Magadha Kingdom Timeline

Magadha Kingdom Timeline


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  • 544 BCE - 492 BCE

    Bimbisara rules the Magadha kingdom in India.

  • 543 BCE - 492 BCE

    King Bimbisara begins Magadha kingdom's conquests by annexing the kingdom of Anga in eastern India.

  • 492 BCE - 460 BCE

    Ajatashatru rules the Magadha Kingdom in India.

  • 414 BCE - 396 BCE

    The Magadha king Shishunaga annexes the kingdom of Avanti, ending the dynastic rule of the Pradyotas.

  • 413 BCE - 345 BCE

  • 413 BCE - 345 BCE

  • c. 400 BCE

    First Buddhist Council at Rajgir, Bihar, India; teachings and monastic discipline agreed to and codified.

  • c. 346 BCE - c. 324 BCE

    Magadha's king Mahapadma Nanda makes massive conquests in north and eastern India including Kosala.

  • Sep 326 BCE

    Alexander the Great halts his eastward march and turns back from the banks of the river Beas, Punjab, India.

  • 321 BCE

    Dhana Nanda, king of Magadha, is killed by Chandragupta Maurya.

  • 133 BCE - 123 BCE

    Magadha king Vasumitra defeats the Indo-Greeks at the banks of the Indus.

  • c. 335 CE - c. 380 CE

    Regarded as the "Indian Napoleon", the Gupta emperor Samudragupta, ruling from Magadha, subdues kings in nearly all corners of India and annexes kingdoms adjacent to Magadha.

  • 510 CE - 540 CE

    The Huns are defeated by King Baladitya of Magadha and later by King Yashodharman of Malwa.


List of Magadha Kings since 4159 BCE

History of Magadha is recorded since 4159 BCE through Matsya Purana.
Eventhough, Brihadradha established his dynasty rule from 3709 BCE with Girivrajapura as capital (present day Rajgir in Bihar), his ancestors names were available in puranas. Their reigning periods were taken as contemporary to Nepal Kings who ruled at same time.

Emperor Kuru, who was ancestor to Brihadratha, was son of Samvarna.
They belonged to Lunar Dynasty (Chandra Vamsam). Samvarna ruled with capital as Prayaga (present Prayagraj, which was named back from Allahabad).
His son, Kuru found the place Kurukshetra (place named after him).
Descendants of Kuru formed various kingdoms. At one time, Kuru kingdom capital was Āsandīvat, identified with modern Assandh in Haryana.
Chandravanshi King Hasti who founded Hastinapura, was contemporary to Ikshvaku king Sagara, whose great-grandson Bhagiratha brought Akasa Ganga to earth and formed continents.
This Sagara was grandson of Bharata, on whose name India was called Bharat-Varsh.
Rig Veda mentions Kuru family kings. Sudās (सुदास) was one of their kings, who lead his army to victory in the Battle of the Ten Kings near the Paruṣṇī (modern Ravi River) in Punjab, defeating an alliance of the powerful Puru tribe with other tribes, for which he was eulogised by his purohita Vashistha in a hymn of the Rigveda. The ten-kings, viz. Puru, Yadu (ancestor of Lord Krishna and founder of Yadu Dynasty or Yadavas), Turvasa, Adu, Druhyu, Alina, Paktha, Bhalanas, Siva and Vishanin, then revolted against Sudās but were defeated by him.
He settled in Kurukshetra and expanded his kingdom. Sudās replaced Visvamitra with Vashistha as his priest, thereby creating a rivalry between the two.

Mahabharata gave the next prominent dynasty of Jarasandha, leaving some generations of kings in between Brihadradha I and Jarasandha (Brihadradha II) – (Mahabharata, Sabha Parva. Adhyayas 14 to 19).
But, Matsya Purana enumerates all the names of kings between Brihadradha-I and Jarasandha or Brihadradha-II.
Jarasandha, son of Bhuvana was the 15th descendant of Kuru and the tenth from Brihadradha-I, the founder of the Magadha Dynasty of kings.

Jarasandha’s daughters were married to Kamsa, who was killed by Krishna. To seek revenge he attacked Mathura 17 times, which made Krishna leave Mathura and form a new city Dwaraka along with his people.
To reduce number of enemies in future kurukshetra war and to end Jarasandha’s attacks on Dwaraka, Krishna along with Arjuna and Bheema disguised as brahmins, entered Jarasandha’s fort and seeked to fight with him.
In this fight, Bheema killed Jarasandha by splitting him into two pieces (similar to the way he was born) and threw them in opposite directions.
Jarasandha’s son Sahadeva wanted to avenge death of his father, but was advised by ministers to wait for big war and join Kaurava army.
He was killed in kurukshetra war.

Following is the list of Magadha Kings and their ancestors since 4159 BCE

King’s NameReigning Years (BCE)
1. Unknown King, descendant of Samvarna and Kuru4159 – 4071
2. Unknown King4071 – 3999
3. Sudhanvan, Parikshit, Prajana, Jaghnu or Johnu or Yaju3999 – 3919
4. Suhotra3919 – 3826
5. Chyavana3826 – 3788
6. Krimi (or Kriti)3788 – 3751
7. Chaidya or Uparicharavasu or Pratipa3751 – 3709
8. Brihadradha-I (the founder of the Magadha Kingdom)3709 – 3637
9. Kusaagra3637 – 3567
10. Vrishabha or Rishabha3567 – 3497
11· Satyahita3497 – 3437
12. Pushpa or Punya3437 – 3394
13. Satyadhrithi or Satyahita3394 – 3351
14. Sudhanvan II or Dhanusha3351 – 3308
15. Sarva3308 – 3265
16. Bhuvana or Sambhava3265 – 3222
I7. Jarasandha (originally named Brihadradha II, killed by Bheema)3222 – 3180
18. Sahadeva (died in the MahaBharata War)3180 – 3137
19. Marjari or Somapi3138 – 3080
20. Srutasrava3080 – 3016
21. Apratipa or Ayutayu3016 – 2980
22. Niramitra2980 – 2940
23. Sukrutta or Sukshatro2940 – 2882
24. Brihatkarma2882 – 2859
25. Syenajit2859 – 2809
26. Srutamjaya2809 – 2769
27. Mahabala or Vibhu2769 – 2734
28. Suchi2734 – 2676
29. Kshemya2676 – 2648
30. Anuvrta or Suvrata2648 – 2584
31. Dharmanetra or Sunetra2584 – 2549
32. Nirvrutti2549 – 2491
33. Suvrata2491 – 2453
34. Dhrudhasena or Mahasena2453 – 2395
35. Sumati or Mahanetra2395 – 2362
36. Suchala or Subala2362 – 2340
37. Sunetra2340 – 2300
38. Satyajit2300 – 2217
39. Veerajit or Viswajit2217 – 2182
40. Ripunjaya2182 – 2132

Brihadratha or Brihadradha dynasty ended in 2132 BCE and Pradyota Dynasty continued to rule Magadha from 2132 – 1994 BCE.
Founder of this dynasty, Pratyota or Balaka was son of Munika or Sunaka.
This Munika was minister of Ripunjaya (last king of Brihadradha dynasty).
Munika cleverly managed to place his son Pradyota on the throne of Magadha by getting the only daughter of the last king married to him in the year 2132 BCE and then got Ripunjaya killed by treachery.
Pratyoda becoming king was against wish of Magadha people, but Munika forcefully established his son as ruler and brought entire North India under his rule.

Pratyoya Dynasty King’s NameReigning Years (BCE)
1. Pratyota2132 – 2109
2. Paalaka2109 – 2085
3. Visaakhayupa2085 – 2035
4. Janaka or Suryaka2035 – 2014
5. Nandivardhana2014 – 1994

Pratyota dynasty lasted for only 138 years.
Then came Sisunaga or Sisunabha (King of Varanasi), who conquered Magadha and killed Nandivardhana.
He founded Saisunaga Dynasty, which ruled Magadha empire for next 10 generations.


From this dynasty, Bimbisara and Ajatasatru were famous. Both were contemporaries to Gautama Buddha.
Ajatasatru became king by capturing his father Bimbisara and torchered him to death in jail.

Ajatasatru invented 2 weapons and used them in warfare. They were Rathamusala (Chariot with blades in front – used in Bahubali movie) and mahshilakantaka (engine for ejecting big stones).

Amrapali was his contemporary and a movie was made on her story.

After association with Deva Datta, Ajatasatru realized his mistakes and seeked Buddha’s protection.

Saisunaga dynasty ended with Mahanandi’s illegitimate son Nanda or Mahapadma Nanda taking over as 11th king of Saisunaga dynasty, but as he was illegitimate son, his dynasty was recognized seperately as Nanda dynasty.
Nanda was son of Mahanadi’s wife and a barber. So he started his own dynasty.
He and his sons ruled for 100 years from 1634 – 1534 BCE.
He was eliminated by his illegitimate son, Chandragupta Maurya with the help of Chanakya in 1546 BCE.
Chandragupta Maurya was son of Mura, illegitimate wife of Mahapadma Nanda.
Nanda was also known as Dhana Nanda or Mahapadma Nanda for the amount of gold he collected by winning wars.
Mahapadma is a number = Padma x 1000 x100 = 10^37. He buried those many gold coins in pots along the banks of river Ganga.

Nanda Dynasty King’s NameReigning Years (BCE)
1. Mahapadma Nanda1634 – 1546
2. Saumalya and his 7 brothers1546 – 1534

Nanda’s 8 sons ruled for 8 years (1 year each) after their father’s death.
After last brother was eliminated, Chandragupta Maurya was established as Magadha emperor by his teacher Chanakya or Vishnugupta in 1534 BCE.
Because he was secretly raised and trained, he was called Chandra-Gupta (gupta – secret) and because he wanted to adopt his mother’s name Mura, Maurya was added.
He started Maurya dynasty rule in Magadha.
These Chankaya-Chandragupta Maurya were few generations later to Gautama Buddha and were not contemporaries to Alexander.
Historians confuse them with Chandragupta of Gupta dynasty who ruled much later (327 – 82 BCE).
Chankaya or Kautilya wrote Arthasastra in early 15th century BCE.


Contents

The kingdom of the Magadha roughly corresponds to the modern districts of Patna, Jehanabad, Nalanda, Aurangabad, Nawadah and Gaya in southern Bihar, and parts of Bengal in the east. It was bounded on the north by the river Ganges, on the east by the river Champa, on the south by the Vindhya Range, and on the west by the Son River. This region of Greater Magadha had a culture and religious beliefs of its own that predates Hinduism. Much of the second urbanisation took place here from c. 500 BC onwards and it was here that Jainism became strong and Buddhism arose. The importance of Magadha's culture can be seen in that Buddhism, Jainism and Hinduism adopted some of its features, most significantly a belief in rebirth and karmic retribution. [2]


Nanda Empire

The Nanda Empire was in a powerful state during Dhanananda’s reign. It is said that due to the military force of the Nanda dynasty, especially the elephant army, Alexander’s soldiers refused to cross the banks of the river Vyas and Alexander’s Indian campaign remained incomplete. Dhananand was a tyrannical ruler and unpopular among the subjects.

Taking advantage of the political instability prevailing after the return of Alexander, Chandragupta Maurya killed Dhananand and took control of Pataliputra, and the power of the Maurya dynasty was established over the Magadha Empire.


Magadha Empire

Magadha Empire lasted from 684 B.C - 320 B.C in India. The two great epics Ramayana and Mahabharata mention the Magadha Empire. It is said that the Shishunaga dynasty founded the Magadha Empire. Some of the greatest empires and religions of India originated here. The Gupta Empire and Mauryan Empire started here. The great religions, Buddhism and Jainism were founded in Magadha Empire. Read on to know about the history of Magadh Empire.

Magadha Empire gained much power and importance during the rule of King Bimbisara and his son and successor Ajatshatru. Bimbisara is said to have been murdered by his son Ajatshatru. The Magadha Empire in India extended in the modern day Bihar and Patna and some parts of Bengal. Magadha Empire was a part of the 16 Mahajanapadas. The empire extended up to River Ganges and the kingdoms of Kosala and Kashi were annexed. The places that came under the Magadha Empire were mostly republican in nature and the administration was divided into judicial, executive and military functions.

The Magadha Empire fought gruesome battles with most of its neighbors. They had advanced forms of weaponry andthe opposed forces did not stand a chance against them. Ajatshatru even built a huge fort at his capital Pataliputra. This was the place that Buddha prophesized would become a popular place of trade and commerce. With an unmatched military force, the Magadha Empire naturally had an upper hand over conquering neighborhood places and spreading the territory. This is what made it a major part of the 16 Mahajanapadas.

However, after the death of King Udayan, the Magadha Empire started to decline very rapidly. Internal disturbances and corruption within the kingdom led to its decline. The Magadha Empire was finally taken over by the powerful Nanda dynasty who then ruled here for a good amount of time before being taken over by the Mauryas.


Timeline of Indian History | Medival Indian History

In the timeline of Indian History, India was ruled over by many Islamic Rulers. Rulers who were foreigners and not the inhabitant of then, Indian Subcontinent came to India and established their rule. Mughal Empire followed the Delhi Sultanate Period. The Medival Indian History was witness to many great wars and greatest of Rulers along with increased cultural diversity. Rulers came, ruled over the country and left behind a pile of History of their laurels. Songs of such martyr heroes and rulers are still prevalent all over the world. Following major events took place in Medival Indian History.

  • In the 800 AD war broke out among Pratiharas, Palas, and Rashtrakutas. The war invited foreign invaders and in the 712 AD, Mohammad Bin Kassim attacked the country.
  • With the invasion of Foreign rulers, religions like Islam and Sufism prevailed which was followed by the invasion by Mohammed Ghazni (AD 1000 – 27) and Mohammed Ghori (AD 1175 – 1206).
  • Delhi Sultanate (1206 AD – 1526 AD) – Invasions by various rulers and establishment of several dynasties one after the another, Slave Dynasty, Khilji Dynasty, Tuglaq Dynasty, Sayyad Dynasty, Lodi Dynasty.
  • Mughal Empire ( 1526 AD – 1857 AD) – Babur the first ruler of Mughal Empire, came to India and invaded India in 1497. Later in 1530, Akbar took over the Empire and ruled it for a long time until his son Jahangir took over. In 1611 AD East India Company came to India imposed as the Business Traders and ruled India for the next 200 years.


Amongst the sixteen Mahajanapadas, the kingdom of Magadha rose to prominence under a number of dynasties that peaked in power under the reign of Asoka Maurya, one of India's most legendary and famous emperors. The kingdom of Magadha had emerged as a major power following the subjugation of two neighbouring kingdoms, and possessed an unparalleled military.

Haryanka dynasty

According to tradition, the Haryanka dynasty founded the Magadha Empire in 684 BC, whose capital was Rajagriha, later Pataliputra, near the present day Patna. This dynasty was succeeded by the Shishunaga dynasty.

Shishunaga dynasty

This period saw the development of two of India's major religions. Gautama Buddha in the 6th or 5th century BC was the founder of Buddhism, which later spread to East Asia and South-East Asia, while Mahavira founded Jainism. This dynasty lasted till 424 BC, when it was overthrown by the Nanda dynasty.

Nanda dynasty

The Nanda dynasty was established by an illegitimate son of the king Mahanandin of the previous Shishunaga dynasty. Mahapadma Nanda died at the age of 88, ruling the bulk of this 100-year dynasty. The Nandas were followed by the Maurya dynasty. It is said that rumors of the huge size of the Nanda army was in part responsible for the retreat of Alexander from India.

Maurya dynasty

In 321 BC, exiled general Chandragupta Maurya, under direct patronage of the genius of Chanakya, founded the Maurya dynasty after overthrowing the reigning king Dhana Nanda to establish the Maurya Empire. During that time, most of the subcontinent was united under a single government for the first time. Capitalising on the destabilization of northern India by the Persian and Greek incursions, the Mauryan empire under Chandragupta would not only conquer most of the Indian subcontinent, but also push its boundaries into Persia and Central Asia, conquering the Gandhara region. Chandragupta Maurya was influenced by the jainacharya Bhadrabahu and he adopted Jainism.He is credited for the spread of Jainism in southern Indian region. Chandragupta was succeeded by his son Bindusara, who expanded the kingdom over most of present day India, barring Kalinga, and the extreme south and east, which may have held tributary status. Modern day India is an image of the Mauryana, that tied all the peoples and cultures of the erstwhile separate kingdoms under one banner, and predicted a common destiny for all Indians (then mainly Hindus and Buddhists). The tradition was continued later by the Mughals and the British, who formed similar empires.

Bindusara's kingdom was inherited by his son Ashoka The Great who initially sought to expand his kingdom. In the aftermath of the carnage caused in the invasion of Kalinga, he renounced bloodshed and pursued a policy of non-violence or ahimsa after converting to Buddhism. The Edicts of Ashoka are the oldest preserved historical documents of India, and from Ashoka's time, approximate dating of dynasties becomes possible. The Mauryan dynasty under Ashoka was responsible for the proliferation of Buddhist ideals across the whole of East Asia and South-East Asia, fundamentally altering the history and development of Asia as a whole. Ashoka the Great has been described as one of the greatest rulers the world has seen. Ashoka's grandson Samprati adopted Jainism.He was influenced by the teachings of a great jain acharya Arya Suhasti. Following the lines of Ashoka, Samprati spread Jainism in many parts of this world and Indian sub-continent.It is said that Samprati built 1,25,000 Jain Temples all over India, many of which are worshipped today as well.

Sunga dynasty

The Sunga dynasty was established in 185 BC, about fifty years after Ashoka's death, when the king Brihadratha, the last of the Mauryan rulers, was brutally murdered by the then commander-in-chief of the Mauryan armed forces, Pusyamitra Sunga, while he was taking the Guard of Honour of his forces. Pusyamitra Sunga then ascended the throne.

Kanva dynasty

The Kanva dynasty replaced the Sunga dynasty, and ruled in the eastern part of India from 71 BC to 26 BC. The last ruler of the Sunga dynasty was overthrown by Vasudeva of the Kanva dynasty in 75 BC. The Kanva ruler allowed the kings of the Sunga dynasty to continue to rule in obscurity in a corner of their former dominions. Magadha was ruled by four Kanva rulers. In 30 BC, the southern power swept away both the Kanvas and Sungas and the province of Eastern Malwa was absorbed within the dominions of the conqueror. Following the collapse of the Kanva dynasty, the Satavahana dynasty of the Andhra kindgom replaced the Magandhan kingdom as the most powerful Indian state.


The Events of Jurassic World: Camp Cretaceous Season 2 Take Place

- Bumpy finds the injured Ben, who survived his fall from the monorail. The two start living together, avoiding predators and living off fruit.

- The following morning, the other campers make it to the Innovation Center, where they face the T-Rex. Inside Rexy's nest, the campers find an emergency distress beacon, which they activate to call for help. After, the campers head back to the ruins of Camp Cretaceous, where they start building a treehouse while waiting for rescue.

- Darius, Brooklynn and Sammy find an abandoned veterinary station with dinosaurs left behind in cages. They release both the herbivores and the carnivores after Sammy convinces the others that it'd be cruel to leave them caged.

- January: Ben grows frustrated with Bumpy, having eaten nothing but fruit for the previous 10 days, and having had no luck in finding the distress beacon. He yells at Bumpy and drives her away. After she leaves, he starts to do his daily routine alone, becoming a better survivor and a scrawny, teenage mini-Rambo. Ben even faces off against Toro on his own, before a now-fully-grown Bumpy returns, and together they drive the Carnotaurus off.

- Darius and Kenji discover a watering hole where many dinosaurs, both predators and prey, are at peace. At the same time, Yaz, Sammy, and Brooklynn track down a strange sound in the jungle, leading to the park tunnels' ventilation system. Inside, they follow the working ventilation shafts (by this point, all other electricity on the island is off) into the genetics lab, where they discover a classified envelope marked E750.

- The five campers meet three adults in the jungle, who they believe to be ecotourists who came to the island to see the dinosaurs for themselves. But just like the last time two "ecotourists" came to one of the islands, they were lying. Turns out, they are big-game hunters here to kill as many dinosaurs as they can. But with the help of Bumpy and Ben, who are reunited with the others, the campers manage to fight the hunters by luring them into a trap with the T-Rex, who devours Mitch, while his wife Tiff abandons him. Unfortunately, Tiff manages to make it back to her boat, which the campers were hoping to use to escape the island, and starts heading off into the ocean, but not before two Baryonyx board the yacht and kill her. The campers reunite at the dock and vow to find another way to escape the island. Meanwhile, a containment failure in the E750 cryogenic chamber lets a mysterious dinosaur escape.

- March: Congress opens an official inquiry into bioethical misconduct by InGen and Dr. Wu, who is nowhere to be found. His lab is raided and all assets seized.

- June: A team of mercenaries sent by Benjamin Lockwood's financial manager, Eli Mills, is sent into Isla Nublar to retrieve a sample of Indominus Rex DNA for Dr. Wu. Though the mission is a success, they suffer inevitable heavy casualties, and they also allow the Mosasaurus to escape into the ocean. Wu uses the DNA sample to create a new, miniaturized version of the Indominus which he and Hoskins were planning all along. By combining the sample DNA with Velociraptor DNA, and other animals, they create the Indoraptor.

2017 - A fissure underneath Isla Nublar causes Mount Sibo to become active for the first time since 1525. The Costa Rican Institute for Volcanology (CRIV) reports no threats to the island.

- March: Claire Dearing founds the Dinosaur Protection Group in San Francisco to support dinosaur rights.

- September: A helicopter illegally flies over Isla Nublar and approaches Mount Sibo. Passengers describe lava actively rolling within the crater, and the CRIV determines there are previously unknown magma chambers under the island which could burn the entire island if breached. The Dinosaur Protection Group asks for the safe evacuation of all dinosaurs on the island.


References

  • Majumdar, Ramesh Chandra. 1977. Ancient India. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass. ISBN 8120804368.
  • Müller, F. Max, and V. Fausbøll. 1924. The Dhammapada: A Collection of Verses, Being One of the Canonical Books of the Buddhists. Sacred books of the East, v. 10. London: H. Milford, Oxford University Press. OCLC 7240476.
  • Pal, Ranajit. 2002. Non-Jonesian Indology and Alexander. New Delhi: Minerva Press. ISBN 9788176620321.
  • Rawlinson, H. G. 1950. A Concise History of the Indian people. London: Oxford University Press. OCLC 4156796.
  • Singh, Upinder. 2006. Delhi: Ancient History. Readings in History. New Delhi: Social Science Press. ISBN 9788187358299.

Year 14, 233BC
– The Zhao army was being pushed back to Ping Yang, and Yi An(宜安) was captured and the defending general killed.

– Kanki successfully captured Ping Yang and Wu Cheng(武城).

– From Shiji: Aristocratic Family of Zhao, when Qin attacked Chi Li(赤丽) and Yi An, Riboku led an army to battle the Qin army at Fei and was victorious. Riboku was then given the title of Lord Wu An.

-Hanfei arrived in Qin as an ambassador. He was not allowed to leave Qin and eventually died in Qin. This was planned by Ri Shi.

Year 15, 232BC
– Qin sent a big army towards Gyou and Taiyuan, capturing Langmeng(狼孟).

– From Shiji: Aristocratic Family of Zhao, Qin attacked a castle of Fan Wu(番吾/Jap name:Hango). Riboku manage to defend it against Qin.

Year 16, 231BC
– September, Qin sent soldiers and Tou to accept Nan An(南安) from Han.

– Wei offered land to Qin. Qin set up Li county(丽邑).

Year 17, 230BC
– Tou attacked Han, capturing King An of Han and annexed all the lands of Han.

– Another earthquake occured.

– Empress Dowager Huayang died. She is wife of Sei’s grandfather, King Xiaowen.

Year 18, 229BC
– Qin sent a large army to attack Zhao. Ousen led the army of Shangdi(上地) to attack Jing Xing(井陉). Yotanwa attack He Nei(河内). Kyokai attacked Zhao. Yotanwa lay siege to Kantan.

– From Shiji: Biographies of Assassins: It was mentioned that Ousen has led hundreds of thousands of soldiers to Zhang(漳) and Gyou. Shin’s army left Taiyuan(太原) and Yunzhong(云中) .

Year 19, 228BC
– Ousen and Kyokai captured Dongyang(东阳), capturing the king of Zhao. They then led the Qin army east, preparing to attack Yan, with the armies stationing at Zhongshan(中山).

– From Shiji: Aristocratic Family of Zhao, Zhao sent Riboku and Shiba Shou to stop Qin’s advance into Zhao. Riboku was eventually executed and Shiba Shou stripped off his duties. Zhao Cong and Qi general, Yan Ju, replaced them. Zhao Cong’s army was defeated and Yan Ju fled. The Zhao king defeated.

– From Shiji: Biographies of Lian Po and Lin Xiangru, Qin sent money to Kaku Kai, the high ranking official in Zhao, to bribe him to spread false rumors about Riboku and Shiba Shou planning a rebel against the king. The king of Zhao sent Zhao Cong and Yan Ju to replace Riboku and Shiba Shou. Riboku refused the order to return to court and was captured and executed by agents. Shiba Shou was stripped off his duties. In 3 months, Ousen struck fast and defeated Zhao Cong and Yan Ju, defeating the state of Zhao entirely.

– After the fall of Kantan, Sei travelled to Kantan and buried alive all those who offended his mother in the past. After Sei returned, his mother died soon after.

– Prince Ka of Zhao led a few hundred men to the region of Dai, setting up a small state of Dai, proclaiming himself king, combining his armies with the armies of Yan.

Year 20, 227BC
– Crown Prince Dan of Yan was afraid of the threat of Qin. He sent Jin Ke to assassinate the king of Qin. Jin Ke was executed by having his body torn apart. Ousen and Xin Sheng was sent to attack Yan as revenge. Yan sent its army to defend against Qin but was defeated to the west of Yi river.

Year 21, 226BC
– Ouhon attacked Ji(蓟), the capital of Yan. *However, some sources indicate that Ouhon attacked Jing(荆), which is another name for Chu. The 2 chinese characters are quite similar in structure and there are records of both the fall of Ji and battle in Chu this year so both could be possible, despite their geographical locations being far apart. Let’s see which will Hara choose.

– Ousen defeated the crown prince’s army and obtained the head of the crown prince after reinforcements from Qin.

– From Zhan Guo Ce: Ch31, Yan No.3, we know that when Shin was pursuing the king of Yan towards Liaodong(辽东), through the suggestion of the king of Dai, the Yan king killed his own crown prince and gave Qin the crown prince’s head. We can deduce from there that Shin was part of Ousen’s invasion in the line above.

– The king of Yan moved to Liaodong and became the king there.

– Shiji: Biographies of Bai Qi and Wang Jian details the reason for Ousen’s retirement. Sei asks both Shin and Ousen on their plans to invade Chu. Shin replied that 200,000 soldiers is enough to take Chu while Ousen thinks that he needs at least 600,000 soldiers. Sei disagrees with Ousen, and Ousen decides to retires. Sei sent Shin to invade Chu with 200,000 soldiers, resulting in a loss despite winning earlier battles in Chu. Scholars have blamed this loss is on the betrayal of Shouheikun halfway during the invasion, forcing Shin to turn the Qin army back resulting in a 2-pronged attack by Chu. Shin lost 7 of his lieutenants in this war.

– A rebellion started in Xinzheng(新郑, old Han territory).

– Shouheikun moved to Ying(郢), the old capital of Chu that was captured by Hakuki in the past.

– A blizzard, bringing 2 feet and 5 inches of snow.

Year 22, 225BC
– Ouhon attacked Wei, redirecting the waters from the yellow river to flood Daliang, the capital of Wei. The king of Wei surrendered and Qin annexed the lands of Wei.

Year 23, 224BC
– The king of Qin resummoned Ousen for the invasion of Chu. Qin captured all castles south of Chen(陈, Chu capital) up to Pingyu(平舆) and capturing the king of Chu.

-King of Qin toured Yingchen(郢陈).

-Kouen made Shouheikun the new king of Chu, rebel against Qin in Huainan(淮南).

-From Shiji: Biographies of Bai Qi and Wang Jian, Sei then invited Ousen back to lead 600,000 in the invasion of Chu. When Ousen set off from Kanyou, he made multiple requests to Sei for beauties, money and land when he return victorious from Chu. This is to give Sei the impression that Ousen wants only material wealth rather than rebel with the 600,000 soldiers, so that he will not suffer the same fate as Riboku. Instead of invading Chu, Ousen found a spot in Chu to build up defenses and refuses to attack despite taunts from the Chu army. He then waited patiently until the perfect opportunity to attack and crush the Chu army in one fell swoop, killing Kouen and capturing the king of Chu by the end of the year.

Year 24, 223BC
– Ousen and Moubu attacked Chu and defeated the Chu army. Shouheikun died and Kouen committed suicide.

Year 25, 222BC
– Qin sent a major force led by Ouhon to attack Liaodong of Yan, capturing King Xi of Yan. He then attacked Dai, capturing King Jia(King Ka) of Dai.

-Ousen attacks the lands south of Yangtze, defeated the king of Yue, setting up Huiji county(会稽郡).

-From Shiji: Biographies of Bai Qi and Wang Jian, Shin was in fact involved in final invasions of Yan (as well as Qi).

Year 26, 221BC
– King Jian(Ouken) of Qi and his chancellor Kou Shou sent their armies to defend the western border with Qin. Qin sent Ouhon to lead his army down to invade Qi from the south of Yan.

-From Shiji: Biographies of Bai Qi and Wang Jian, Shin was in fact involved in final invasions of Qi (and Yan).

-From Shi Ji: Biography of Meng Tian, Mouten was rewarded the post of governer(same as Tou) for his family’s achievements over the years and his participation in conquering Qi.


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