Fritz Tobias

Fritz Tobias

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Fritz Tobias, the son of a ceramic artist, was born in Hamburg in 1912. His father became a trade union official but lost his job when Adolf Hitler gained power in 1933.

Tobias fought in the German Army during the Second World War. In 1946 he became a member of the State Denazification Commission. In 1953 he became a permanent member of the State Civil Service. (1)

In 1960, Fritz Tobias, published a series of articles in Der Spiegel, later turned into a book, The Reichstag Fire: Legend and Truth (1963), in which he argued that Marinus van der Lubbe acted alone. (2) After making an extensive study of The Brown Book of the Hitler Terror and the Burning of the Reichstag he came to the conclusion that it was based on forged documents. Arthur Koestler, who had been part of the team working on the book, admitted that it had been based on several forged documents, including the "Obeffohren Memorandum". (3)

Another important document, the signed confession by Karl Ernst, was also shown to be a forgery. Erich Wollenberg, a KPD member, who worked with Willi Münzenberg on the book, admitted that the "Ernst testament, which was concocted by a group of German Communists in Paris - including Bruno Frei and Konny Norden - after Ernst's murder on June 30th, 1934, and only published after Dimitrov himself edited it in Moscow." (4)

Two of the men, Ernst Hanfstaengel, and Richard Fiedler, mentioned by Ernst as knowing about the Nazi conspiracy to set fire to the Reichstag, both survived the war. They both told Tobias that the "Ernst confession was a complete fabrication". (5) Tobias was also able to show that Edmund Heines, who according to the document, helped Ernst to set the building on fire, was in fact that night at an election meeting in far-away Gleiwitz. (6)

Fritz Tobias argued that the actions taken by the Nazi government after the Reichstag Fire shows that they were not responsible: "Today there seems little doubt that it was precisely by allowing van der Lubbe to stand trial that the Nazis proved their innocence of the Reichstag fire. For had van der Lubbe been associated with them in any way, the Nazis would have shot him the moment he had done their dirty work, blaming his death on an outbreak of 'understandable popular indignation'. Van der Lubbe could then have been branded a Communist without the irritations of a public trial, and foreign critics would not have been able to argue that, since no Communist accomplices were discovered, the real accomplices must be sought on the Government benches". (7)

When Alan Bullock published his revised edition of Hitler: A Study in Tyranny (1962) he agreed that he might have been wrong to claim that the Reichstag Fire was a Nazi conspiracy: "Herr Tobias's conclusion rejects both the Nazi and the anti-Nazi account in favour of van der Lubbe's own declaration, from which he never wavered, that he alone was responsible for the fire and that he carried it out as a single-handed act of protest. Herr Tobias may well be right in arguing that this, the simplest explanation of all, is the true one." (8)

Fritz Tobias died on 1st January, 2011.

Today there seems little doubt that it was precisely by allowing van der Lubbe to stand trial that the Nazis proved their innocence of the Reichstag fire. For had van der Lubbe been associated with them in any way, the Nazis would have shot him the moment he had done their dirty work, blaming his death on an outbreak of `understandable popular indignation'. Van der Lubbe could then have been branded a Communist without the irritations of a public trial, and foreign critics would not have been able to argue that, since no Communist accomplices were discovered, the real accomplices must be sought on the Government benches.

On the evening of February 27th, 1933, the Reichstag building in Berlin was set on fire and went up in flames. This was a stroke of good fortune for the Nazis. Although Hitler had been appointed Chancellor by President Hindenburg on January 30th, the Nazis did not have a parliamentary majority, even with their Nationalist allies.

The Reichstag was dissolved; and the Nazis began a raging electoral campaign. They were still doubtful of success. They badly needed a ‘Red’ scare. On February 24th the police raided Communist headquarters. It was announced that they had discovered plans for a Communist revolution. Evidently they did not discover much: the alleged subversive documents were never published.

Then came the burning of the Reichstag. Here was the Red scare ready-made. On the following day, Hindenburg promulgated an emergency decree "for the protection of the People and the State." The constitutional guarantees of individual liberty were suspended. The Nazis were able to establish a legal reign of terror.

Thanks largely to this, they and the Nationalists won a bare majority at the general election on March 5th; and, thereafter, first the Communist party, and then all parties other than the National Socialist, were made illegal. The burning of the Reichstag was the vital preliminary to Hitler’s dictatorship.

Who then committed the decisive act? Who actually started the Reichstag fire? The Nazis said it was the work of Communists. They tried to establish this verdict at the trial of the supposed incendiaries before the High Court at Leipzig. They failed. Hardly anyone now believes that the Communists had a hand in the Reichstag fire.

If not the Communists, then who? People outside Germany, and many inside it, found a simple answer: the Nazis did it themselves. This version has been generally accepted. It appears in most textbooks. The most reputable historians, such as Alan Bullock, repeat it. I myself accepted it unquestioningly, without looking at the evidence.

A retired civil servant, Fritz Tobias – an anti-Nazi – recently looked at the evidence. He published his results in an illustrated German weekly, Der Spiegel, from which I take them. They are surprising. Here is the story.

Shortly before nine o’clock, on the evening of February 27th, a student of theology called Hans Floter, now a lecturer in Bremen, was going home after a day in the library. As he crossed the open space in front of the Reichstag, he heard the sound of breaking glass. He looked up, and saw someone climbing into the Reichstag through a window on the first floor. Otherwise, the place was deserted.

Floter ran to the corner, found a policeman. "Someone is breaking into the Reichstag." The two men ran back. Through the window they saw not only a shadowy figure but flames. It was three minutes past nine. Floter had done his duty. He went home to his supper and out of the story. Another passer-by joined the policeman: a young printer called Thaler, who was incidentally a Social Democrat. He died in 1943.

Thaler shouted out: ‘Shoot, man, shoot.’ The policeman raised his revolver, and fired. The shadowy figure disappeared. The policeman ran back to the nearest police-post, and gave the alarm. The time was recorded as 9.15. Within minutes police poured into the Reichstag. At 9.22, a police officer tried to enter the Debating Chamber. He was driven back by the flames. At 9.27, the police discovered and arrested a half-naked young man. He was a Dutchman called Marinus van der Lubbe.

Meanwhile, the fire brigade had also been alarmed. The first report reached them at 9.13. The first engine reached the Reichstag at 9.18. There were inevitable delays. Only one side-door was kept unlocked after eight o’clock in the evening.

The firemen, who did not know this, went to the wrong door. Then they wasted time putting out small fires in the passages. There was confusion as one alarm crossed another. The full strength of the Berlin fire-brigade – some sixty engines – was mobilized only at 9.42. By then, the whole building was irreparably lost. It still stands, an empty shell.

There was an alarm of a different kind. Just across the road from the Reichstag was the house of its President, the Nazi leader Goering. But Goering had not moved in. The house, or Palace, was unoccupied except for a flat at the top which Goering had lent to Putzi Hanftstaengel, an upper-class hanger-on of the Nazis. Hanftstaengel looked out of his window and saw the Reichstag burning. He knew that Hitler and Goebbels were at a party near by. He telephoned Goebbels.

Goebbels thought this was one of Hanftstaengel’s practical jokes and put down the phone. Hanftstaengel rang again. Goebbels checked with the Reichstag and found the report was true. Within a few minutes he and Hitler and a swarm of Nazi attendants were also in the Reichstag.

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Adolf Hitler and the First World War (Answer Commentary)

Adolf Hitler and the German Workers' Party (Answer Commentary)

Sturmabteilung (SA) (Answer Commentary)

Adolf Hitler and the Beer Hall Putsch (Answer Commentary)

Adolf Hitler the Orator (Answer Commentary)

An Assessment of the Nazi-Soviet Pact (Answer Commentary)

British Newspapers and Adolf Hitler (Answer Commentary)

Lord Rothermere, Daily Mail and Adolf Hitler (Answer Commentary)

Adolf Hitler v John Heartfield (Answer Commentary)

The Hitler Youth (Answer Commentary)

German League of Girls (Answer Commentary)

Night of the Long Knives (Answer Commentary)

The Political Development of Sophie Scholl (Answer Commentary)

The White Rose Anti-Nazi Group (Answer Commentary)

Kristallnacht (Answer Commentary)

Heinrich Himmler and the SS (Answer Commentary)

Trade Unions in Nazi Germany (Answer Commentary)

Hitler's Volkswagen (The People's Car) (Answer Commentary)

Women in Nazi Germany (Answer Commentary)

The Assassination of Reinhard Heydrich (Answer Commentary)

The Last Days of Adolf Hitler (Answer Commentary)

(1) Fritz Tobias, The Reichstag Fire: Legend and Truth (1963) page 17

(2) Benjamin Carter Hett, Burning the Reichstag: An Investigation into the Third Reich's Enduring Mystery (2014) page 267

(3) Fritz Tobias, The Reichstag Fire: Legend and Truth (1963) page 117

(4) Erich Wollenberg, Echo of the Week (12th August, 1949)

(5) Fritz Tobias, The Reichstag Fire: Legend and Truth (1963) page 143

(6) Fritz Tobias, The Reichstag Fire: Legend and Truth (1963) page 110

(7) Fritz Tobias, The Reichstag Fire: Legend and Truth (1963) page 72

(8) Alan Bullock, Hitler: A Study in Tyranny (1962) page 263

Toby Tobias Jr.

Richard "Toby" Tobias Jr. (born June 16, 1966) is an American racing driver and chassis builder. He has competed in the United States Auto Club, NASCAR Busch Series and NASCAR Busch North Series. After racing, Tobias moved to Hershey, Pennsylvania and became a track owner. [1] Tobias also started manufacturing Slingshot cars for use at local dirt tracks, [2] and also maintained the family business, Tobias Speed Equipment Inc. [3] In addition to racing NASCAR, Tobias also won a number of high-level dirt races in New York and Pennsylvania. [3]

The Nazis Aim for Power in Defeated Germany: The Reichstag Fire

When the German Empire, a constitutional federal state dominated by the Kingdom of Prussia, went to war in the first days of August 1914, it did so with a near consensus of its citizenry that the cause of the war was the prior hostile mobilization of the immense army of the Russian Empire. The war was defensive, and whatever measures needed to preserve the nation from invasion by the tsarist hordes must immediately be taken, or so it was argued by almost every public voice from anti-Semites and Conservative Nationalists on the right to the majority of the Social Democrats on the left.

The Reichstag, the national parliament elected by universal manhood suffrage, voted not only the necessary funds (unanimously) but a series of war laws and decrees, in particular the first Enabling Act of August 4, 1914, that affected a range of basic rights by authorizing the government to impose &ldquoprotective custody&rdquo and to curtail freedom of assembly, freedom of the press, and postal privacy.

With defeat came a regime headed by majority Social Democrats who had actively helped to pursue the war, and were cursed from the start by their complicity with extreme right-wing nationalists in the January 1919 murder of the left Socialist leaders Rosa Luxemburg and Karl Liebknecht. This government was compelled to sign the Versailles treaty, including harshly punitive measures against Germany based upon the assertion of war guilt a question nonetheless still very much open ninety years later.

The new regime&rsquos Weimar Constitution preserved federalism (police powers being entrusted to the states) including the leading role of Prussia, but replaced the Kaiser with an elected president, whose powers included the ability to declare a state of emergency and to rule by decree. While political party governments came and went, including some headed by Social Democrats, Weimar Germany continued in practice to be administered by the prior ruling strata of conservative nationalist owners of considerable wealth and, frequently, large landed estates, who almost without exception dominated the top ranks of the permanent civil service, the army, the judiciary, and large industry. The only position of real state power held by the Social Democrats was their control of the police in the dominant state of Prussia, albeit a control in practice used heavily against the Communist-led left workers movement. The Prussian police were the police of the capital Berlin, and constituted over 60 percent of all the police in Germany.

When the Great Depression hit Germany in 1929&ndash30, government by parliamentary majority collapsed and a series of inconclusive elections followed. President von Hindenburg authorized the government of Chancellor Bruening to rule by decree, enforcing a series of harsh economic measures in a time of widespread distress.

The Nazis, a lineal descendent of the right-wing nationalists who had murdered Luxemburg and Liebknecht, and who had received a vote of 3 to 6 percent in the elections of the 1920s, now emerged as a major political force, winning nearly 20 percent of the vote in the June 1930 elections and approximately a third of the vote in the two 1932 Reichstag elections. In the summer of 1932 von Hindenburg appointed as chancellor von Papen, a minor right-wing politician. Von Papen on July 20, 1932, urged on by the Nazis in the Prussian legislature, seized control of the police power in Prussia from the Social Democrats as Reich Commissioner for Prussia under an emergency decree signed by von Hindenburg.

After two succeeding inconclusive elections and after von Papen was replaced as chancellor by Schleicher, the aged President von Hindenburg was persuaded by his son Oskar and by von Papen to make Hitler chancellor, on January 30, 1933. Hitler had persuaded von Hindenburg by insisting on only two positions in the cabinet for Nazis Frick as interior minister and Goering&mdashNazi president of the Reichstag&mdashas minister without portfolio, but as minister of the interior of Prussia, with control of the Prussian police.

The new cabinet obtained from the compliant President a decree dissolving the Reichstag, and calling new elections for March 5, 1933. Goering also obtained a decree that had been prepared by von Papen but never issued, giving the new ministry emergency powers to combat &ldquoacts of terrorism&rdquo by the Communists. This Decree for the Protection of the German People included the power to censor the press, ban public meetings, and impose &ldquoprotective custody&rdquo for up to three months on suspicion of planned criminal activity, and was promulgated by President von Hindenburg on February 4.

Goering set to work to take full control of the Prussian interior ministry and police. The political division of the police was reorganized, and given the name Geheime Statspolizei, the Secret State Police or Gestapo, and placed under Goering&rsquos direct control. As a clear sign of the new coalition in power, the new head of the Prussian police was Dr. Ludwig Grauert, previously business manager of the heavy industry employers association. Police chiefs and key officials were replaced throughout Prussia, primarily by Nazis. Goering gave a widely reported speech to police in Dortmund that made things as clear as could be: &ldquoA bullet fired from the barrel of a police pistol is my bullet. If you say that is murder, then I am the murderer&hellip.I know two sorts of law because I know two sorts of men: those who are with us and those who are against us.&rdquo

On February 22, fifty thousand Nazi SA men (Storm Troopers) throughout Prussia were enrolled as auxiliary police. On February 24 Goering&rsquos police raided Communist headquarters, and announced (falsely) that seditious literature had been found calling for an armed revolution and attacks on public buildings everything was ready.

The Reichstag building broke into flames on the night of February 27, 1933. Immediately mass arrests were carried out using carefully prepared lists of Communist leaders and Reichstag deputies, as well as various Social Democrats, leading left-wing intellectuals, and trade union leaders. In the first night some four thousand were seized, brought to SA barracks, beaten, and tortured. Goering announced that the Reichstag Fire was to have been the signal for an insurrection and terrorist acts throughout Germany. On February 28 the Decree for the Protection of People and State Against Communist Acts of Violence Endangering the State was promulgated over the signature of von Hindenburg. The first article removed all fundamental rights specified in the Weimar constitution, specifically listing personal liberty, freedom of expression, association, and assembly, and the need for warrants for house searches. The second article gave the national government the right to remove all the state governments. Another article provided the death penalty for violation of the offenses set out in the decree, and for arson. Nonetheless the Nazis failed to gain a majority in the Reichstag in the March 5 elections indeed, in their last vote the German people elected eighty-one Communist deputies. But at the first meeting of the newly elected Reichstag the Nazis achieved a majority when the eighty-one Communist deputies, many in detention since the Reichstag Fire, were expelled. On March 23 this Reichstag passed an Enabling Act, entitled Act for the Removal of Distress from People and Reich, that gave Hitler absolute power to rule.

The Reichstag Fire led to a dramatic trial, and to an equally consequential counter-trial. Media attention to the trial and the political currents around it&mdashand its leading personalities&mdashoccupied world attention. This was the political trial of its time. In this article, we discuss the political setting of the fire, the trial and surrounding events, and the lessons that may be drawn from the changing historical accounts of the trial. We examine critically the different versions of key events.

Family Dr. FRITZ TOBIAS, Delligsen

Simon Tobias, the youngest son of Michael Tobias and Esther Kronenthal, born on June 18, 1857 in Altenkirchen, married the widow Rebecka “Rosa” Rothschild, née Dannebaum on May 5, 1886, at Hofgeismar. She already had six children with Samuel Rotschild and got one more son with Simon named Siegfried “Fritz”, born on August 16, 1887 at Hofgeismar. Simon was a merchant and later worked in Hamburg. He was the manager or owner of „Feddersen & Fraenkel“, a cloth goods and handkerchiefs manufacturing company. Simon’s nephew Max Tobias did his apprenticeship at this company between 1908 and 1911. Simon died on January 2, 1921 and is buried at the Jewish cemetery Ilandkoppel, Hamburg-Ohlsdorf. Rosa died in 1934 in Schlüchtern, where her daughter Josephine Stern lived at the time.

Fritz Tobias went to school in Hofgeismar and later attended the Friedrichs-Gymnasium in Kassel. He studied medicine in Freiburg, Kiel, Munich, Berlin and Heidelberg. When in Kiel he spent his compulsary service at the 85th infantry regiment. He wrote his dissertation at the university of Heidelberg in 1910 („Über Riesensarkome der Sehnenscheiden mit einem kasuistischen Beitrag“) and was registered as a physician on July 21, 1911.

The register entry for Siegfried Fritz Tobias at the University of Heidelberg says that his father is a merchant in Hamburg. Source:

In Heidelberg he met his future wife Paula Sussmann, one of the first female physicians in Germany. She was born in Hamburg on January 15, 1886. Paula and Fritz both were keen on sports and liked to spend their time hiking in the nearby Black Forest. She was registered as a physician in June 1912 and they married on August 4, 1912.

Paula and Fritz actually had plans to emigrate to Namibia and work at a hospital in Windhuk, but Fritz‘ mother Rosa begged them to stay because three of her sons already left for the United States. So they decided to open a doctor’s office at the countryside and moved to Kreiensen, Harz.

Soon after establishing their own office, the Great War broke out and Fritz had to serve the military. He was only granted home leave for two weeks per year. Paula ran the office all alone and also was in charge of a sick bay at the train station of Kreiensen. In 1917 she decided to leave for Delligsen, Holzminden, where she took over a vacant doctor’s office. Here she had to cope with a severe influenza epidemic.

When Fritz came back home after the war, Paula took a rest from working so hard and they founded a family. Their first son Johannes was born on December 13, 1920 and the second son Gerd was born on February 15, 1923. Paula enjoyed being a mother and being able to take time for gardening. However she still assisted her husband and furthermore started a mothers consulting at Delligsen. The Tobias owned a big house and Fritz bought a stylish car, a Hanomag, that was talk of the town. Fritz also was able to purchase an X-ray unit for the doctor’s office which was very progressive at the time.

Despite of all medical progress their son Johannes died on October 27, 1927, due to a blood poisoning caused by a small injury from playing outside at a creek. Paula was deeply shocked by this loss and a few months later they decided to leave Delligsen. In summer 1928, they took over another country doctor’s office at Bevern from Fritz’ brother-in-law Max Stahl who had decided to retire. In 1932, when Gerd was nine years old. he was baptised in Bevern. Obviously Paula appreciated the pastor’s work in town, but maybe it was already a reaction on rising antisemitism.

When the Nazis took over, Paula pretty soon realized that all of their achievements would be treated with contempt and that there was no way stay full members of the German society. The discrimination was unmistakable, although she tried to fight it. When Gerd was forced to quit the Gymnasium in Holzminden they prepared for leaving their fatherland. In November 1935 the Tobias emigrated to San Francisco where meanwhile all of Fritz’s halfsiblings lived.

Fritz was allowed to practice again, but Paula’s exams were not accepted and so she had to work as a nurse for the rest of her life. In 1945 Fritz and Paula were divorced. Fritz suffered a stroke in the 1950s and died at Honolulu on June 29, 1962. Paula died at Pacific Grove, California on November 13, 1970. Their son Gerd James “Jim” Tobias became a physician as well. He died at Saratoga, California on July 25, 2013.


Political members

Tobias Fritz

Currently, Tobias Fritz holds the position of Chief Technical Officer of Acarix AB. He previously was Chief Operating Officer & Head-Product Management at Dignitana AB.

Interim Chief Executive Officer at Acarix A/S

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Chief Executive Officer at Acarix AB

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Partner at Seed Capital Denmark K/S

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Chief Executive Officer & Director at BrainCool AB

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Former Chief Financial Officer & Administration Manager at Dignitana AB

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Professional at Acarix AB

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Former Quality Assurance Director & Clinical Affairs Director at Dignitana AB

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Chief Financial Officer & Chief Compliance Officer at glendonTodd Capital LLC

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Development Manager & Quality Assurance at BrainCool AB

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Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin

Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin

A natural accident rarely comes alone, says LTH's new professor of fire and environment in the new issue of LTH-new, where she talks about lessons after last year's big fires. From this summer, Margaret Mc Namee will, among other things, lead an international project with the aim of developing methods for predicting simultaneous natural a ccidents and providing support to decision makers regarding the necessary capabilities.

Acarix AB engages in the provision of medical devices for monitoring Coronary Artery Disease. It develops and commercializes diagnostic tests based on its technology platform CADScor System. The company was founded by Peter Boman Samuelsen, Samuel Schmidt, Weimin Rong and Claus Bo Vöge Christensen in 2007 and is headquartered in Malmo, S weden.

Dignitana AB engages in the development, manufacture and marketing of medical technology systems related to medical cooling. Its product DigniCap, a scalp cooling system used during chemotherapy to eliminate or reduce hair loss. The company was founded in 2000 and is headquartered in Lund, Sweden.


Dr. Frankenstein hired Fritz to assist him in his experiments on creating new life. He helped him dig up bodies and then would help transport them back to the castle where the experiments took place. He was tasked with acquiring a brain to be put into the body. During a lightning strike, he dropped the brain that was meant to go into the body and took a criminal's abnormal brain. During the experiment, Frankenstein's fiancee Elizabeth, friend Victor and older teacher Dr. Waldman arrived at the castle searching for him. Fritz attempted to make them leave but eventually had to let them in. He later helped Frankenstein lock his monster in the dungeon. While he was taunting the monster with a torch, it broke free and choked him to death and later hung him from the rafters. His body was later discovered by Dr. Frankenstein and Dr. Waldman. Frankenstein was brokenhearted by Fritz's death and briefly fell into a depression.


From 1934 to 1945, Fehling held a leading position in the gay department of the Secret State Police Office and the Reich Security Main Office - with interruptions . In this position, Andreas Pretzel identifies him as one of the “main people responsible for the nationwide persecution of homosexuals” during the Nazi era. In the business distribution plans of the Secret State Police Office, he can initially be identified as a criminal inspector in the “Reich Central Office for Combating Homosexuality” headed by Josef Meisinger . According to the business distribution plan of July 1, 1939, he was even promoted to deputy to Eberhard Schiele as head of Section II S 1 (combating homosexuality) at the Gestapo headquarters. During the Second World War, Fehling was responsible for investigating internal party homosexual cases within Department IV C 4 (“Matters of the Party and its Organizations, Special Cases”) headed by Kurt Stage .

Involvement in the Fritsch affair

In the spring of 1938, Fehling played a significant role in major politics in connection with the intrigue initiated by Hermann Göring and the SS leadership around Heinrich Himmler and Reinhard Heydrich against General Werner von Fritsch , the then head of the Reichswehr Army Command : a pretext In order to get Fritsch, who was skeptical of the military plans of the Nazi leadership, he was accused of being guilty of homosexual misconduct against Hitler. In terms of content, this accusation was based on incriminating documents that the Reich Central Office for Combating Homosexuality had in previous years about a retired officer with a Fritsch name - a Rittmeister retired. D. named Joachim von Frisch [sic!] - had collected. The freshly incriminating actions were simply attributed to Fritsch. After a false witness - a concentration camp inmate who was promised release from custody in return for his false statement - who stated that he had observed homosexual contact with Fritsch in a train station toilet, it was possible to find Fritsch from the beginning of February 1938 To oust the post of Chief of Army Command. His powers as the de facto commander of the army were taken over by Hitler himself. Fehling was involved in these processes as the person responsible for the Fritsch / Frisch case - the relevant file was kept in his safe - in the Gesapo headquarters directly and in a leading role.

After the generals of the Wehrmacht, with whom Fritsch enjoyed great popularity, refused to abandon the defamatory accusations raised against him, the Fritsch case was brought to a court of honor in March 1938, which examined the validity of the accusations made against him. In the course of the proceedings it could be proven that the witness against Fritsch made false statements and that the evidence presented did not relate to Fritsch, but to the aforementioned Frisch. Fehling had to take part in this trial as a witness. On March 18, 1938, the verdict was therefore passed that the main hearing “the innocence of Colonel General a. D. Freiherr von Fritsch in all points “. Despite the restoration of his honor, Fritsch was not allowed to return to his office, whose powers Hitler continued to reserve to himself in the sense of his aggressive foreign policy plans.

For Fehling, the refutation of the incriminating material he had compiled and the associated burden on the SS / Gestapo leadership had an aftermath: the head of the army intelligence service Wilhelm Canaris and Hitler's Wehrmacht adjutant Friedrich Hoßbach accepted the rehabilitation of Fritsch and the proof of the falseness of the evidence presented against it as an occasion to demand in a catalog addressed to Hitler with consequences that he was to draw from the Fritsch affair, on behalf of the army, for a “substantial change in the occupation of the leadership positions of the Secret State Police”. They named "Himmler, Heydrich, Joost [recte: Jost] (SD), Best , Meisinger, Fehling and others" as personalities to be removed from the Gestapo leadership . The task of these men should instead be given to "decent and honest National Socialists". Himmler, Heydrich, Jost and Best stayed at their posts: On the other hand, Göring initiated disciplinary proceedings against Fehling, which ended with reprimand for "negligent file processing". According to a Spiegel article from 1984, Himmler temporarily removed him from Gestapo headquarters because he reappears there in the business distribution plans from 1939 and 1941, but this measure could only have been short-lived.

Later career

According to Burkhard Jellonnek, Fehling fell out of favor with Himmler in later years, although he remained at his post. During the Second World War, the SS chief complained that Fehling had become “very old and pastoral”, so that he had changed from “an accuser against homosexuality to her lawyer”.

After the end of the war, Fehling continued to work as a detective in Berlin-Charlottenburg. As a criminal director, he even briefly became head of the criminal police in Charlottenburg. According to Jörg Petzel's research (see below), however, Fehling was lured to East Berlin as early as July 1945 and murdered there by German communists.

In 2012, Fehling's life was the subject of a lecture by museum curator Jörg Petzel organized by Museum Charlottenburg ("Between petty crime and global politics. The criminal and Gestapo officer Fritz Fehling in Berlin-Charlottenburg").


Tobias suffers as a Never Nude in "Top Banana"

"Never Nude" is not referenced to in the DSM-IV, as noted in "Marta Complex".

Season One

  • Tobias is first seen wearing jean cutoffs in the shower in "Top Banana", and again in the following episode "Bringing Up Buster".
  • Lindsay rips Tobias' towel off in "Visiting Ours", the first acknowledgement of Tobias' condition.
  • The affliction is named and described in "In God We Trust". Tobias assumes George Michael is a Never Nude based on his refusal to take off the Adam outfit from the Living Classics Pageant, and tries to get him to accept himself for his affliction.
  • In "Storming the Castle" Tobias wears leather chaps with his cutoffs visible.
  • In "Marta Complex" Tobias is seen unpacking his cutoffs. He also auditions for the role of Frightened Inmate #2 and is horrified when he finds out the role will take place in the nude.
  • In "Beef Consommé" Tobias argues with Lindsay about his Never Nudity and how he will be unable to perform as Frightened Inmate #2. She helps him overcome his fear and he overcompensates by walking around naked.

Season Two

  • In "The One Where Michael Leaves" and "The One Where They Build a House" Tobias wears cutoffs as he wears blue paint for his Blue Man Group audition.
  • In "Sad Sack" Tobias relapses after a picture of his testicles are shown on the news.
  • In "Motherboy XXX" Dave Attell questions the legitimacy of Never Nudity while acting as Tobias on an episode of Scandalmakers.
  • In "Spring Breakout" Tobias attempts to make a competition to Girls with Low Self-Esteem and finds out that Phillip Litt is also a Never Nude. />

Nebraska. Our Towns

The Village of Tobias was platted in 1884 by the Lincoln Land Company as the town of "Castor" on the new rail line west of DeWitt. It came into being because officials of the Burlington Railroad believed there was a need for "greater convenience" to the settlers. The closest railroad was approximately 18 miles away, and those producing the cattle and hogs were having "a difficult time marketing them."

In establishing the route, the small hamlet known as "Atlanta," that had been a post office address since 1871, was bypassed. A new town was platted a short distance away and given the name "Castor" by the right-of-way official for the railroad, Tobias Castor. Postal authorities, however, turned down

the name because they felt it would be too easily confused with the Custer post office in Custer County.

Undaunted by the refusal, Castor submitted his Christian name, "Tobias," which was approved on March 17, 1884. Not only was it the only town by that name in Nebraska, it is still the only Tobias listed in the official postal directory. The first postmaster was Jennie Bamer.

The town grew so quickly that it was very-nearly incorporated before its name was approved. Incorporation papers filed "in early spring" 1884. Early shops and businesses lined two blocks of Main Street by the close of 1886 with up to 60 "going business ventures." By 1887 Tobias had a population of 500. The official peak in population was in 1900 with 672 residents recorded.

In 1891 a major fire destroyed 22 buildings, which drastically changed the face of the community. The shops that rebuilt used fire-proof construction, which greatly improved the town's appearance. But, some businesses waited before rebuilding. By 1893 times were hard, and people struggled just to survive as a drought and money panic gripped the nation for several years.

The first Tobias schoolhouse was the District 81 building, moved in 1884 from its location one mile west of town. A four-room school was built in 1887. Because of crowded conditions in this building, another two-room school was built nearby in 1908. Three students were in 1891 graduating class: Anna Ainsworth, Mary Lippincott, and Ralph Jones. A brick high school with grades K-12 was built in 1914. The district continued until 1967 when Tobias consolidated with the Daykin and Alexandria School District #303. A new brick building was constructed in 1977, seven miles south of town, on Nebraska Highway 4.

The early settlers were of German, Czech, Irish, and English descent. Today the citizens are mainly of German heritage with a smaller percentage of Czech and English. The role of the small railroad town began to change after automobiles and trucks became popular. During the Depression years, Tobias lost many businesses, including its two banks. Since then there has been a continual decline to its present population of about 140.

A State Historical Marker, honoring Sgt. Leodegar Schnyder, who served in the Army 53 years (longest of any non-commissioned officer), is located near Tobias. Schnyder, who enlisted in 1837, first saw action in the Seminole War. In 1849 he was transferred to Fort Laramie, which was at that time an isolated outpost on the overland trails. After he retired in 1886 he settled on a farm north of Tobias. He died in 1896 and is buried at the old Atlanta Cemetery. The Tobias Community Historical Society, instrumental in documenting this story, assisted in the dedication that took place on October 1, 1973.

A volunteer fire department was organized in 1905 with 30 members. In recent years modern equipment and a fire truck were purchased, plus a rescue unit in 1976.

At this time our town has a grocery store, two garages, two beauty shops, a cafe and bar, a lumberyard, an elevator, a post office, a library, and a museum. A feed store is located on the edge of town. The citizens of Tobias are proud of their boulevard, decorated with flowers and pine trees which are cared for by volunteers from the community. The "twin flag poles" were dedicated on June 14, 1974, in honor of the nation's bicentennial, and now proudly fly the "fifty star" and Nebraska flags.

Tourists and townspeople alike enjoy the tree-shaded park which has playground equipment and a shelter with picnic tables. Tobias, located in the southwest corner of Saline County on Highway 74, is our town, and we invite you to stop by for a visit.

By Helen Kottas, P.O. Box 45, Tobias, NE 68453, with the help of Marie Francis. Photographs courtesy of the Tobias Community Historical Society.

`ADDITIONAL MATERIAL: Saline County Nebraska History , by J.W.Kaura, 1962 Centennial History of Tobias, Nebraska, compiled by American Legion Auxiliary Unit 311, published in 1964, and updated in 1984.

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