Battle of Friedberg, 10 July 1796 (Hesse)

Battle of Friedberg, 10 July 1796 (Hesse)

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Battle of Friedberg, 10 July 1796 (Hesse)

The battle of Freidberg (10 July 1796) was a French victory won fifteen miles to the north of Frankfurt on Main that forced the Austrians to abandon their last positions north of the Nidda and the Main and retreat to Offenbach, on the south bank of the Main.

At the end of June General Jourdan crossed the Rhine for the second time in 1796. General Kléber was sent north to Dusseldorf, where he crossed the Rhine on 27 June. On 3 July Moreau crossed the Rhine further south, at Neuwied. The two forces came together on the Lahn, and after that Kléber's force formed the left wing of Moreau's army.

On 9 July the French crossed the Rhine. Kléber crossed in three columns - Bonnard at Leun, Collaud at Wetlzar and Lefebvre at Giessen. Collaud's column ran into a strong Austrian cavalry force under General Kray at Nieder-Mörlen, and repulsed a series of Austrian attacks on his position at Ober-Mörlen, just to the south west (combat of Ober-Mörlen, 9 July 1796). In the aftermath of this battle the Austrian comamnder, General Wartensleben, gathered together a strong force around Freidberg, while General Kléber brought together his three columns and prepared to attack.

The Austrian position was on the west bank of the Wetter, a tributary of the Nidda. Their right was in Freidberg, close to the river. The Austrian line ran west to Ockstadt, and then south west to Rosbach. It was covered to its east by the Wesser and to the north-west by a line of low hills. Ober-Mörlen and Nieder-Mörlen, where Kray had clashed with Ney and Collaud on the previous day, were on the northern slopes of these hills.

Kléber and Wartensleben both decided to attack on 10 July, but the French made the first move. General Lefebvre was sent across the Wetter, and advanced south towards Bauernheim and Ossenheim, to the south-east of Freidberg and behind the Austrian right flank. General Ney led Collaud's division against Ockstadt and Friedberg, and General Bonnard attacked the Austrian left at Rosbach.

Lefebvre's outflanking march forced Wartensleben to abandon his own attack and move the troops that would have been involved to his right in an attempt to stop Lefebvre from passing Ossenheim. The Austrian left and centre held off Ney and Bonnard, but the right was unable to stop Lefebvre. With his right flank threatened Wartensleben was forced to order a retreat back towards the Nidda. The Austrians suffered heavy casualties – perhaps as many as 1,200 killed and wounded and 500 prisoners, while the French lost 500 men, most of them in the hard fighting between Rosbach and Freidberg.

On the day after the battle the French were forced to pause and wait for their supplies to catch up. This gave Wartensleben a chance to retire across the Nidda. He then passed across the Main to Offenbach, just to the east of Frankfurt, leaving a garrison in Frankfurt.

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The French planned an invasion of southern Germany in 1796. General of Division (MG) Jourdan with the Army of Sambre-et-Meuse would advance from the middle Rhine while MG Jean Moreau would cross the river farther south with the Army of Rhin-et-Moselle. Jourdan held a bridgehead over the Rhine at Neuwied while MG Jean-Baptiste Kléber commanded his left wing based on an entrenched camp at Düsseldorf. Moreau's army comprised 71,581 infantry and 6,515 cavalry. He organized these into a Right Wing under MG Pierre Ferino, a Center led by MG Louis Desaix, and a Left Wing commanded by MG Laurent de Gouvion Saint-Cyr. Ώ]

Field Marshal Archduke Charles commanded the Army of the Lower Rhine. Charles and his deputy, Feldzeugmeister (FZM) Wilhelm von Wartensleben faced Jourdan along the Lahn River. This stream flows in a southwesterly direction into the Rhine near Koblenz. To the south, FZM Maximilien, Count Baillet de Latour positioned his Army of the Upper Rhine to defend against Moreau. [ citation needed ]

June operations

On 4 June 1796, 11,000 soldiers of the Army of the Sambre-et-Meuse, under François Lefebvre pushed back a 6,500-man Austrian force at Altenkirchen, north of the Lahn. On 6 June, the French placed Ehrenbreitstein Fortress under siege. At Wetzlar on the Lahn, Lefebvre ran into Charles' concentration of 36,000 Austrians on 15 June. Casualties were light on both sides, but Jourdan pulled back to Niewied while Kléber recoiled toward Düsseldorf. Feldmarschal-Leutnant (FML) Pál Kray's 30,000 soldiers bested Kléber's 24,000 at Uckerath east of Bonn on 19 June, prompting the Frenchman to continue his withdrawal to the north. ΐ]

Meanwhile, operations of the Army of the Rhin-et-Moselle progressed more successfully for the French. On the 15th, Desaix and 30,000 French troops defeated FML Franz Petrasch's 11,000 Austrians at Maudach near Speyer. The French suffered 600 casualties while Austrian losses were three times as heavy. Α] Part of Moreau's army under MG Jean-Charles Abbatucci mounted an assault crossing over the Rhine at Kehl opposite Strasbourg on 24 June. The defenders were French émigrés and the forces of minor German states belonging to the Holy Roman Empire. They fought gamely, but were beaten with the loss of 700 men while the French lost 150. On 28 June, Desaix defeated FML Anton Sztaray's Imperial troops again at Renchen, inflicting 1,400 casualties for only 200 French killed and wounded. In the following weeks the Austrians determined some of their Imperial German allies to be unreliable and disarmed them. Β]

In reaction to the defeats in the south, Archduke Charles left Wartensleben in command of 35,000 men along the Lahn, put 30,000 troops into the fortress of Mainz and rushed south with 20,000 soldiers to reinforce Latour. Γ]

July operations

After a minor clash at Rastatt on 5 July, Archduke Charles and Latour took up a position at Malsch with 32,000 troops. On 9 July, Moreau defeated the Army of the Upper Rhine at the Battle of Ettlingen. The archduke retreated 60 kilometres (37 mi) to Stuttgart, where he skirmished with the French on 21 July before continuing to withdraw east. Δ] When Jourdan heard of French successes against the Army of the Upper Rhine, he went over to the offensive. After a series of minor victories at Neuwied, Giessen, and Friedberg in der Wetterau in early July, the French pressed Wartensleben back to Frankfurt am Main. Ε]

August operations

Charles ordered Wartensleben to unite with him in order to crush Moreau. However, his colleague proved unwilling to cooperate. On 11 August, Moreau overpowered the outnumbered archduke at the Battle of Neresheim. The Austrian southern wing retreated to the south bank of the Danube at Donauwörth. To the north, Jourdan pushed Wartensleben back through Würzburg and Nuremberg. Kléber clashed with Kray on 17 August at Sulzbach-Rosenberg, 14 kilometres (8.7 mi) west of Amberg. Ζ] Charles' strategy of falling back before the two superior French armies while seeking an opportunity to combine against one of them had so far failed. [ citation needed ]


See Castiglione 1796 Campaign Order of Battle for French and Austrian units and organizations.


After being defeated at the battles of Fombio, Lodi, and Borghetto by Bonaparte, the Austrian army under Feldzeugmeister Johann Peter Beaulieu left almost 14,000 soldiers in the fortress of Mantua and retreated north toward Trento. Mantua was one of four famous fortresses known as the Quadrilateral. The French army occupied the other three, Legnago, Verona and Peschiera.

On 31 May, Bonaparte tried to rush Mantua, but the attempt failed. By 3 June, the French army invested the place, which was defended by Joseph Franz Canto d'Irles's Austrian garrison and 316 cannon. In June, Bonaparte's army forced the Papal States, Tuscany, Parma and Modena to make peace, extorting large contributions. By taking artillery pieces from the subdued cities, the French general assembled a siege train of 179 cannon for his siege of Mantua. [1] The formal siege began on 4 July. [2]

Bonaparte positioned his 46,000 soldiers to protect the siege of Mantua. Pierre François Sauret held Brescia and the western side of Lake Garda. André Masséna guarded the northern approaches with the bulk of his force in the upper Adige River valley on the east side of Lake Garda. Masséna also garrisoned Verona. Pierre Augereau covered the lower Adige on either side of Legnago. Jean-Mathieu-Philibert Sérurier led the force besieging Mantua. Hyacinthe Despinoy had one demi-brigade at Peschiera, another with Masséna and more troops on the march. Charles Edward Jennings de Kilmaine's cavalry reserve lay at Villafranca di Verona, southwest of Verona. [3]

Wurmser devised a four-column plan of attack. He retained direct control over the two central columns. Leading the Right-Center (2nd) Column, Michael von Melas struck south with 14,000 soldiers down the west bank of the Adige. Paul Davidovich led the 10,000 men of the Left-Center (3rd) Column down the east bank. Operating west of Lake Garda, Peter Quasdanovich commanded the Right (1st) Column's 18,000 men. Johann Mészáros von Szoboszló lay at Vicenza, with the 5,000 troops of the Left (4th) Column. His orders were to occupy Verona and Legnago as soon as the French evacuated the two cities. [4]


In late July, the Austrian army advanced from Trento. Wurmser's two center columns defeated Masséna in the difficult rough terrain near Rivoli Veronese on 29 July. For a loss of 800 men, the Austrian inflicted 1,200 killed and wounded, and captured 1,600 men and nine cannon. [5] One of Quasdanovich's brigades drove Sauret's men out of Salò on Lake Garda. A second Austrian brigade pushed a French force out of Gavardo. On 30 July, the other two brigades belonging to Quasdanovich surprised and captured Brescia. Augereau fell back toward Mantua. Masséna retreated to the southern end of Lake Garda.

On 31 July, Bonaparte retreated to the west bank of the Mincio and began concentrating against Quasdanovich. That evening Napoleon ordered Sérurier to lift the siege of Mantua. From 31 July through 2 August, a complex series of operations occurred in the area of Brescia, Montichiari, Gavardo, Lonato del Garda and Salò. Bonaparte concentrated Augereau, Masséna, Despinoy, and Kilmaine and recaptured Brescia on 1 August, clearing his supply line to the west. Meanwhile, Wurmser dropped off a force under General-major (GM) Adam Bajalics von Bajahaza to lay siege to Peschiera. His center columns reached Mantua where they spent time demolishing the French siege lines and dragging the abandoned siege guns into the city. Bonaparte nearly ordered a retreat to the west, but when he realised Wurmser was not quickly following up his success, he decided to fight it out. [6] Mészáros finally occupied Legnago on 1 August.

On 2 August, Wurmser's 4,000-man advance guard under GM Anton Lipthay de Kisfalud drove General of Brigade (BG) Antoine Valette's brigade out of Castiglione. The next day, Augereau attacked Lipthay with 11,000 troops. In a bitter fight, the French forced Lipthay back to Solferino where he was reinforced by Davidovich. At length, Wurmser came up with his entire field army and stopped Augereau's drive. The Austrians suffered 1,000 casualties and GM Franz Nicoletti wounded. French losses may have exceeded 1,000 men, including BG Martial Beyrand killed. [7] At the time, Wurmser and Quasdanovich's forces were about eight kilometers apart. [8] On 3 August, the French inflicted crippling defeats on the Austrian Right Column in the Battle of Lonato. Quasdanovich finally ordered a retreat to the north. Sending Sauret to watch the withdrawing Right Column, Bonaparte now massed against Wurmser.

On 4 August, both armies skirmished. Wurmser arranged for Bajalics to send him a reinforcement of four battalions under Oberst Franz Weidenfeld. He also directed Mészáros to block Sérurier from joining Bonaparte. [9] On this day, the French captured 2,000 Austrians of Quasdanovich's column in Lonato.


The invading army handily captured Longwy on 23 August and Verdun on 2 September, then moved on toward Paris through the defiles of the Forest of Argonne. [10] In response, Dumouriez halted his advance to the Netherlands and reversed course, approaching the enemy army from its rear. [7] From Metz, Kellermann moved to his assistance, joining him at the village of Sainte-Menehould on 19 September. [10] The French forces were now east of the Prussians, behind their lines. Theoretically the Prussians could have marched straight towards Paris unopposed, but this course was never seriously considered: the threat to their lines of supply and communication was too great to be ignored. The unfavorable situation was compounded by bad weather and an alarming increase in sickness among the troops. With few other options available, Brunswick turned back and prepared to do battle. [7]

Brunswick headed through the northern woods believing he could cut off Dumouriez. At the moment when the Prussian manœuvre was nearly completed, Kellermann advanced his left wing and took up a position on the slopes between Sainte-Menehould and Valmy. [10] His command centered around an old windmill, and his veteran artillerists were well-placed upon its accommodating rise to begin the Cannonade of Valmy. As the Prussians emerged from the woods, a long-range gunnery duel ensued and the French batteries proved superior. The Prussian infantry made a cautious, and fruitless, effort to advance under fire across the open ground. [7] The French infantry and Prussian infantry exchanged fire.

As the Prussians wavered, a pivotal moment was reached when Kellermann raised his hat and made his famous cry of "Vive la Nation". The cry was repeated again and again by all the French army, and had a crushing effect upon Prussian morale. The French troops sang La Marseillaise and Ça Ira, and a cheer went up from the French line. [11] To the surprise of nearly everyone, Brunswick broke off the action and retired from the field. The Prussians rounded the French positions at a great distance and commenced a rapid retreat eastward. The two forces had been essentially equal in size, Kellermann with approximately 36,000 troops and 40 cannon, and Brunswick with 34,000 and 54 cannon. Yet by the time Brunswick retreated, casualties had risen no higher than three hundred French and two hundred Prussians. [4]

Thomas Carlyle in his book The French Revolution: A History describes a dramatic scene of "rain as of the days of Noah", roads turned into mud wallows, little food available except unripe grapes, a mountain called the Vache de Clermont showing sometimes through low clouds, lack of campfire because all wood was wet, and a third of the Prussian force dead, many through disease.

Prussian retreat

The precipitous end to the action provoked elation among the French. [7] The question of exactly why the Prussians withdrew has never been definitively answered. Most historians ascribe the retreat to some combination of the following factors: the highly defensible French position [7] together with the rapidly growing numbers of reinforcements and citizen volunteers [12] with their discouraging and thoroughly unexpected élan [1] persuaded the cautious Brunswick to spare himself a dangerous loss of manpower, [13] particularly when the Russian invasion of Poland had already raised concerns for Prussia's defensibility in the east. [12] Others have put forward more shadowy motives for the decision, including a secret plea by Louis XVI to avoid an action which might cost him his life, and even bribery of the Prussians, allegedly paid for with the Bourbon crown jewels. [14] Brunswick had actually been offered command of the French armies prior to the outbreak of war and emigre factions subsequently used this as a basis to allege treachery on his part. However no proof of this charge exists and the more likely explanation remains that, having initially adopted an aggressive strategy, he lacked the will to carry it through when confronted by an unexpectedly determined and disciplined opposition. [15] In any case, the battle ended decisively, the French pursuit was not seriously pressed, [16] and Brunswick's troops managed a safe if inglorious eastward retreat. [17]


French and Italian army German army Austrian army
MdE = Maréchal d'Empire (Marshal of the Empire)* - FM = Feldmarschall (Field Marshal)
- - FZM = Feldzeugmeister
GdK = General der Kavallerie (Cavalry General)
GD = Général de Division (Divisional General) GL = General-Leutnant (Lieutenant General) FML = Feldmarschallleutnant (Lieutenant Field Marshal)
GB = Général de Brigade (Brigadier General) GM = General-Major (Major General) GM = General-Major
Col = Colonel Ob = Oberst Ob = Oberst
CdB = Chef de Bataillon (Commandant) Oblt = Oberstleutnant (Lieutenant Colonel) Oblt = Oberstleutnant
Maj = Major Maj = Major Maj = Major
Cap = Capitaine (Captain) Hauptmann Hauptmann

* Maréchal d'Empire, or Marshal, was not a "rank" within the French army, but a personal title granted to distinguished generals of division, along with higher pay and privileges. The highest "rank" in Napoleon's army was actually Général de Division. [1]

Kaiserlich-königliche Armee Edit

The Austrian army, called Kaiserlich-königliche Armee (Imperial and Royal Army), was composed of multinational troops from across the Empire, including proper Austrians, Bohemians, Moravians, Hungarians, Romanians, Croatians, Poles and other ethnic groups, with regiments speaking various languages. [2] Another facet that showed the diverse nature of this army was that Landwehr (Militias) units, some of which were quite poorly trained, were brigaded together with regular troops. [3]

Following the Battle of Aspern-Essling, Charles massed whatever forces he could spare, recalling two-thirds of III Korps from Linz, but, with war raging on secondary theatres, he was unable or unwilling to recall any additional forces. Archduke Charles did plan for the small "Army of Inner Austria" under Archduke John of Austria to march out from Pressburg, some 40 kilometers away, and participate in the battle, reckoning that the timely arrival of this force would reinforce his weak left. [3] Excluding the "Army of Inner Austria", the forces that Charles had available for the two days of battle were about 138,000 men, with 414 artillery pieces. [4]

Archduke Charles, aged 37 at the time of the battle, had under his direct command the Kaiserlich-königliche Hauptarmee, the main Austrian army. [4] He was seconded by 39-year-old Maximilian von Wimpffen, the army's Quartermaster General (Chief of Staff), a pugnacious and assertive character, who was well respected in the Austrian army for his knowledge of military strategy. [5] The Austrian army was divided into several Korps, as follows:

  • Advance Guard: 14,000 men, 48 guns, under the command of 49-year-old Feldmarschall-LeutnantArmand von Nordmann, a French émigré and a competent general
  • I Korps: 23,000 men, 68 guns, under the command of 53-year-old General der KavallerieHeinrich von Bellegarde, who had served under Archduke Charles several times in the past and was a sound, albeit unenterprising commander
  • II Korps: 27,000 men, 68 guns, under the command of 52-year-old FeldmarschalleutnantFriedrich Franz Xaver of Hohenzollern-Hechingen, a Rhineland Prince and a commander with an impeccable reputation
  • III Korps: 18,000 men, 58 guns under 61-year-old FeldzeugmeisterJohann Karl von Kollowrat-Krakowsky, a Bohemian noble with a long-standing military record
  • IV Korps: 19,000 men, 60 guns, under the command of 47-year-old FeldmarschalleutnantFranz Seraph of Rosenberg-Orsini, a descendant of a great German noble family of Italian descent, who had fought against the French during the French Revolutionary Wars and in 1805
  • VI Korps: 18,000 men, 64 guns, under the command of 51-year-old FeldmarschalleutnantJohann von Klenau, another Bohemian noble and a general who had won quite a remarkable reputation during the French Revolutionary Wars
  • I Reserve Korps: 18,000 men, 48 guns, under the command of 49-year-old General der KavallerieJohann I Joseph, Prince of Liechtenstein, an Austrian Prince, competent commander and a personal friend of Archduke Charles. [4][6][7][8]

Although in the vicinity of the battlefield, the V Korps (12,000 men, 50 guns) [4] under Feldmarschalleutnant Prince Heinrich XV Reuss of Plauen had been left behind on the Bisamberg heights as a strategic reserve, a position which meant that it was too far away to take part to any fighting on or around the Marchfeld, and were thus not a part of Charles' effective fighting force. This was due to Charles's desire to protect his communication lines towards Bohemia and Moravia. [9]

Grande Armée Edit

As opposed to his Austrian counterpart, Napoleon managed to muster two secondary armies for the upcoming battle. The first, called the Army of Italy, had marched from northern Italy to the main theatre of operations north of Vienna and was led by Napoleon's stepson, the Viceroy of Italy, Prince Eugène de Beauharnais. The second was the XI Corps, which formed the Army of Dalmatia, under General of Division Auguste de Marmont. However, the Army of Dalmatia, as well as a part of the Army of Italy only arrived on the battlefield towards midday on 6 July, at about the same time as an additional force, a Bavarian division under general Karl Philipp von Wrede. [10]

All these forces considered, Napoleon could muster an army of around 166,000 men, with 433 guns. [10] He was seconded by Major Général (Chief of Staff), 56-year-old Maréchal d'Empire Louis-Alexandre Berthier, a seasoned officer, who had been serving as Napoleon's Chief of Staff since 1796. [11] The army was organised in the usual French Corps system and the main army, La Grande Armée d'Allemagne ("the Grand Army of Germany") was divided as follows:

  • The Imperial Guard: 10,500 men, 60 guns, under the direct command of Napoleon : 27,000 men, 64 guns, under the command of 42-year-old Général de divisionNicolas-Charles Oudinot, a fearless commander, who had a reputation for leading from the front : 38,000 men, 120 guns, under the command of 39-year-old Maréchal d'EmpireLouis-Nicolas Davout, a stern disciplinarian and one of the best commanders in the French army : 28,000 men, 86 guns, under the command of 51-year-old Maréchal d'EmpireAndré Masséna, a general who had fought against the Austrians many times in the past and who had a reputation for exceptional military talent and cunning : only one Bavarian division (6,600 men, 24 guns) was present, under 42-year-old General von Wrede : 17,000 Saxons, 38 guns, under 46-year-old Maréchal d'EmpireJean-Baptiste Bernadotte, a commander who had acquired some fame during the Wars of the Revolution, but who often had strained relations with Napoleon
  • XI Corps ("Army of Dalmatia"): 10,000 men, 28 guns, under 34-year-old Général de division Auguste de Marmont, an up-and-coming commander and personal friend of the Emperor
  • The Reserve Cavalry Corps (three heavy cavalry divisions): 8,000 men, 24 guns, under the command of 40-year-old Maréchal d'EmpireJean-Baptiste Bessières, a skilled cavalry commander and loyal supporter of the Emperor. [10][12]

The "Army of Italy", under the command of 27-year-old Prince Eugène, the Viceroy of Italy and Napoleon's stepson. Eugène's army had a total of 44 guns and was made up of:

  • the small Italian Royal Guard (1,700 men) under 33-year-old Général de divisionAchille Fontanelli : 7,000 men, under 43-year-old Général de divisionJacques MacDonald, who had acquired considerable fame as a general of the Revolution but who had subsequently fallen out with Napoleon and was only just coming back into grace : 12,000 men, under 41-year-old Général de divisionPaul Grenier, a seasoned commander. [10][12][13]

Napoleon also massed additional artillery on the island of Lobau – 28 18-pounders, 24 12-pounders, 17 28-centimetre heavy mortars, 10 howitzers and a number of small calibre guns (4 and 6-pounders). Also stationed on the island of Lobau during the battle were one regiment and 5 battalions defending the crucial communications with Vienna. [14] These troops would not see action at Wagram, although the batteries would open an artillery barrage when Austrians from Klenau's VI Corps came within range, on the second day of the battle. [15] All the forces that remained on this island were placed under the command of general Aubry, later under the command of general Jean-Louis Reynier. [14]

Finally, the VIII Corps, under General of Division Dominique Vandamme was left out of the battle and was left behind to cover Vienna and the southern bank of the Danube upstream from the Austrian capital. [16]

Grand Army of Germany Edit

Aides-de-camp to the Emperor Military Household of the Emperor
GD Lauriston Grand Marshal GD Duroc
GB Savary First Squire GD Nansouty
GB Lebrun Maréchal des Logis du Palais GD de Ségur
GD Mouton
GD Rapp (absent)
GB Reille
GD Le Marois (absent)
GD Caffarelli (absent)
GD Bertrand

Army Staff Edit

    : MdEBerthier
    • Vice Chief of Staff: GD Dumas
      • Deputy to the Vice Chief of Staff: GB Bailly de Monthion
      • Deputy artillery commander: GD Foucher
      • Deputy chief of military engineers: Col Blein

      French Imperial Guard Edit

      Unit Commander Strength Dead Wounded
      Imperial Guard Napoleon I* 12,625
      1st Division (Young Guard) GD Curial 4,668
      1st Brigade GB Dumoustier 2,088
      Fusilier-Chasseurs Regiment (2 bat.) Col Lanabère 1,029
      Fusilier-Grenadiers Regiment (2 bat.) Col Bodelin 1,059
      2nd Brigade GB Roguet 2,484
      Tirailleurs Chasseurs Regiment (2 bat.) Col Rosey 1,294
      Tirailleurs Grenadiers Regiment (2 bat.) Col Laurède 1,190
      2nd Division (Old Guard) GD Dorsenne 2,656
      1st Brigade GB Gros 2,656
      1st Foot Chasseurs Regiment (2 bat.) GD Curial** 1,392
      1st Foot Grenadiers Regiment (2 bat.) GB Michel 1,264
      3rd Division (Cavalry) GD Walther 3,871
      Horse Grenadiers Regiment (4 sq.) GB Thiry*** 994
      Empress' Dragoons Regiment GB Letort 995
      Chasseurs à Cheval Regiment (4 sq.) GB Guyot 1,024
      Polish 1st Light Cavalry Regiment (4 sq.) GB Krasiński 966
      Élite Gendarmes Legion (2 sq.) GB Savary 309
      Artillery (10 batteries) GD Lauriston 2,397/60 pieces 6 officers 115 men 13 officers 342 men
      Foot artillery (4 batteries) Col Drouot 24 12-pounders
      Foot artillery (one howitzer battery) Maj Pommereul 4 24-pound howitzers
      Horse artillery (4 batteries) Maj d'Aboville 24 6-pounders
      Horse artillery (2 batteries) Maj Boulart 12 8-pounders
      Marines Cap Baste 113
      Engineers CdB Boissonet

      * Some authors (Naulet, Hourtoulle) cite GD Walther as being the commander of the entire Guard. General Walther had indeed commanded the Guard during the marches of this campaign. Rothenberg considers that Emperor Napoleon was the direct commander of the Guard, because he kept this unit under very strict control and it acted only at his command. Furthermore, Walther, although one of the most experienced generals on the battlefield, had previously commanded only cavalry. Thanks to his prestige among the ranks of this unit and the fact that he often commanded the Guard cavalry, MdE Bessières was naturally considered to have the authority to command this unit, although in this battle he was granted only the command of the Cavalry Reserve.

      ** GB Curial had been promoted to the rank of GD after the battle of Aspern-Essling and had been granted the command of the 1st Young Guard Division, but he nominally kept the command of the 1st Foot Chasseurs Regiment from the Old Guard as their deputy major general. The major general of the Foot Chasseurs (honorary appointment), MdE Soult, was in Spain.

      *** Pigeard (La Garde Imperiale) cites GD Walther as being the direct commander of the Horse Grenadiers. It is certain that this general spent much of the 6th of July by directly commanding this unit, as it was his favourite one.

      II Corps (Oudinot) Edit

      Unit Commander Strength Losses
      II Corps GD Oudinot* 30,469 men 277 officers 8,669 men
      1st Division** GD Tharreau 8,579
      1st Brigade GB Conroux
      6th Light Regiment (1 bat., 4th)
      9th Light Regiment (1 bat., 4th)
      24th Light Regiment (1 bat., 4th)
      25th Light Regiment (1 bat., 4th)
      27th Light Regiment (1 bat., 4th)
      Corsican Tirailleurs (1 bat.)
      2nd Brigade GB Albert
      8th Line Regiment (1 bat., 4th) CdB Mariveaux
      24th Line Regiment (1 bat., 4th)
      45th Line Regiment (1 bat., 4th)
      94th Line Regiment (1 bat., 4th)
      95th Line Regiment (1 bat., 4th)
      96th Line Regiment (1 bat., 4th)
      3rd Brigade GB Jarry
      4th Line Regiment (1 bat., 4th)
      18th Line Regiment (1 bat., 4th) CdB Guigard
      54th Line Regiment (1 bat., 4th)
      63rd Line Regiment (1 bat., 4th) CdB Mouchon
      2nd Division** GD Frère*** 8,834
      1st Brigade GB Coehorn
      16th Light Regiment (1 bat., 4th)
      17th Light Regiment (1 bat., 4th) CdB Boulon
      21st Light Regiment (1 bat., 4th)
      26th Light Regiment (1 bat., 4th)
      28th Light Regiment (1 bat., 4th)
      Tirailleurs du Po (1 bat.)
      2nd Brigade GB Razout
      27th Line Regiment (1 bat., 4th)
      39th Line Regiment (1 bat., 4th)
      59th Line Regiment (1 bat., 4th)
      69th Line Regiment (1 bat., 4th)
      76th Line Regiment (1 bat., 4th)
      3rd Brigade GB Ficatier
      40th Line Regiment (1 bat., 4th)
      64th Line Regiment (1 bat., 4th)
      88th Line Regiment (1 bat., 4th)
      100th Line Regiment (1 bat., 4th)
      103rd Line Regiment (1 bat., 4th)
      3rd Division GD Grandjean**** 7,861
      1st Brigade GB Marion
      10th Light Regiment (3 bat.) Col Berthezène
      2nd Brigade GB Lorencez
      3rd Line Regiment (3 bat.) Col Schobert
      57th Line Regiment (3 bat.) Col Charrière
      3rd Brigade GB Brun
      72nd Line Regiment (3 bat.) Col Lafitte
      105th Line Regiment (3 bat.) Col Blanmont
      Portuguese Legion GB Logo 1,651
      13th Demi-brigade (3 bat.) GB Logo
      Provisional Chasseur à Cheval Regiment (2 sq.) Col Aguiar
      Light cavalry brigade GB Colbert 1,650 men
      9th Hussar Regiment (3 sq.) Col Gauthrin
      7th Chasseur à Cheval Regiment (3 sq.) Col Bohn
      20th Chasseur à Cheval Regiment (3 sq.) Col Castex
      Artillery (8 batteries) and engineers GB Navelet 1,932 men/48 pieces (36 regimental pieces)

      * GD Oudinot replaced MdE Lannes, mortally wounded at the battle of Aspern-Essling, at the head of the II Corps.
      ** The 1st and 2nd divisions of this Corps were formed only from the 4th battalion of several regiments, some present at Wagram in the composition of other Corps, others being in Spain with their other 3 battalions and their colonel. The 4th battalion of these regiments was usually made up from young recruits without experience, divided, according to the new French system, in 4 "center" companies. To fill up the ranks, according to the regulations, 2 more "élite" companies were added (one of grenadiers and one of voltigeurs for the line regiments, and one of foot carabiniers and one of voltigeurs for the light regiments), generally consisting of veterans.
      *** After the battle of Aspern-Essling GD Frère replaced GD Claparède at the head of the 2nd Division.
      **** After the battle of Aspern-Essling GD Grandjean replaced GD Saint-Hilaire, mortally wounded on the 22nd of May, at the head of the 3rd Division.

      III Corps (Davout) Edit

      Unit Commander Strength Dead Wounded
      III Corps MdE Davout 42,541 22 officers 732 men 207 officers 5,104 men
      1st Division GD Morand 8,643
      1st Brigade GB Poncet
      13th Light Regiment (3 bat.) Col Guyardet
      17th Line Regiment (3 bat.) Col Oudet
      2nd Brigade GB Hoff
      30th Line Regiment (3 bat.) Col Joubert
      61st Line Regiment (3 bat.) Col Bouge
      2nd Division GD Friant 9,730
      1st Brigade GB Gilly
      15th Light Regiment (3 bat.) Col Noos
      33rd Line Regiment (3 bat.) Col Pouchelon
      2nd Brigade GB Barbanègre
      48th Line Regiment (3 bat.) Col Groisne
      3rd Brigade GB Grandeau
      108th Line Regiment (3 bat.) Col Rottembourg
      111th Line Regiment (3 bat.) Col Husson
      3rd Division GD Gudin 10,508
      1st Brigade GB Boyer
      7th Light Regiment (3 bat.) Col Lamaire
      2nd Brigade GB Leclerc des Essarts
      12th Line Regiment (3 bat.) Col Thoulouse
      21st Line Regiment (3 bat.) Col Decouz
      3rd Brigade GB Duppelin
      25th Line Regiment (3 bat.) Col Dunesme
      85th Line Regiment (3 bat.) Col Piat
      4th Division GD Puthod 4,734
      1st Brigade GB Girard
      17th Line Regiment (1 bat., 4th)
      30th Line Regiment (1 bat., 4th)
      33rd Line Regiment (1 bat., 4th)
      61st Line Regiment (1 bat., 4th)
      65th Line Regiment (1 bat., 4th)
      2nd Brigade GB Desailly
      7th Light Regiment (1 bat., 4th)
      12th Line Regiment (1 bat., 4th)
      25th Line Regiment (1 bat., 4th)
      85th Line Regiment (1 bat., 4th)
      111th Line Regiment (1 bat., 4th)
      Light cavalry division GD Montbrun 1,219
      1st Brigade GB Jacquinot
      1st Chasseur à Cheval Regiment (4 sq.) Col Méda
      2nd Chasseur à Cheval Regiment (4 sq.) Col Mathis
      7th Hussar Regiment (4 sq.) Col Domon
      2nd Brigade GB Pajol
      5th Hussar Regiment (4 sq.) Col d'Héry
      11th Chasseur à Cheval Regiment (4 sq.) Col Désirat
      12th Chasseur à Cheval Regiment (4 sq.) Lt-Col Ghigny (?)
      1st Dragoon Division (detached from the Army of Italy) GD Pully 1,182
      23rd Dragoon Regiment (4 sq.) Col Thierry
      28th Dragoon Regiment (3 sq.) Col Montmarie
      29th Dragoon Regiment (3 sq.) Col Avice
      2nd Dragoon Division (detached from the Army of Italy) GD Grouchy 2,300
      7th Dragoon Regiment (4 sq.) Col Séron
      30th Dragoon Regiment (4 sq.)
      Italian attached Dragoni Regina Regiment (4 sq.)
      1st Cacciatori a Cavallo Regiment (1 sq.)
      Artillery (8 batteries) and engineers 1,393 men/51 pieces 36 regimental pieces

      IV Corps (Masséna) Edit

      Unit Commander Strength Dead Wounded Prisoners
      IV Corps MdE Masséna 29,391 men 1,084 6,018 1,213
      1st Division GD Legrand 5,083 400 1,545 49
      1st Brigade GB Ledru des Essarts
      26th Light Regiment (3 bat.) Col Campi
      18th Line Regiment (3 bat.) Col Ravier
      2nd Brigade (Baden) Ob von Neuenstein 95 275
      Light Regiment (Jäger) (1 bat.) Maj von Brandt
      1st Guard Regiment (Leibregiment) (2 bat.)
      2nd Infantry Regiment (Erbgrossherzog) (2 bat.) Crown Prince Charles
      3rd Infantry Regiment (1 bat.) Maj von Hochberg
      2nd Division GD Carra Saint-Cyr 8,411 326 2,817 891
      1st Brigade GB Cosson
      24th Light Regiment (3 bat.) Col Pourailly
      2nd Brigade GB Dalesme
      4th Line Regiment (3 bat.) Col Boyeldieu
      46th Line Regiment (3 bat.) Col Baudinot
      3rd Brigade (Hesse-Darmstadt) GB Schiner and GM von Nagel 127 453
      Guard Infantry Regiment (2 bat.) Ob von Lehrbach
      Line Regiment (2 bat.)
      Guard Light Regiment (1 bat.) Oblt von Beck
      3rd Division GD Molitor 5,685 199 766 8
      1st Brigade GB Leguay
      2nd Line Regiment (3 bat.) Col Delga
      16th Line Regiment (3 bat.) Col Marin
      2nd Brigade GB Viviès
      37th Line Regiment (3 bat.) Col Gauthier †
      67th Line Regiment (3 bat.) Col Petit
      4th Division GD Boudet 4,584 39 280 95
      1st Brigade GB Fririon
      3rd Light Regiment (2 bat.) Col Lamarque d'Arrouzat
      2nd Brigade GB Valory
      93rd Line Regiment (2 bat.) Col Grillot
      56th Line Regiment (3 bat.) Col Gengoult
      Light cavalry brigade GB Marulaz 1,464 82 250 80
      3rd Chasseur à Cheval Regiment (3 sq.) Col Saint-Mars
      14th Chasseur à Cheval Regiment (3 sq.) Col Lion
      19th Chasseur à Cheval Regiment (3 sq.) Col Leduc
      23rd Chasseur à Cheval Regiment (3 sq.) Col Lambert
      Baden Dragoon Regiment (1 sq.) Col Freystedt
      Hesse Chevau-léger Regiment (2 sq.) Col Chamot and Maj von Munchingen
      4th light cavalry division (detached from the Cavalry Reserve) GD Lasalle † 1,843 38 360 90
      1st Brigade GB Bruyères
      13th Chasseur à Cheval Regiment (3 sq.) Col Demengeot
      24th Chasseur à Cheval Regiment (3 sq.) Col Ameil
      2nd Brigade GB Piré
      8th Hussar Regiment (4 sq.) Col Laborde †
      16th Chasseur à Cheval Regiment (4 sq.) Col Maupoint
      Artillery (10 batteries) and engineers 2,321 men/61 pieces

      VII Corps (von Wrede's Bavarian division) Edit

      Unit Commander Strength Dead Wounded
      VII Corps MdE Lefebvre (absent)
      1st Division (Bavaria) GL von Wrede 6,866
      1st Brigade GM von Minucci
      6th Light Infantry Bat.
      3rd Line Regiment (2 bat.) Ob Berchem
      13th Line Regiment (2 bat.)
      2nd Brigade GM von Beckers
      6th Line Regiment (2 bat.)
      7th Line Regiment (2 bat.)
      3rd Brigade GM von Preysing
      2nd Chevau-léger Regiment (4 sq.)
      3rd Chevau-léger Regiment (4 sq.)
      Artillery (2 batteries) and engineers 460 men/16 pieces

      IX Corps (Bernadotte) Edit

      Unit Commander Strength Dead Wounded
      IX Corps MdE Bernadotte 18,272 men 61 officers 887 men 133 officers 4,131 men
      1st Division (Saxony) GL von Zerschwitz
      1st Brigade GM Hartitzsch †
      Guard Grenadier Bat. (Leibgrenadiergarde)
      Bose's Grenadier Bat.
      Hach's Bat.
      2nd Brigade GM von Zeschau
      King's Regiment (2 bat.)
      Niesemenschel's Bat.
      Klengel's Bat.
      3rd Brigade (cavalry) GM Gutschmitz
      Leibgarde Regiment (2 sq.)
      Carabinier Regiment (2 sq.)
      Prince Clement Chevau-léger Regiment (2 sq.)
      Duke Albert Chevau-léger Regiment (1 sq.)
      Hussar Regiment (3 esc.)
      2nd Division (Saxony) GL von Polenz
      1st Brigade GM Lecoq
      Prince Clement's Bat.
      Low's Bat.
      Cerini's Bat.
      Egidy's Tirailleur Bat.
      2nd Brigade Col Steindel
      Prince Maximilian's Bat.
      Prince Frederick's Bat.
      Prince Anton's Bat.
      3rd Brigade (cavalry) GM Feititzsch
      Guard Cuirassier Regiment (4 sq.)
      Prince John Chevau-léger Regiment (4 sq.)
      3rd Division GD Dupas 22 officers 512 men 39 officers 1,946 men
      1st Brigade GB Gency
      5th Light Regiment (2 bat.) Col Dubreton
      2nd Brigade GB Veaux
      19th Line Regiment (3 bat.) Col Aubry
      Radelof's Bat.
      Winkelmann's Bat.
      Metzsch's Tirailleur Bat.
      Artillery (8 batteries) and engineers 938 men/41 pieces

      XI Corps or the Army of Dalmatia (Marmont) Edit

      Unit Commander Strength Dead Wounded
      XI Corps (Army of Dalmatia) GD Marmont 10,070 men
      1st Division GD Claparède
      1st Brigade GB Soyez
      5th Line Regiment (2 bat.) Col Roussille
      3rd Brigade GB Bertrand de Sivray
      79th Line Regiment (2 bat.) Col Godart
      81st Line Regiment (2 bat.) Col Bonté
      2nd Division GD Clauzel
      1st Brigade GB Delzons
      8th Light Regiment (2 bat.) Col Bellair
      23rd Line Regiment (2 bat.)
      2nd Brigade GB Bachelu
      11th Line Regiment (2 bat.)
      Light cavalry brigade 270 men
      3rd Chasseur à Cheval Regiment (1 sq.)
      24th Chasseur à Cheval Regiment (1 sq.)
      Artillery (2 batteries) and engineers 515 men and 19 pieces

      Cavalry Reserve (Bessières) Edit

      Unit Commander Strength Dead Wounded
      Cavalry Reserve MdE Bessières 8,696 men 16 officers 171 troopers 66 officers 693 troopers
      1st Division (heavy cavalry) GD Nansouty 4,039 men 12 officers 105 troopers 37 officers 415 troopers
      1st Brigade GB Defrance
      1st Carabinier Regiment (4 sq.) Col Laroche
      2nd Carabinier Regiment (4 sq.) Col Blancard
      2nd Brigade GB Doumerc
      2nd Cuirassier Regiment (4 sq.) Col Chouard
      9th Cuirassier Regiment (4 sq.) Col Paultre de Lamotte
      3rd Brigade GB Saint-Germain
      3rd Cuirassier Regiment (4 sq.) Col Richter
      12th Cuirassier Regiment (4 sq.) Col Dornes
      2nd Division (heavy cavalry) GD Saint-Sulpice 1,994 men 2 officers 27 troopers 5 officers 66 troopers
      1st Brigade GB Fiteau
      1st Cuirassier Regiment (4 sq.) Col Berckheim
      5th Cuirassier Regiment (4 sq.) Col Quinette
      2nd Brigade GB Guiton
      10th Cuirassier Regiment (3 sq.) Col Lhéritier
      11th Cuirassier Regiment (3 sq.) Col Duclaux
      3rd Division (heavy cavalry) GD Arrighi 1,931 men 2 officers 39 troopers 24 officers 212 troopers
      1st Brigade GB Reynaud
      4th Cuirassier Regiment (4 sq.) Col prince Borghese
      6th Cuirassier Regiment (4 sq.) Col d'Haugéranville
      2nd Brigade GB Bordesoulle
      7th Cuirassier Regiment (4 sq.) Col Dubois
      8th Cuirassier Regiment (4 sq.) Col Grandjean
      Artillery (one battery) and engineers 732 men/10 pieces

      Army of Italy (Eugène) Edit

      Under the overall command of Emperor Napoleon I, king of Italy

      Vanguard (von Nordmann) Edit

      Unit Commander Strength Dead Wounded
      Vanguard (Light "Division") FML von Nordmann † 14,365 men
      1 st Vanguard Brigade GM Vécsey †
      12 th Hussar Regiment Palatin (6 sq.) Ob von Illesy
      1 st Jäger Bat. Oblt Lutz
      58 th Beaulieu Regiment (2 bat.) Ob von Frohauf
      3 rd Meinharts-Berg Landwehr Bat.
      2 nd Vanguard Brigade GM von Frölich
      7 th Jäger Bat. Maj von Steinmetz
      10 th Hussar Regiment Stipsicz (8 sq.) Ob Starhemberg
      13 th Grenzer Regiment Wallachia-Illyria (2 bat.)
      1 st Infantry Brigade GM von Riese
      44 th Bellegarde Regiment (3 bat.) Ob von Studnitz
      46 th Chasteler Regiment (3 bat.) Ob von Kirchberg
      1 st Vienna Woods Landwehr Bat.
      2 nd Vienna Woods Landwehr Bat.
      2 nd Infantry Brigade GM von Mayer
      4 th Deutschmeister Regiment (3 bat.) Ob von Klopstein
      49 th Kerpen Regiment (3 bat.) Ob von Langenau
      5 th Vienna Woods Landwehr Bat.
      6 th Vienna Woods Landwehr Bat.
      Cavalry Brigade GM von Schneller
      4 th Hussar Regiment Hessen-Homburg (8 sq.) Ob Prince Gustav zu Hessen-Homburg
      Artillery (4-6 batteries) and engineers 26 (?) pieces

      I Corps (von Bellegarde) Edit

      Unit Commander Strength Dead Wounded
      I Corps GdK von Bellegarde 21,693 men
      1st Division FML von Dedovich 11,850
      1st Brigade GM von Henneberg
      17 th Reuss-Plauen Regiment (3 bat.) Ob von Oberdorf
      36 th Kollowrat Regiment (3 bat.) Ob Klenau
      2nd Brigade GM de Wacquant
      11 th Archduke Rainer Regiment (3 bat.) Ob von Fabre
      47 th Vogelsang Regiment (3 bat.) Ob Bentheim-Steinfurt
      2nd Division FML Fresnel 9,843
      1st Brigade GM von Clary
      10 th Mitrowsky Regiment (2 bat.) Ob von Lowenwarth
      42 nd Erbach Regiment (2 bat.) Ob von Brixen
      Hradischer Landwehr Bat.
      2nd Brigade GM von Motzen
      35 th Argenteau Regiment (3 bat.) Ob von Giessenburg
      4 th Archduke Charles' Legion Bat.
      Vanguard Brigade GM von Stutterheim
      2 nd Jäger Bat. Maj von Arno
      5 th Chevau-léger Regiment Klenau (8 sq.) Ob von Spiegel
      Artillery (9-10 batteries) and engineers 62-70 pieces

      II Corps (von Hohenzollern) Edit

      Unit Commander Strength Dead Wounded
      II Corps GdK von Hohenzollern 25,951 men
      1st Division FML von Brady 13,403
      1st Brigade GM von Paar
      54 th Froon Regiment (3 bat.) Ob von Andrassy
      25 th Zedwitz Regiment (3 bat.) Ob von Quallenburg
      3 rd Hradischer Landwehr Bat.
      2 nd Znaimer Landwehr Bat.
      2nd Brigade GM Buress
      57 th Joseph Colloredo Regiment (3 bat.) Ob Ellger
      15 th Zach Regiment (2 bat.) Ob von Carpenstein
      1 st Brünner Landwehr Bat.
      3 rd Brünner Landwehr Bat.
      2nd Division FML von Ulm* 12,547
      1st Brigade GM von Allstern
      21 st Rohan Regiment (3 bat.) Ob von Krause
      2nd Brigade GM von Wied-Runkel
      18 th d'Aspre Regiment (3 bat.) Ob von Riesenburg
      28 th Fröhlich Regiment (3 bat.) Ob von Mecsery
      Vanguard Brigade GM von Hardegg 2,126
      2 nd Archduke Charles' Legion Bat.
      8 th Jäger Bat. Oblt Mumb
      4 th Chevau-léger Regiment Vincent (6 sq.) Ob Fierland
      Artillery (10 batteries) and engineers 68 pieces

      * Some sources state FML Ulm's division was commanded by FML von Siegenthal.

      III Corps (Kollowrat) Edit

      Unit Commander Strength Dead Wounded
      III Corps FZM Kollowrat 16,596
      1st Division FML Saint-Julien 8,363
      1st Brigade GM von Lilienberg
      23 rd Würzburg Regiment (2 bat.) Ob von Sterndahl
      1 st Kaiser Regiment (2 bat.) Ob Prince Hohenlohe-Langenburg
      12 th Manfredini Regiment (3 bat.) Ob von Winzian
      2nd Brigade GM von Bieber
      20 th Kaunitz Regiment (3 bat.) Ob von Sternau
      38 th Württemberg Regiment (2 bat.) Ob de Lompret
      2nd Division FML von Vukassovich † 8,233
      1st Brigade GM von Grill
      56 th Wenzel Colloredo Regiment (3 bat.) Ob von Giffing
      7 th Karl Schröder Regiment (3 bat.) Ob von Heldensfeld
      2nd Brigade GM Wratislaw
      Prager Landwehr Bat.
      1 st Berauner Landwehr Bat.
      Vanguard Brigade GM von Schneller*
      2 nd Berauner Landwehr Bat.
      Lobkowitz Jäger Bat.
      2 nd Uhlan Regiment Schwarzenberg (6 sq.) Ob Schmuttermayer
      Artillery (8-10 batteries) and engineers 54-70 pieces

      * Some sources state GM Schneller's brigade was commanded by Ob Schmuttermayer.

      IV Corps (von Rosenberg) Edit

      Unit Commander Strength Dead Wounded
      IV Corps FML von Rosenberg 18,024
      1st Division FML Prince zu Hohenlohe-Bartenstein 4,479
      1st Brigade GM Prince Philipp zu Hessen-Homburg
      2 nd Hiller Regiment (3 bat.) Ob von Torri
      33 rd Sztarry Regiment (3 bat.) Ob von König
      2nd Division FML de Rohan 5,368
      1st Brigade GM von Swinburne
      8 th Archduke Louis Regiment (3 bat.) Ob von Fürstenwarther
      22 nd Koburg Regiment (3 bat.) Ob von Watzel
      1 st Iglauer Landwehr Bat.
      1 st Znaimer Landwehr Bat.
      3rd Division FML Radetzky 8,177
      1st Brigade GM Weiss von Finkenau
      50 th Stain Regiment (3 bat.)
      3 rd Archduke Charles Regiment (3 bat.)
      4 th Vienna Woods Landwehr Bat.
      2 nd Schönborn Landwehr Bat.
      Vanguard Brigade GM de Provèncheres
      Waltrich Jäger Bat.
      2 nd Mahrish Volunteer Bat.
      3 rd Hussar Regiment Archduke Ferdinand (8 sq.) Ob Prince zu Sachsen-Coburg
      Carneville Free Corps (1 sq. + 1/3 bat.)
      Artillery (9 batteries) and engineers 60 pieces

      VI Corps (Klenau) Edit

      1 st Division FML Vincent - Strength 3 750

      1. Brigade GM Wallmoden Grenzer Regiment B (1/2 Bat.) Husaren-Regiment 7 Liechtenstein (8 Esc.) 2. Brigade GM Mariassy Bat. 1 Volunt. Vienna Bat. 2 Volunt. Vienna Bat. Landwehr Colloredo 3. Brigade GM Vecsey † Bat. Grenzer Saint-Georg Husaren - Regiment 8 Kienmayer

      2 nd Division FML Hohenfeld - Strength 6 331

      1. Brigade GM Adler Regiment 14 Ob Klebek (2 Bat.) Regiment 59 Ob Jordis (2 Bat.) Bat. 3 Landwehr din Mähren Bat. 1 Landwehr Bat. 3 Leg. Erzherzog Karl Carl 2. Brigade GM Hofmeister Regiment 60 Ob Giulay (3 Bat.) Regiment 36 Ob Kollowrat (3 Bat.)

      3 rd Division FML Kottulinsky - Strength 3 661

      1. Brigade GM Spleny Regiment 51 Ob Spleny (3 Bat.) Regiment 31 Ob Benjowsky (2 Bat.) Bat. 3 Volunteer Vienna Bat. 4 Volunteer Vienna Bat. 1 Volunteer Mähren

      Reservekorps (Liechtenstein) Edit

      1st Grenadier-Division FML d'Aspré † - Strength 3 960

      1. Brigade GM Merville Bat. Grenad. Ob Scharlach Bat. de Grenad. Scovaud Bat. de Grenad. Ob Buteany Bat. de Grenad Ob Brzezinsky 2. Brigade GM Hammer Bat. Grenad Ob Kirchenbetter Bat. Grenad. Ob Bissingen Bat. Grenad. Ob Oklopsia Bat. Grenad. Ob Locher

      2nd Grenadier-Division FML Prochaska - Strength 5 940

      1. Brigade GM Murray Bat. Grenad Ob Frisch Bat. Grenad Ob Georgy Bat. Grenad Ob Portner Bat. Grenad Ob Leiningen 2.Brigade GM Steyrer Bat. Grenad Ob Hahn Bat. Grenad Ob Hromada Bat. Grenad Ob Legrand Bat. Grenad Ob Dumontant Bat. Grenad Ob Berger

      1 st Cavalry- Division FML Hessen-Homburg - Strength 3 134

      1st Brigade GM Roussel Kürass.-Regiment 3 Albert (6 Esc.) Kürass.Regiment 2 Erzherzog Franz(6 Esc.) 2 nd Brigade GM Lederer Kürass. Regiment 4 Erzherzog Ferdinand (6 Esc.) Kürass.Regiment 8 Hohenzollern (6 esc.) 3. Brigade GM Kroyher Kürassier Regiment 1 (4 Esc.) Kürass.Regimentul 6 Liechtenstein (6 Esc.)

      2 nd Cavalry –Division FML Schwarzenberg - Strength 1 800

      1 st Brigade GM Teimern Regiment 6 Chevaulegers Rosenberg (8 Esc.) Dragoner-Regiment 3 Ob.Knesevitch (6 Esc.) 2. Brigade GM Kerekes Husaren-Regimen ob Neutrauer (6 Esc.)

      3 rd Cavalry Division FML Nostitz - Strength 3 120 1 st Brigade 1 GM Wartensleben Regiment 3 Chevaulegers Ob. O'Reilly (6 Esc.) Husaren Regiment 6 Ob. Blankenstein (10 Esc.) 2.nd Brigade GM Rothkirch Dragoner-Regiment 1 Erzherzog Johann (6 Esc.) Regiment 6 Dragon. Ob Riesch (6 Esc.)

      Swabian Campaign

      In response to Hesse and Württemberg taking up arms, Leopold III, Duke of Habsburg was dispatched into Swabia with the army of the Catholic League that he helped mastermind. Some 8,000 professional soldiers, combined with 4,500 levies from Habsburg, the Palatinate, and their Rhineland allies, crossed from Baden into southwest Württemberg. Conrad V of Württemberg canceled plans to imarch on the Palatinate city of Heidelberg and instead rushed back toward Stuttgart. Although the Habsburg Dukes were nominally hegemons over the Swabian League, and had extorted a number of soldiers prior to the outbreak of war, the vast majority of Swabia was Jungist or Kalfkanist, allowing Conrad V to quickly find allies. Hohenzollern was a vassal of Hesse and thus entered the war alongside them, while the major state of Hohenlohe-Neuenstein under Count George Frederick was also quick to come to his aid.

      The Habsburgs marched east from Karlsruhe through a northern pass of the Black forest, where they were forced to engage with Protestant defenders at Pforzheim. Although a small town of only some 3,000 people, the town consisted of sizable fortifications, and was soon reinforced with some 5,000 men from Stuttgart. Another center of the Habsburg alliance, Rottweil, was encircled by the Count of Hohenzollern. Although largely non-Catholic, Rottweil had a close relationship with the Swiss Confederacy, and had been occupied by the Habsburgs previously. As such the city retained a Catholic garrison prior to the war. No pitched battle would occur until 31 January 1597, when 3,000 men under the command of Count George Frederick were lured westward by Lothar Zobel of Rastatt and decisively defeated. Nonetheless Zobel failed to reach Rottweil, while outnumbered and juggling multiple enemy armies, and the city fell on 15 February.

      The Capture of Pforzheim by Leopold III.

      Despite this, Leopold III pressed on, and encountered the main army of Conrad V attempting to relieve Pforzheim. The Catholic army was slightly outnumbered, with some 12,500 soldiers versus 5,000 soldiers in the city and an 8,750 man relief force commanded by the Duke. The town's commander, a relative of the Duke named Edmund the Pale, ordered a sortie from the fortifications to support Conrad's advance, only to have his forces decimated by Catholic artillery placed out of reach of the city walls. Conrad's army, which was engaging with the Catholic army perpendicular to the city walls, attempted to send his heavy cavalry across the battlefield to support the advance by Edmund the Pale, but these forces were quickly routed. This eventually turned to a disastrous rout for the entire Württemberger army, and Conrad V fled from the battlefield. Edmund the Pale and other nobles and commanders would be captured, while the town of Pforzheim surrendered formally soon after. The remaining army of the country fled to Stuttgart in a panic.

      The rapid success of the Habsburgs alarmed the rest of Swabia, leading several minor states to surrender or recognize the Catholic emperor. Alternatively, Nehemiah II of Breisgau began covertly organizing resistance to the Habsburgs in the form of a rebellion among the Swabian League. The state to be the most outspoken against the Habsburgs in Swabia was the state the furthest away from them, Ulm, led by Maximilian Syrlin, the grandson of famed Hegemon of the Swabian league Franz von Sickingen in the early part of the century. Through Nehemiah’s negotiation and persuasion, Maximilian Syrlin agreed to take up the cause as a rival claimant to Leopold III. He received the support of Gedeon II of Thuringia, who wed his daughter Jezebel to Maximilian, and received a small stipend and a group of some 1,000 volunteers, called the renewed Blue Army, and 3,400 contracted former Imperial soldiers. Other states to join Syrlin included states less indebted to the Habsburgs, such as Reutlingen and Ravensburg, but included one notable defection in the form of Count Joachim of Veringen.

      In the months after the victory at Pforzheim, Leopold III suffered an injury that forced him to hand command to several other generals, including Frederick of Durlach and Franz Karrer, leader of a Swiss detachment to Swabia. Officers at the time would remark that Leopold III had been fearless in battle, seemingly not feeling pain when struck. This would prove to be more literal than observers intended, as it soon became evident that Leopold was suffering from leprosy. With the aid of one of his advisors, Ulrich Steigleder, Leopold managed to cover this up for some time, but by the time of the Swabian campaign it became impossible to hide. When Leopold emerged he donned a mask over his face and was often fully covered. Despite attempts by the rest of the Catholic alliance to have him retire, he swore to finish what he had begun before his death ultimately came.

      While Leopold III was absent from command, Frederick of Durlach elected to raid much of western Württemberg rather than besieging Stuttgart directly, hoping to force the city to surrender without a fight, and to replenish his supplies and coffers. To this end Durlach would achieve a minor victory at Sachsenheim against a force of some 3,000 Jungists on 1 April. Throughout the early half of the year over a dozen castles and towns would fall to the Habsburg army, putting continual pressure on Conrad V and his allies. In the meantime the Swiss Confederacy under Huldrych Jaunch spearheaded an invasion of the rebellious Swabian League, defeating the Count of Hohenzollern at Tuttlingen, and retaking Rottweil in July. Nonetheless, the involvement of the Swiss aided in recruitment among the Swabian cities, and by the end of summer some 5,500 infantry and 1,000 cavalry had been acquired and tasked with invading the eastern, estranged territories of the Duchy of the Habsburg.

      During the Siege of Ehingen in late July, a Jungist officer and volunteer from Hall named Jäcklein Rainier would be placed in command of the Swabian forces by Maximilian Syrlin after he led the capture of the city by drawing away the defenders in a fake attack elsewhere. Upon receiving word that Durlach was now marching southeast to aid in the reprisal against the Swabians, Rainier rushed north to meet them, arriving outside Reutlingen on 19 August. The battle the following day would result in one of the few major defeats for the Catholics in the early era of the war, with Durlach himself only barely escaping with his life. Of the 10,000 Catholic soldiers, at least 1,300 would be dead and another 2,500 captured, versus Rainier’s 7,000 men suffering only 600 casualties. When Leopold III learned of this he ordered Durlach to resign, and took direct control of the army once more despite his ailing health.

      Rainier sought to relieve Stuttgart, which had been formally placed under a siege at the end of July, but first was forced to repulse Jaunch’s forces, which were now advancing across Hohenzollern. Although the Swiss would be defeated at Gomaringen, the distraction gave time for Leopold III to march toward Stuttgart with the remnants of Durlach’s army and new reinforcements from the Palatinate and Speyer. At the subsequent Battle of Harrenberg on 9 October, Leopold’s army would prevail in defeating the Swabian alliance, but failed to follow the fleeing Jungist army. Both sides subsequently called off further offensives due to an outbreak of disease, and later the beginning of winter. Harrenberg would be the last engagement Leopold fought in which he could still wield a sword in his right hand, and he soon lost ability in that arm.

      That winter Württemberg suffered the loss of several of its more distant territories and castles. Ravensburg was directly besieged by the Swiss and Austrian volunteers, followed by Württemberg’s southeast territories. Rainier pillaged Swabia into the early months of 1598, before he was dismissed by Syrlin. He traveled into Bavaria and was warmly received as a hero, helping to raise Jungist soldiers much to the worry of Frederick V, who had hoped to keep Bavaria neutral due to his familial ties. Although Bavaria did not outright invade during the Swabian Campaign, Rainier’s negotiations caused enough alarm to the point where the potential intervention would later influence the future peace arrangements. Swabia would suffer a high degree of destruction, as both sides relied on marauding mercenaries to apply pressure to the other. Nehemiah II’s death to old age in early 1598 additionally weakened the Swabian cause.

      By the spring of 1598 the fall of Ravensberg, Reutlingen, and Sigmaringen, among others, effectively ended the Swabian Campaign, with the majority of Syrlin’s alliance now making peace. Conrad V would write to Joktan of Hesse, stating that with no other option available he was expecting to surrender Stuttgart rather than see the city destroyed. Although this accounted for a major part of the nation’s army, a force of 3,000 men instead evacuated to Ulm, while the Count of Hohenzollern and other nobles attempted to flee into Jungist territory and continue the fight another day. Hohenzollern would eventually become the head of the largest continent, leading an army from Swabia north in the hopes of aiding Hesse directly. On 5 April 1598 Duke Conrad V surrendered the duchy and abdicated.

      Birthdays in History

        Wilhelm Beer, German amateur astronomer (constructed 1st Moon map) Gideon Brecher, Austrian physician (d. 1873) Maria Leopoldina of Austria, Empress of Brazil (d. 1826) Edwin Vose Sumner, American Major General (Union Army), born in Boston, Massachusetts (d. 1863) Joseph Maria von Radowitz, German diplomat, born in Frankfurt, Germany (d. 1912) William I, Berlin, King of Prussia (1861-88)/German Emperor (1871-88) Mary Lyon, American educator (Mt Holyoke) (Hall of Fame) Frederick, prince of Netherlands, general and admiral (10 day campaign), born in Berlin (d. 1881) Kaiser Wilhelm I, German emperor (1871-88) Antonio Rosmini-Serbati, philosopher/founder (Institute of Charity) John Winebrenner, American clergyman, founded Church of God Alfred Victor, Comte de Vigny, French musketeer and writer (Moise, Chatterton), born in Loches, France (d. 1863) Claude Ambroise Seurat, Frenchman exhibited in England as "Human Skeleton", born in Champaigne France (d. 1826) Adolphe Thiers, 1st president of 3rd French Republic (1871-77), born in Bouc-Bel-Air, France (d. 1877) Andreas Victor Michiels, Dutch military governor of West-Sumatra, Dutch East Indies, born in Maastricht, Netherlands (d. 1849)

      Abraham Gesner

      May 2 Abraham Gesner, Canadian geologist (inventor of kerosene), born in Cornwallis, Nova Scotia (d. 1864)

        Frederick Augustus II, King of Saxony (1836-54) Maria Isabel of Portugal, queen of Spain (d. 1818) John Hughes, 1st Archbishop of the Archdiocese of New York, born in Annaloghan, County Tyrone, Kingdom of Ireland (d. 1864) Piet [Petrus Lafras] Uys, South African pioneer (Great Pull), born in Potberg, Swellendam, South Africa (d. 1838) Hippolyte Delaroche, French painter, born in Paris (d. 1856) Immanuel Hermann Fichte, German philosopher, born in Jena, Saxe-Weimar (d. 1879) Paweł Edmund Strzelecki, Polish explorer and geologist, born in Glausche, Kingdom of Prussia (d. 1873) Princess Augusta of Hesse-Kassel, Duchess of Cambridge, born in Offenbach, Germany (d. 1889) Daniel Drew, American financier (d. 1879) Charles Robert Malden, British naval officer (discoverer of Malden Island, central Pacific), born in Putney, Surrey (d. 1855)

      Mary Shelley

      Aug 30 Mary Shelley, English author (Frankenstein), born in London, England (d. 1851)

        Wililam "Extra Billy" Smith, American lawyer and Confederacy (Confederate Army), born in King George County, Virginia (d. 1887) Leopold II, Grand Duke of Tuscany, born in Florence (d. 1870) Jeremias Gotthelf [Albert Bitzius], Swiss writer (The Black Spider), born in Murten, Switzerland (d. 1854) William Motherwell, Scottish civil servant and poet, born in Glasgow, Scotland James Brudenell, British Earl Of Cardigan (led the Charge of the Light Brigade), born in Hambleden, England (d. 1868) John J Rochussen, governor-general of Dutch-Indies (1845-51) Aleksander Bestuzhev-Marlinsky, Russian author, born in St. Petersburg, Russian Empire (d. 1837) Silas H. Stringham, Rear Admiral (Union Navy), born in Middletown, New York (d. 1876)

      Charles Lyell

      Nov 14 Charles Lyell, Scottish geologist (Principles of Geology), born in Kinnordy, Angus, Scotland (d. 1875)

      Sojourner Truth

      Nov 18 Sojourner Truth [Isabella Baumfree], African-American abolitionist and feminist, born in Swartekill, New York (d. 1883) [birth date is approximate]

        Francis Kenrick, Irish-American Archbishop of Baltimore (1851-63), born in Dublin, Kingdom of Ireland (d. 1863) Hiram Paulding, American Rear Admiral (Union Navy), born in Cortlandt, New York (d. 1878) Joseph Henry, American scientist and pioneer of electromagnetism, born in Albany, New York (d. 1878)

      Famous Birthdays

      Birthdays 201 - 300 of 2,419

        Amelia E. Barr, British-born American writer, born in Ulverston, Lancashire (d. 1919) George Tryon, British admiral (d. 1893) James Wimshurst, British designer and inventor (electrostatic generator), born in Poplar, England (d. 1898) John Watkinson, founder of British Chess Magazine (oldest chess mag) Garnet Wolseley, 1st Viscount Wolseley, British army general, born in Dublin (d. 1913) George du Maurier, Franco-British illustrator and writer (Trilby), born in Paris, France (d. 1896) Lord Avebury [John Lubbock], British banker and politician, born in London (d. 1913) James Abbott McNeill Whistler, American-British painter (Whistler's Mother), born in Lowell, Massachusetts (d. 1903) Archibald Geikie, British geologist Lawrence Alma Tadema, Dutch/British painter/husband of Laura Epps Sir Edward Poynter, British painter (d. 1919) Joseph Rowntree, British social reformer, born in York, England (d. 1925) Elizabeth Garrett Anderson, 1st qualified woman physician in Britain, first woman mayor (Aldeburgh), born in London (d. 1917) Joseph Chamberlain, British minister of Commerce/Colonies

      Henry Campbell-Bannerman

        Lord Frederick Cavendish, English politician who was appointed Chief Secretary for Ireland in May 1882 and murdered only hours after his arrival in Dublin, born in Compton Place, Eastbourne, Sussex (d. 1882) Randal Cremer, Britain, trade unionist, pacifist (Nobel 1903) Walter Goodman, British painter, illustrator and author (d. 1912) George Otto Trevelyan, British statesman and biographer (d. 1928) Octavia Hill, British reformer, leader of open-space movement, born in London, England (d. 1912) Sophia Louisa Jex-Blake, Hastings, English Physician and feminist who was one of the first female medical students at a British university Simeon Solomon, English Pre-Raphaelite painter, born in London, England (d. 1905) Frederick Abberline, British police investigator (d. 1929) Henry James, American-British author (Turn of the Screw, Bostonians), born in NYC, New York (d. 1916) Princess Alice of the United Kingdom, Grand Duchess of Hesse, born in Buckingham Palace, London (d. 1878) Ernest Mason Satow, British diplomat and scholar, born in Clapton, London, England (d. 1929) Robert Bridges, English poet (Testament of beauty) and British Poet Laureate (1913-30), born in Walmer, Kent (d. 1930) Alexandra, Danish princess/Queen of Great Britain/Ireland Cecil De Vere, 1st official British chess champion (1866), born in London (d. 1875) Francis H. Bradley, British idealist philosopher (Appearance and Reality), born in Clapham, Surrey, England (d. 1924) Charles Beresford, British admiral and politician (d. 1919) Princess Helena of the United Kingdom, daughter of Queen Victoria, born in Buckingham Palace, London (d. 1923)

      Archibald Primrose

      1847-05-07 Archibald Primrose, 5th Earl of Rosebery, British Prime Minister (Liberal: 1894-95), born in London (d. 1929)

      Arthur Balfour

      1848-07-25 Arthur Balfour, British Prime Minister (Conservative: 1902-05) and Foreign Secretary (Balfour Declaration), born in Whittingehame House, East Lothian, Scotland (d. 1930)

        John William Waterhouse, British painter, born in Rome, Roman Republic (now Italy) (d. 1917) John Hopkinson, British physicist and electrical engineer (Hopkinson's Law), born in Manchester (d. 1898) William Ernest Henley, British poet, critic, and editor, born in Gloucester, England (d. 1903) Frances Hodgson Burnett, British-American playwright and children's author ("The Secret Garden"), born in Manchester (d. 1924) Spencer Gore, British tennis player (1st Wimbledon winner 1877), born in Wimbledon, England (d. 1906) Silas Hocking, British novelist and preacher (d. 1935) Arthur Matthew Weld Downing, British mathematician and astronomer, born in County Carlow, Ireland (d. 1917)

      Horatio Kitchener

      1850-06-24 Horatio Kitchener, British General who commanded British forces during the Battle of Omdurman (Sudan) and the Second Boer War who became British Secretary of State for War during WWI (1914-16), born in Ballylongford, County Kerry, Ireland (d. 1916)

        John Milne, British geologist (developed the first modern seismograph), born in Liverpool, England (d. 1913) John Dillon, Irish nationalist and British Lower house leader, born in Blackrock, Dublin (d. 1927)

      H. H. Asquith

        John [Denton Pinkstone] French, 1st Earl of Ypres and British WWI field marshal, born in Ripple, Kent, England (d. 1925) Gen Sir Ian Hamilton, British military commander (d. 1947) James Frazer, Britain, anthropologist/author (The Golden Bough) Sir Napier Shaw, British meteorologist (d. 1945) John Lane, British publisher (The Bodley Head), born in Devon (d. 1925) Alfred Milner, Giessen Germany, British governor (Cape colony) Charles Algernon Parsons, British inventor (steam turbine), born in London (d. 1931) F. Marion Crawford, American author (Mr. Isaacs), born in Bagni de Lucca, Italy (d. 1909) Henry B. Guppy, British botanist who studied in the Pacific, born in Falmouth, England (d. 1926) Arthur Wing Pinero, English actor and playwright, born in London (d. 1934) William Friese-Greene, British photographer and inventor (motion pictures), born in Bristol, England (d. 1921) Houston Stewart Chamberlain, British-German philosopher (wrote works about political philosophy and natural science), born in Southsea, Hampshire, England (d. 1927) George Edwardes, British composer (Gaiety Girl), born in Cleethorpes, Lincolnshire, England (d. 1915) Alan Gray, British composer (Trinity College), born in York (d. 1935) Harry A P Eyres, British diplomat (Constantinople, Albania) Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Indian early nationalist leader, born in Ratnagiri, British India (d. 1920) Richard Haldane, British viscount and lord-chancellor (Life of A Smith), born in Edinburgh, Scotland (d. 1928) J. Keir Hardie, Scottish politician and 1st Labour representative in British Parliament, born in Lanarkshire, Scotland (d. 1915) Violet Paget [Vernon Lee], British author (Satan the master) Charles Harding Firth, British historian (d. 1936) Charles Scott Sherrington, British physiologist (Nobel 1932-functions of neurons), born in London (d. 1952) Frederick Lugard, British captain/baron (Congo) George Alexander [Samson], British actor, theatre producer and manager, born in Reading, Berkshire (d. 1918) Richard Dixon Oldham, British geologist, born in Dublin, Ireland (d. 1936) William Watson, British poet (Prince's Quest, Father of Forest), born in Burley-in-Wharfedale, Yorkshire (d. 1935)

      Bonar Law

      1858-09-16 Andrew Bonar Law, British Prime Minister (Conservative: 1922-23), born in Kingston, Colony of New Brunswick (now Canada)

      Book Review: African Kaiser

      African Kaiser by Robert Gaudi focuses on the little-known theatre of the First World War- East Africa. A semi-biography of General Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck and semi-recollection of the East African campaigns, this book gives a lot of information in all 422 of it pages. The book contains maps of Africa circa 1914 and some photos related to von Lettow and the German Schutztruppe . The book covers a lengthy period of German colonialism in Africa, mentioning their backgrounds and the initial unwillingness to participate in imperialism. Von Lettow, “the Lion of Africa”, is one of the Great War’s most fascinating generals, and Gaudi makes sure that his readers are fully aware.

      Praise: This book provides a large amount of information that I did not know, and was certainly interested in. Gaudi uses a very smooth writing style which is interesting to read and presents facts in a good way. The book discusses Germany’s background of colonization and Otto von Bismarck’s reluctance to do so. There is information on the Herero Rebellion in German Southwest Africa, the Meji-Meji Rebellion, the Schutztruppe , the diseases troops faced while on campaign in Africa, and much more. Gaudi also uses many Swahili words throughout the book to convey the language of the askari . The extensive bibliography indicates a good use of primary sources as well. African Kaiser is full of adventure into the heart of East Africa, portrayals of vicious bush fighting, and, of course, Oberleutnant Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck. Interestingly, Gaudi provides a perspective in which one finds it hard to take sides. Neither side is portrayed in such a way that is superior in morals to the other, and that is uncommon in history books. There is almost a familiar connection with British officer Richard Meinertzhagen, as his diaries are used to give a British perspective. The South African units led by Jan Smuts are also covered well.

      African Kaiser begins in an extremely strange way, set of the Estonian coast. A large portion of this book seemed to be aimless and unrelated really to the main point of the book. It was only till pg.110 that one sees the first glimpses of German East Africa. There seems to be a lot of talking about pointless things such as the Boxer Rebellion or how certain worms and ailments affect the human body. While I can understand Gaudi for putting these in the book, I am not sure such a large amount of time needed to be spent on it. Yes, von Lettow served in China, and yes the strange beginning ties in with the rest of the book once you read the full chapter (at a stretch), but it felt sometimes as though there was a large amount of “time wasting” and delaying the point that this is a biography of von Lettow and East Africa.

      I certainly enjoyed reading African Kaiser, but there were flaws that made it stray from the point. A large focus of this book was the slow process of German colonization, and tying it with von Lettow at any opportune moment. I was skeptical of the book, but when Gaudi began talking about the First World War, the book redeemed most of my doubts. The book is well written and draws readers in, and it is an interesting topic to write about.

      Battle of Freiberg Pictures & Report

      The glorious charge of the Prussian Garde du Corps into the French Royal Deux Ponts regiment. Front Rank French and Elite Miniatures Prussian cavalry.

      Note: click on all the pictures to enlarge the view.

      On Saturday October 11, 2008 I hosted my third annual Old School Wargaming Big Battalion Game at the Marriott Lincolnshire Resort in Lincolnshire, Illinois. The game featured a Seven Years War battle between the French & Austrians against the Prussians, using largely 28mm and 30mm figures. The battle was fought across two tables measuring 6 feet wide by 30 feet long, each. The tables were set up parallel to one another with a 6 foot aisle in between the tables. The aisle did not exist for wargaming purposes. See picture below:

      Each side had approximately 1200 infantry and 400 cavalry along with 90 pounds of artillery per side. The scenario was based on the ACW action at Gettysburg, featuring Longstreet's attack on the Round Tops, Devils Den and Peach Orchard - only disguised as a SYW scenario. As you look at the many pictures of the terrain, the similarities will become apparent. In place of the Peach Orchard, I placed some high ground in front of the French lines and replaced the orchard with a village that I called Remstadt. I allowed the French the choice of deploying on their back table edge or as far forward as high ground around Remstadt. Much like General Sickles chose to do, so too did the French deploy as far forward as allowed by the game judge.

      The Devils Den terrain was replaced by the Zimmerwald, a light forest that covered a small hillock, while Little Round Top was replaced by the village of Leopoldau.

      The Zimmerwald in the foreground and the village of Leopoldau in the background. The Muhlenberg hill can also be seen in the background to the left.

      The high ground around the village of Remstadt was occuppied by four battalions of French infantry and two 12-pound batteries of 3 guns each.
      A long ridge continued from Remstadt back towards the far right flank of the French army. The ridge, known as the Galgenberg (Cemetary Ridge), extended to the town of Freiberg (Gettysburg). The Prussian side of the table also had a long ridge line known as the Schmeidberg (Seminary Ridge) and the left flank of the Prussian army rested on a wooded area known as the Kindlewald and the nearby village of Kinderhof. These I just made up these features to be points to be contested and to provide a natural terrain feature on the Prussian flank.

      Prussian von Kliest frei-korps company advances along the wooded road through the Kindlewald to the village of Kinderhof, on the Prussian far left flank.

      Prussian brigade of the Duke of Bevern, supported by the Prinz von Preussen (CR2) cuirassiers fill in the ground from the Kindlewald to the Schmeidberg hill. This represented the "refused" left wing of the Prussian army.

      The Prussian strategy was to attack the French right wing between the Zimmerwald and the high ground at Remstadt, while holding back, or "refusing", its left wing to keep the French army pinned down so that it could not support the fighting at Remstadt. The Erbprinz Friedrich held back a reserve of two guard battalions, one musketeer battalion, two howitzers, and three squadrons of the Garde du Corps (CR13) with the intention of supporting the attack on Remstadt. Moritz von Anhalt Dessau commanded the Prussian right wing of 8 battalions and 7 squadrons of cavalry, while Hans von Zieten commanded the Advance Guard of light troops (one jager battalion, 7 squadrons of hussars, and a battery of horse artillery). Zieten would attack the Zimmerwald and keep the French from launching any attacks into Prinz Moritz's right flank as he advanced on Remstadt.

      The Prussian right wing under the command of the Duke of Bevern. The generals (from left to right) Zieten, Seydlitz and Bevern confer prior to the start of the game. Note the battery of Prussian 12-pounders next to the village of Almsdorf, positioned to pound the French in Remstadt.

      Von Zieten's advance guard of light troops deploys in the "light zone" prior to the start of the game.

      One thing that we did to promote more fluid movement during the game was to establish "light troop zones" covering the ending four feet of table space on each flank of the table. The only troops that could be deployed in the light zones prior to the game were light infantry and cavalry. Thereafter, any other troops could move into these light zones.

      Various villages and hills had point values - each table had 45 points worth of terrain features. The side that held the most terrain points at the end of the game would be the winner. Additional points could be earned for things such as captured flags, routed units, captured artillery pieces (all one point each). Finally, the side that inflicted the most casualties would receive a victory point.

      The Battle of Freiberg Begins - Action on the Prussian left at Kinderhof
      The first couple of game turns were done using an "army card draw". Since we did not expect much in the way of firing during the first several turns, as the armies closed within cannon and musket range, we simply drew a single card to determine which army would move first. All units of one side, say the Prussians, would move if a red card were drawn, while all French units could move when a black card was drawn. This served to speed up the game, rather than drawing cards for every sector of the table. Once the armies were within firing range, we would revert to card draws by table sector (each sector covering 5 feet of table length).

      The Prussians occupy Kinderhof and the Kindlewald on their left flank early in the game. This gave the Prussians control of 10 terrain points in total. The Zieten (Blue) hussars (H2) and the IR42 Margraf Friedrich fusilier regiment are shown above.

      The town of Friedberg, opposite Kinderhof, depicting the advance of the French cavalry regiment Mestre-de-Camp, supported by the Arquebusiers de Grassin and the light infantry of the Chasseurs de Fischer.

      The French attack on Kinderhof is countered by Prussian cuirassiers and Bevern's infantry brigade of four battalions. The Chasseurs de Fischer would charge into Kinderhof, defended by the von Kliest frei-korps, only to be driven out by the IR42 Markgraf Friedrich fusiliers.

      Chasseurs de Fischer assault the village of Kinderhof. The French regular infantry regiment La Reine appear to have the better of the fire fight with the Prussian Alt Darmstadt (IR12) regiment that is trying to support the village. Saxon von Bruhl light dragoons support the La Reine regiment.

      Another view of the intense fighting around Kinderhof. The Prussian CR2 cuirassiers support the Alt Darmstadt regiment, which is about to run away.

      Closer view of the fighting around Kinderhof on the Prussian left flank.

      Bill Protz, author of the 'Batailles de l'Ancien Regime' or 'BAR" rules, contemplates what to do next with his French cavalry.

      Action in the middle at Remstadt (Peach Orchard)

      Austrian cuirassiers (where did they come from?) charge into Prussian musketeer regiment IR24 Schwerin (Suren figures). Remstadt is in the left background and supporting French grenadiers move toward the village in support.

      Irish regiment Bulkeley in red and Prussian IR19 Margraf Karl slug it out in a firefight south of Remstadt. French Gardes Francaises can be seen supporting the Irish regiment. The Zimmerwald and Leopoldau are in the back right area of the picture.

      The Prussian attack on Remstadt was a very bloody affair, with the French gaining the initial advantage by drawing firing cards first. Thus the Prussians had to take 3 or 4 opening salvoes of fire with a +5 firing bonus for the French, before they could return fire. This decimated the two battalions of IR41 Wied Prussian fusiliers by half before they could even fire. The IR19 regiment (see picture above) also suffered a similar fate at the hands of the Irish regiment Bulkeley. The French also unleashed some of their cavalry in this sector, hoping to rout the depleted Prussian units. The French grand battery in front of Remstadt also dealt a lot of pain and death on the Prussians.

      Gradually, the Prussians were able to whittle down the French in this sector, basically trading battalion for battalion in the opening rounds. Prinz Moritz then brought up his second line of three grenadier battalions to finish of the French in this sector. The French likewise brought up blue coated Grenadiers de France, but this time, the Prussians started to get the first fire initiative and slowly but surely, the Prussians pushed on into Remstadt.

      Erbprinz Friedrich orders all the Prussian 12 pounders to the front of Almsdorf to blast a hole into the French infantry in Remstadt.

      Battle of the grenadiers outside of Remstadt. Prussian Jung Krakow dragoons (DR2) charge into a mass of Austrian hussars.

      The Heyden (19/25) Grenadier Battalion finally captures Remstadt.

      A good picture is worth showing again. The Garde du Corps ride down the Royal Deux Ponts regiment, capture their colours, and then ride them down in pursuit. Then they charge into a waiting Austrian cuirassier regiment and nearly finish them off, but for one pip of the dice. Alas, they are then charged in the rear by the perfidious French Royal Cavalry regiment and surrounded, but the Garde du Corps escapes with their colors and those of the Deux Ponts. Many a Pour-le-Merite were awarded to the surviving Garde du Corps troopers.

      The Erbprinz Friedrich noticed that the area to the north side of Remstadt was held by only one battalion of French troops, the blue coated Royal Deux Ponts. A brigade of grenadiers and guards were posted to the rear of the Deux Ponts, but they were not close enough to support a potential break through. Friedrich knew that this was the time to attack the center with everything that he had.

      So he ordered the IR15/III Guard battalion, the IR34 Prinz Ferdinand Musketeers, to move towards the Deux Ponts. He also ordered the brigade of Itzenplitz to move forward and support his attack. The Itzenplitz brigade was part of the refused left wing of the Prussian army. At the same time, Friedrich ordered von Seydlitz to advance two of his 60 figure cuirassier regiments (CR8 Von Seydlitz, and CR10 Gensdarmes) forward to support the attack. Since they had a long way to travel, Friedrich hurled the Garde du Corps (3 squadrons) and two squadrons of the CR1 Buddenbrock cuirassiers forward to break the French line.

      While the Prussian grenadier battalion Heyden marched in front of Remstadt, the IR34 and IR20 musketeer regiments sacrificed themselves to French cannon fire. They absorbed the Deux Ponts' first fire bonus and then whittled them down by a stand. At this point, the Garde du Corps charged and routed the Deux Ponts. The CR1 Buddenbrock regiment rode down the French battery of three 12-pounders providing support. At the same moment, Heyden grenadiers captured Remstadt. The Guard grenadiers IR15/III arrived to fend off a counter attack by the Grenadiers de France (who had to withdraw once Heyden took the village and posed a danger to their flank).

      The Garde du Corps continued to pursue the French all the way back to their baseline, while the CR1 Buddenbrock regiment rode down another French battery and hit an Austrian regiment of infantry in the flank. By this time, Seydlitz's 120 cuirassier figures had arrived in the center and that, as Christopher Robbin would say, was that. Game over.

      Minuet in the Zimmerwald (Devil's Den)
      Finally, while all of the heavy action was taking place in the center, there was an exciting light infanty and cavalry fight going on in the Zimmerwald.

      Prussian and Austrian hussars clash on the road to Leopoldau.

      Once the Austrian hussars are cleared off, the Protzdam Garde Grenadiers march into Leopoldau, supported by horse artillery, and capture the town.

      Another Prussian (black) and Austrian (red) cavalry clash outside of the Zimmerwald.

      At the conclusion of the battle, the French are retreating back to their base in Frankfurt-am-Main and a mysterious black coach emerges from the town of Freiberg, bearing messages for the Erbprinz.

      The battle ended after ten game turns with the Prussians holding Remstadt (10 points) and Leopoldau (5 points) in addition to holding all of the points (45) on their table. They also inflicted about 100 more casualties on the French, due to routing and captured units counting as casualties, plus numerous cannons (8 pieces) and colours captured (at least two from my recollection. The French withdrew from the field and hurried back to the safety of Frankfurt.