register in a Roman census (Luke 2:1-4 Luke 2:1-4  And it came to pass in those days, that there went out a decree from Caesar Augustus that all the world should be taxed.  (And this taxing was first made when Cyrenius was governor of Syria.)  And all went to be taxed, every one into his own city.  And Joseph also went up from Galilee, out of the city of Nazareth, into Judaea, to the city of David, which is called Bethlehem (because he was of the house and lineage of David:)
American King James Version× ). Such censuses were not taken in winter, when temperatures often dropped below freezing and roads were in poor condition. Taking a census under such conditions would have been self-defeating.
Given the difficulties and the desire to bring pagans into Christianity, "the important fact then which I have asked you to get clearly into your head is that the fixing of the date as December 25th was a compromise with paganism" (William Walsh, The Story of Santa Klaus, 1970, p. 62).
If Jesus Christ wasn't born on December 25, does the Bible indicate when He was born? The biblical accounts point to the fall of the year as the most likely time of Jesus' birth, based on the conception and birth of John the Baptist.
Since Elizabeth (John's mother) was in her sixth month of pregnancy when Jesus was conceived (Luke 1:24-36 Luke 1:24-36  And after those days his wife Elisabeth conceived, and hid herself five months, saying,  Thus has the Lord dealt with me in the days wherein he looked on me, to take away my reproach among men.  And in the sixth month the angel Gabriel was sent from God to a city of Galilee, named Nazareth,  To a virgin espoused to a man whose name was Joseph, of the house of David and the virgin's name was Mary.  And the angel came in to her, and said, Hail, you that are highly favored, the Lord is with you: blessed are you among women.  And when she saw him, she was troubled at his saying, and cast in her mind what manner of salutation this should be.  And the angel said to her, Fear not, Mary: for you have found favor with God.  And, behold, you shall conceive in your womb, and bring forth a son, and shall call his name JESUS.  He shall be great, and shall be called the Son of the Highest: and the Lord God shall give to him the throne of his father David:  And he shall reign over the house of Jacob for ever and of his kingdom there shall be no end.  Then said Mary to the angel, How shall this be, seeing I know not a man?  And the angel answered and said to her, The Holy Ghost shall come on you, and the power of the Highest shall overshadow you: therefore also that holy thing which shall be born of you shall be called the Son of God.  And, behold, your cousin Elisabeth, she has also conceived a son in her old age: and this is the sixth month with her, who was called barren.
American King James Version× ), we can determine the approximate time of year Jesus was born if we know when John was born. John's father, Zacharias, was a priest serving in the Jerusalem temple during the course of Abijah (Luke 1:5 Luke 1:5 THERE was in the days of Herod, the king of Judaea, a certain priest named Zacharias, of the course of Abia: and his wife was of the daughters of Aaron, and her name was Elisabeth.
American King James Version× ). Historical calculations indicate this course of service corresponded to June 13-19 in that year (The Companion Bible, 1974, Appendix 179, p. 200).
It was during this time of temple service that Zacharias learned that he and his wife, Elizabeth, would have a child (Luke 1:8-13 Luke 1:8-13  And it came to pass, that while he executed the priest's office before God in the order of his course,  According to the custom of the priest's office, his lot was to burn incense when he went into the temple of the Lord.  And the whole multitude of the people were praying without at the time of incense.  And there appeared to him an angel of the Lord standing on the right side of the altar of incense.  And when Zacharias saw him, he was troubled, and fear fell on him.  But the angel said to him, Fear not, Zacharias: for your prayer is heard and your wife Elisabeth shall bear you a son, and you shall call his name John.
American King James Version× ). After he completed his service and traveled home, Elizabeth conceived (Luke 1:23-24 Luke 1:23-24  And it came to pass, that, as soon as the days of his ministration were accomplished, he departed to his own house.  And after those days his wife Elisabeth conceived, and hid herself five months, saying,
American King James Version× ). Assuming John's conception took place near the end of June, adding nine months brings us to the end of March as the most likely time for John's birth. Adding another six months (the difference in ages between John and Jesus (Luke 1:35-36 Luke 1:35-36  And the angel answered and said to her, The Holy Ghost shall come on you, and the power of the Highest shall overshadow you: therefore also that holy thing which shall be born of you shall be called the Son of God.  And, behold, your cousin Elisabeth, she has also conceived a son in her old age: and this is the sixth month with her, who was called barren.
American King James Version× )) brings us to the end of September as the likely time of Jesus' birth.
Although it is difficult to determine the first time anyone celebrated December 25 as Christmas Day, historians are in general agreement that it was sometime during the fourth century. This is an amazingly late date. Christmas was not observed in Rome, the capital of the Roman Empire, until about 300 years after Christ's death. Its origins cannot be traced back to either the teachings or practices of the earliest Christians.