Leo Marks

Leo Marks

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Leo Marks, the son of a Jewish bookseller, was born in London on 24th September, 1920. Marks joined the British Army in January 1942. Trained as a cryptographer he was assigned to the Special Operations Executive (SOE).

Marks became an expert in cryptanalysis (making and breaking codes and ciphers) and eventually became head of SOE's codes and ciphers with a staff of 400 people. It was Marks's responsibility to provide agents with the ciphers with which to send information to London by radio.

These ciphers were often based on famous poems or brief passages of memorable prose such as the Lord's Prayer. Marks argued that the enemy might know the poem or the prose passage and would then be able to break the cipher. To overcome this problem Marks provided unknown poems for his agents. This included the poem The Life That I Have, that had originally been written for his girlfriend, Ruth Hambro who had been killed in an air crash in Canada. He later gave the poem as a cipher to the SOE agent Violette Szabo when she was sent to France during the war.

When agents based in Holland began sending messages without any errors, Marks suspected they had been arrested by the Gestapo. To test his theory he sent indecipherable messages to the agents. When they did not complain he knew that the short-wave morse transceivers were under the control of the Germans. His warnings were ignored by Maurice Buckmaster and agents continued to be sent to Holland where they were arrested and in most cases executed.

On 23rd June, 1943, three key members of the Prosper Network, Andrée Borrel, Francis Suttill and Gilbert Norman, were arrested by the Gestapo. Noor Inayat Khan reported back to the Special Operations Executive that she had lost contact with the rest of the group and feared they were in the hands of the Germans. Jack Agazarian, who was on leave at the time, told the SOE that if this was the case, he suspected that they had been betrayed by Henri Déricourt, a former pilot in the French Air Force, whose job it was to find suitable landing grounds and organize receptions for agents brought by air.

Gilbert Norman continued to send messages to London. Marks, was convinced that Norman was under the control of the Gestapo. Major Nicholas Bodington disagreed and persuaded Maurice Buckmaster to let him go to France to find out what had happened. Jack Agazarian was recalled from leave and the two men were taken to France.

Messages from the wireless owned by Gilbert Norman were still being sent to the Special Operations Executive in London. Instructions were passed on to Bodington by the SOE to arrange a meeting with Norman at the address he had sent them. Bodington later claimed that he and Jack Agazarian tossed to decide who should visit the address. Agazarian, who was convinced it was a trap, lost, and when he arrived at the address he was immediately arrested. Agazarian was tortured by the Gestapo for six months at Fresnes Prison before being sent to Flossenburg where he was kept in solitary confinement.

After the war Marks became a writer for stage and screen. This included writing the script for Peeping Tom. Directed by Michael Powell in 1960 it tells the story of a serial killer who films young women as he stabs them to death. Condemned as pornographic and evil, it was not shown on television until 1997.

Marks also had trouble with his autobiography Between Silk and Cyanide, that challenged the official history of the Special Operations Executive written by M.R.D. Foot. Although written in the early 1980s it was blocked by Whitehall and only appeared in 1998. He also published The Life That I Have in 1999. Leo Marks died on 15th January 2001.

The life that I have is all that I have

And the life that I have is yours

The love that I have of the life that I have

Is yours and yours and yours.

A sleep I shall have, a rest I shall have

And death will be but a pause

For the years I shall have in the long green grass

Are yours and yours and yours.

Leopold Samuel Marks, a native of London, had been intrigued by codes since he was 8 years old, when his father, Benjamin, a partner in London's well-known antiquarian book store Marks & Company showed him a first edition of "The Gold Bug" by Edgar Allan Poe.

Fascinated by Poe's tale of a treasure whose location was concealed in a cipher, he broke the code his father used to denote the lowest price he would accept for that book, a series of letters penciled on the inside of the cover. The boy discovered that the 10 letters making up the names of the bookstore owners, Marks and Cohen, each corresponded to a number.

Mr. Marks enrolled in Britain's school for cryptographers in January 1942, then joined the Special Operations Executive. He continued to live at home, but his family thought he was working for the Ministry of Supply.

When Mr. Marks joined the intelligence agency, it was using ciphers based on phrases in classic works of British literature. Mr. Marks realized that these codes were hardly unbreakable since the Germans might have sampled Shakespeare or Keats or could check on specific passages in reference books.

So Mr. Marks wrote his own poems, substituting passages from them for those in the great English works. "It would make it slightly more difficult for S.O.E.'s messages to be read like daily newspapers if we started a Baker Street poets' corner," he recalled.

He certainly saved a great many lives by improving wireless operators' security. He had grave doubts about operations into Holland, which he feared had been compromised. All the messages reaching SOE by wireless from Holland arrived without being mutilated in transit - a stark contrast with the traffic from everywhere else in north-west Europe. In 1989 he recounted, at a conference attended by Prince Bernhard, how he had established that his suspicions were well founded. He arranged for a British operator to send 'HH' at the end of a routine message; this provoked an instant 'HH' in reply from Holland. This was standard Nazi operators' drill: HH stood for Heil Hitler. But it took months to convince the operational staff of the danger.

He also had incessant troubles with the Free French, who persevered in using a code he reckoned an intelligent schoolboy could break in an afternoon. With the help of Yeo-Thomas, GC, he persuaded even them to change.

At the end of the war Marks was moved, for a transient and embarrassed few months, into the signals branch of the secret intelligence service, but was then released. He abandoned the book trade to become a film impresario, and spent more than fifty years in the tumultuous world of the cinema. Many harrowing experiences of his SOE years continued to haunt him. He condensed them into the script of a 1960s film, which Michael Powell directed, called Peeping Tom. The critics all denounced it as criminal porn, and Powell's career suffered. It was recently revived, for a more tolerant age, on television.

At the turn of the century, Marks's life began to crumble. A childless marriage of more than forty years with Elena Gaussen Marks, the painter, suddenly dissolved in acrimony. A liver complaint necessitated a big operation. He got into troubles over money. Yet he deserves to be remembered as he was a man of undoubted brilliance, who played an outstanding part in the war against Hitler.

GEICO History

GEICO is built on ingenuity, perseverance, innovation, resilience and hard, honest work. From its humble beginnings in the midst of the Great Depression to its current place as one of the most successful companies in the nation, GEICO represents a quintessential American success story. Take a moment to review GEICO's milestones, or read the whole story and learn about the people and events behind GEICO.

GEICO Milestones

1936 &ndash GEICO is established by Leo and Lillian Goodwin.

1948 &ndash Investment banker Lorimer Davidson joins the company and expands its pool of investors.

1951 &ndash Columbia University business student Warren Buffett makes his first purchase of GEICO stock.

1958 &ndash Leo Goodwin retires and is succeeded by Lorimer Davidson.

1959 &ndash GEICO opens its new headquarters in Chevy Chase, MD.

1964 &ndash GEICO passes the 1 million policies-in-force (PIF) mark.

1965-1966 &ndash GEICO insurance premiums reach $150 million net earnings double to $13 million.

1980 &ndash GEICO introduces 24/7/365 telephone customer service.

1993 &ndash New chairman Olza "Tony" Nicely implements a new strategy to expand the customer base increased focus on advertising results in higher national visibility.

1996 &ndash Warren Buffett purchases outstanding GEICO stock, making GEICO a subsidiary of Berkshire Hathaway, Inc.

1999 &ndash The beloved GEICO Gecko ® makes his debut in a wildly popular GEICO ad campaign.

2002 &ndash GEICO passes the 5 million PIF mark.

2004 &ndash The GEICO Caveman enters the scene with the "So easy a Caveman can do it" ad campaign.

2007 &ndash GEICO passes the 8 million PIF mark.

2009 &ndash GEICO passes the 9 million PIF mark and opens for business in Massachusetts making GEICO coverage and services available in all 50 states and the District of Columbia.

2010 &ndash GEICO passes the 10 million PIF mark. GEICO is the first insurance company to offer the ability to purchase a policy in a mobile-friendly format via iPhone and Android mobile devices.

2012 &ndash GEICO passes the 11 million PIF mark.

2013 &ndash GEICO surpasses 12 million policies-in-force and insures more than 20 million vehicles.

2014 &ndash GEICO passes the 13 million PIF mark and insures more than 22 million vehicles.

2016 &ndash GEICO adds its 14 millionth policy.

2017 &ndash In its best growth year ever, GEICO passes 15 million and 16 million PIF.

Today &ndash GEICO passed 17 million policies in force in 2019 and now insures more than 28 million vehicles. The company looks forward to even more growth, founded on quality coverage and outstanding GEICO customer service.

For you history buffs who love all the details, here's the full story of GEICO. From the dreams of one couple rose the company you know today.

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Leo Constellation Stars

Constellation Leo the Lion, is an ecliptic constellation laying between constellation Cancer and constellation Virgo. Leo spans 40 degrees of the Zodiac in the Signs Leo and Virgo, and contains 15 named fixed stars.

Leo Constellation Stars

(Star positions for year 2000)

In mundane astrology Leo Constellation is associated with royal events especially the ascension or death of kings and queens, the election or death of heads of state, assassinations uprisings and massacres, currency and the stock exchange, the Vatican and European Union.

Ptolemy makes the following observations: “Of the stars in Leo, two in the head are like Saturn and partly like Mars (bold, cruel, heartless, adulterous, criminal, liar, loss of estates, poverty, few friends. if of 1st magnitude, rises by usury or unfair means. If culminating, bad name, rise by trade followed by disgrace and ruin.) The three in the neck are like Saturn, and in some degree like Mercury (profound liar, thief, blackguard, scandal and slander.) Those in the loins, Saturn and Venus (slovenly, very immoral, shameless, revolting, mean, sorrows in love. If rising, good-tempered, healthy, gain by industry and marriage. If culminating, improved health, fame by help of superiors.) Those in the thighs resemble Venus, and, in some degree, Mercury (idealistic, psychic, handsome, neat, lovable, refined, genteel, intelligent.)” It is said that the stars in the neck, back and wing all bring trouble, disgrace and sickness affecting the part of the body ruled by the sign, especially if they happen to be in conjunction with the Moon. By the Kabalists, Leo is associated with the Hebrew letter Kaph and the 11th Tarot Trump “Strength.” [1]

Leo, the Lion… lies between Cancer and Virgo, the bright Denebola 5° north of the faint stars that mark the head of the latter constellation but Ptolemy extended it to include among its … the group now Coma Berenices… In Greek and Roman myth this was respectively Leon and Leo, representing the Nemean Lion, originally from the moon, and, after his earthly stay, carried back to the heavens with his slayer Hercules…

Bacchi Sidus was another of its titles, that god always being identified with this animal, and its shape the one usually adopted by him in his numerous transformations while a lion’s skin was his frequent dress. But Manilius had it Jovis et Junonis Sidus (Jovis = Roman Jupiter or Greek Zeus Junonis = Roman Juno or Greek Hera), as being under the guardianship of these deities and appropriately so, considering its regal character, and especially that of its lucida (Regulus).

The Egyptian king Necepsos, and his philosopher Petosiris, taught that at the Creation the sun rose here near Denebola and hence Leo was Domicilium Solis, the emblem of fire and heat, and, in astrology, the House of the Sun, governing the human heart, and reigning in modern days over Bohemia, France, Italy, and the cities of Bath, Bristol, and Taunton in England, and our Philadelphia. In ancient times Manilius wrote of it as ruling over Armenia, Bithynia, Cappadocia, Macedon, and Phrygia. It was a fortunate sign, with red and green as its colors and, according to Ampelius, was in charge of the wind Thrascias mentioned by Pliny, Seneca, and Vitruvius as coming from the north by a third northwest.

Ancient physicians thought that when the sun was in this sign medicine was a poison, and even a bath equally harmful (!) while the weather-wise said that thunder foretold sedition and deaths of great men. The adoption of this animal’s form for a zodiac sign has fancifully been attributed to the fact that when the sun was among its stars in midsummer the lions of the desert left their accustomed haunts for the banks of the Nile, where they could find relief from the heat in the waters of the inundation and Pliny is authority for the statement that the Egyptians worshiped the stars of Leo because the rise of their great river was coincident with the sun’s entrance among them. For the same reason the great Androsphinx is said to have been sculptured with Leo’s body and the head of the adjacent Virgo although Egyptologists maintain that this head represented one of the early kings, or the god Harmachis. Distinct reference is made to Leo in an inscription on the walls of the Ramesseum at Thebes, which, like the Nile temples generally, was adorned with the animal’s bristles while on the planisphere of Denderah its figure is shown standing on an outstretched serpent. The Egyptian stellar Lion, however, comprised only a part of ours, and in the earliest records some of its stars were shown as a Knife, as they now are as a Sickle. Kircher gave its title there as Pimentekeon, Cubitus Nili…

Constellation Leo [Urania’s Mirror]

Thus throughout antiquity the animal and the constellation always have been identified with the sun, — indeed in all historic ages till it finally appears on the royal arms of England, as well as on those of many of the early noble families of that country. During the 12th century it was the only animal shown on Anglo-Norman shields…

Its symbol, , has been supposed to portray the animal’s mane, but seems more appropriate to the other extremity (the tail) the Hyginus of 1488 and the Albumasar of 1489 showing this latter member of extraordinary length, twisting between the hind legs and over the back, the Hyginus properly locating the star Denebola in the end but the International Dictionary, in a more scholarly way, says that this symbol is a corruption of the initial letter of Leon. Lajard’s Culte de Mithra mentions the hieroglyph of Leo as among the symbols of Mithraic worship, but how their Lion agreed, if at all, with ours is not known. [2]

Who can doubt the nature of the monstrous Lion, and the pursuits he prescribes for those born beneath his sign? The lion ever devises fresh fights and fresh warfare on animals, and lives on spoil and pillaging of flocks. The sons of the Lion are filled with the urge to adorn their proud portals with pelts and to hang up on their walls the captured prey, to bring the peace of terror to the woods, and to live upon plunder. There are those whose like bent is not checked by the city-gates, but they swagger about in the heart of the capital with droves of beasts they display mangled limbs at the shop-front, slaughter to meet the demands of luxury, and count it gain to kill. Their temper is equally prone to fitful wrath and ready withdrawal, and guileless are the sentiments of their honest hearts. [3]

Here we come to the end of the circle. We began with VIRGO, and we end with LEO. No one who has followed our interpretation can doubt that we have here the solving of the Riddle of the Sphinx. For its Head is VIRGO and its Tail is LEO! In LEO we reach the end of the Revelation as inspired in the Word of God and it is the end as written in the heavens. BAILLY (Astronomy) says, “the Zodiac must have been first divided when the sun at the summer solstice was in 1 o Virgo, where the woman’s head joins the Lion’s tail.”

As to its antiquity there can be no doubt. JAMIESON says, “the Lion does not seem to have been placed among the Zodiacal symbols, because Hercules was fabled to have slain the Nemean Lion. It would seem, on the contrary, that Hercules, who represented the Sun, was said to have slain the Nemean Lion, because Leo, was already a Zodiacal sign. Hercules flourished 3,000 years ago, and consequently posterior to the period when the summer solstice accorded with Leo” (Celestial Atlas, p. 40).

There is no confusion with this sign. In the ancient Zodiacs of Egypt (Denderah, Esneh) and India we find the Lion. The same occurs on the Mithraic monuments, where Leo is passant, as he is in Moor’s Hindu, and Sir William Jones’s Oriental Zodiacs. In Kircher’s Zodiacs he is courrant (running) in the Egyptian Zodiacs he is couchant (lying down). In the Denderah Zodiac he is treading upon a serpent, as shown in Mr Edward Cooper’s Egyptian Scenery. Its Egyptian name is Pi Mentekeon, which means the pouring out. This is no pouring out or inundation of the Nile, but it is the pouring out of the cup of Divine wrath on that Old Serpent.

This is the one great truth of the closing chapter of this last Book. It is THE LION OF THE TRIBE OF JUDAH AROUSED FOR THE RENDING OF THE PREY. His feet are over the head of Hydra, the great Serpent, and just about to descend upon it and crush it. The three constellations of the Sign complete this final picture:

    , the old Serpent destroyed. , the Cup of Divine wrath poured out upon him. , the Bird of prey devouring him.

The Denderah picture exhibits all four in one. The Lion is presented treading down the Serpent. The Bird of prey is also perched upon it, while below is a plumed female figure holding out two cups, answering to Crater, the cup of wrath. The hieroglyphics read Knem, and are placed underneath. Knem means who conquers, or is conquered, referring to the victory over the serpent. The woman’s name is Her-ua, great enemy, referring to the great enemy for which her two cups are prepared and intended. The Syriac name is Aryo, the rending Lion, and the Arabic is Al Asad both mean a lion coming vehemently, leaping forth as a flame!

It is a beautiful constellation of 95 stars, two of which are of the 1st magnitude, two of the 2nd, six of the 3rd, thirteen of the 4th. The brightest star, α (on the Ecliptic), marks the heart of the Lion (hence sometimes called by the moderns, Cor Leonis, the heart of the Lion). Its ancient name is Regulus, which means treading under foot. The next star, β, also of the 1st magnitude (in the tip of the tail), is named Denebola, the Judge or Lord who cometh. The star γ (in the mane) is called Al Giebha (Arabic), the exaltation. The star δ (on the hinder part of the back) is called Zosma, shining forth.

Other stars are named Sarcam (Hebrew), the joining intimating that here is the point where the two ends of the Zodiacal circle have their joining. Another star has the name of Minchir al Asad (Arabic), the punishing or tearing of the Lion. Another is Deneb Aleced, the judge cometh who seizes. And another is Al Dafera (Arabic), the enemy put down. [4]

There’s a True Story Behind ‘The Mule’: The Sinaloa Cartel’s 90-Year-Old Drug Mule

The Lincoln pickup truck with Iowa plates was hurtling down Interstate 94, headed for Detroit. A dozen D.E.A. officers in unmarked cars were scattered along a 70-mile stretch, from Kalamazoo to Jackson, Mich. From on-ramps and overpasses, they watched traffic flash by as they tried to spot the truck. They believed it was carrying a major shipment of cocaine.

Special Agent Jeff Moore and his team in the Detroit field division had spent months investigating a local branch of the Sinaloa cartel, the world’s most notorious and powerful drug-trafficking ring, led by Joaquín Guzmán, known as El Chapo. With a sprawling network of distributors, couriers, wholesalers and street dealers, the organization had pumped thousands of kilos of cocaine from the Mexican border through Arizona safe houses and into Detroit. It was by every measure the biggest cocaine operation Detroit authorities had ever seen. In previous years, a significant bust might be a dozen kilos now the cartel was bringing in 200 kilos a month.

Moore’s colleagues had wiretapped 11 phones and had spent so many hours listening to the drug traffickers’ coded Spanish conversations that they knew all the leadership’s tics: The wholesaler called Juanito had a goofy, childlike giggle the courier called Tata was sometimes the butt of their jokes. The cartel exclusively used nicknames in most cases, its members didn’t even know one another’s real names — they were simply Gordito, Primo, Cuatro, Viejo.

The organization worked with Detroit’s biggest drug dealers, people like Antonio (Pancho) Simmons, a fearsome, one-legged man with a long criminal record. But in some ways, it was the couriers driving across the country’s highways, their cars’ hidden compartments packed with kilos of drugs, who played the most crucial role. And no courier had been more prolific than Tata, the one driving the Lincoln pickup on Oct. 21, 2011. Tata had become a one-man cocaine fountain, working on a scale the Detroit D.E.A.'s office had never encountered. According to the cartel’s handwritten drug ledgers that the government obtained, he delivered 246 kilos in February 2010 250 kilos in March another 250 kilos the next month 200 kilos the next and another 200 the next. “Before you know it,” Moore said, “he’s an urban legend.”


He always drove alone and had managed to avoid detection for nearly a decade. The D.E.A. agents listened to key cartel figures talk about Tata many times, and they had even caught a glimpse of him once. Now, for the first time in months, Tata was coming back to Detroit.

The D.E.A. officer David Powell was the first to spot the pickup that October day — at 3:13 p.m., not far from Kalamazoo. Powell “maintained the eye,” following the truck from about a half-mile behind. As they barreled toward Detroit, Powell called out the mile markers on the radio so that the other D.E.A. agents along the highway could join the ever-growing procession as the courier passed their waiting spots.

Tata wasn’t driving fast, but he was swerving erratically. At one point, “he cut so close to a semi, I thought he was going to rip the front of his truck off,” Moore said.

Had Tata learned of the sting? Was he trying to lose them? At 3:56 p.m., the truck suddenly cut across traffic and sped toward Exit 97, sending the D.E.A. agents scrambling. Several D.E.A. cars roared past the exit. They spotted the pickup in a hotel parking lot near a Steak ‘n Shake. The agents were nervous. “Was this guy so good that he spotted surveillance?” Moore wondered.

After a few minutes, the truck pulled out from the hotel and slowly headed back toward the Steak ‘n Shake. The agents watched as the driver found the drive-through, pulled in and ordered French fries and an Orange Freeze milkshake. With his shake in hand, Tata headed back to the highway, and the pursuit continued.

Cartel leaders expected the courier at 6:30 p.m. “Mi tata was delayed by a train, another half-hour,” one of them said on a wiretapped phone call that day. But he would never arrive. At 5:45 p.m., State Trooper Craig Ziecina, who was working with the D.E.A., threw on his siren. In order to avoid compromising the investigation, the plan was to handle the stop like a routine traffic violation. Ziecina pulled the truck over for tailgating while Moore and the other agents watched from nearby.

Instead of waiting for the trooper to get out of his patrol car, the driver of the pickup opened his door and gingerly climbed out. If the D.E.A. was correct, this was Tata, the most formidable courier of them all.

The driver was wearing a plaid shirt with khaki pants, white socks and brown shoes. His hair was unkempt, his gait uncertain. He was unshaven and had thick white mutton chops. He carried his glasses with both hands and cupped his ear at the trooper’s instructions. He looked old enough to be Ziecina’s grandfather.

“What’s going on, officer?” the man asked. “At age 87, I want to know why I’m being stopped.”

The truck was a mess — the back seat was covered by a mound of food wrappers, cheese-puff bags, half-eaten sandwiches, crumpled newspapers, a milk bottle and an old bag of golf clubs.

The trooper asked for the driver’s license and registration. “He began to ramble about his age and took a very long time to produce any of the requested information,” Ziecina wrote in his report about the incident. The man seemed confused about what day it was.

The trooper patted him down while the driver found his wallet, and inside it, his license. His name was Leo Sharp, born in 1924. He was a World War II veteran and a great-grandfather. He had no criminal record.

The trooper asked if he was carrying any weapons. “Weapons? At age 87? For what? Officer, please!”

Sharp kept talking — he told the trooper he owned an airline in the 1970s and had lived in Florida, Hawaii, Indiana and Iowa. He said he was in the business of hybridizing plants. “I create new plant hybrids to make the world a better place,” he told the trooper.

Sharp said he was on his way to visit an old war buddy, Vanvelder. But he couldn’t remember Vanvelder’s first name. (“I’ve always called him Van.”) Or his address. Or his phone number.

Ziecina asked Sharp if he was carrying any drugs. “No, sir,” Sharp replied. He said he would prefer that the trooper not search his car so he could kindly be on his way. “I need to get where I’m going before dark, officer,” he said. “I don’t drive very well after it gets dark.”

Ziecina told him he could leave as soon as a colleague’s drug dog cleared the truck. Sharp was so nervous that an artery on his neck was visibly throbbing, Ziecina noted in his report.

The drug dog, Apollo, arrived and expressed great interest in the covered truck bed. Sharp said he didn’t have the keys — he said his sister in Iowa had them — and it had been days since he last opened it.

The troopers told him that Apollo’s response gave them probable cause to search the truck. “Why don’t you just kill me and let me, just, leave the planet,” Sharp said.

As they pried open the locked cover, Sharp was caught on the trooper’s recorder saying, quietly, “Oh, my God.”

What the troopers found amid piles of old clothes and food wrappers were five duffel bags. And inside the duffel bags were 104 kilos of cocaine.

Leo Sharp, the most prolific drug mule that regional law enforcement had ever tracked, was placed under arrest. The Sinaloa cartel’s nickname for him was well chosen. They called him Tata. Grandfather.

Day-lily people like to say that they see themselves in their flowers. Orchids are too fragile, too precious — all that care, all that expense. Roses are too cliché. But day lilies, in their endless varieties of color, shape and size, are hearty antidotes to “fussy little plants,” writes Sydney Eddison, a lily connoisseur, in her book, “A Passion for Daylilies: The Flowers and the People.” They are “upfront, beautiful and sexy.”

Day lilies typically have a few dozen buds, each of which blooms for just one day. Part of their appeal is how easy they are to hybridize. Simply pluck out the male part, brush the pollen on another flower’s female part, and voilà: a unique, new flower will bloom with traits you have selected — green ruffles, yellow dots, tiny petals, blue stripes. There are 75,378 different day lilies officially registered with the American Hemerocallis Society.

Day-lily admirers are as intense as boxing fans, arguing passionately about the beauty and staying power of this or that varietal. And Leo Sharp is their Don King — a widely admired hybridizer with nearly 180 officially registered day lilies to his name.

For years, Sharp attended day-lily conventions across the country dressed in either an all-white leisure suit or an all-black one. He traveled with an entourage of Mexican farmhands to help with the hundreds of flowers he would give away, making his admirers swoon.

“The people who do lilies are way cooler than other plant people,” said Nikki Schmith, a gardener in Worden, Ill., who writes a day-lily blog. “He was just a stud. He just had the air. He had 70-year-old swagger.” Schmith has more than a dozen of Sharp’s day lilies in her own garden. She has won Best in Show in a regional contest with his flowers two years in a row.

“His flowers had almost a porcelain characteristic,” she said. “They all share that very refined form. It’s exactly like fashion. You can pick out some hybridizers by looking at the flowers they introduce.”

Sharp was known for producing relatively small flowers with eye-popping yellows, reds and pinks. His greatest hit was arguably the Ojo Poco, a 2½-inch apricot-colored flower with a red bull’s-eye at the center that he introduced in 1994. “Anyone who has over 100 day lilies in their garden would recognize it by sight,” Kevin P. Walek, a former president of the A.H.S., said.

Day-lily enthusiasts used to make pilgrimages to Sharp’s flower farm near Michigan City, Ind., a quiet vacation town on the shore of Lake Michigan where he has lived for decades, and to his southern farm in Apopka, Fla., which calls itself “the indoor foliage capital of the world.”

Sharp’s neighbors in Michigan City remember buses filled with customers idling outside his front gate waiting to buy his signature flowers, almost all named after his business, Brookwood Gardens. There was Brookwood Black Kitten, Brookwood Sweetie Face, Brookwood Barely Pink, Brookwood Pink Sometimes, Brookwood Pink Pinup, Brookwood Right Now, Brookwood Ambivalent and Brookwood Wow.

The world of day lilies belonged to him, one gushing profile in a day-lily newsletter declared in 2009. Little did they know that this “accomplished hybridizer and most generous man” was in all likelihood already working as one of the cartel’s primary couriers. “By mid-2010, he had already brought 1,100 kilos here to Detroit,” said Chris Graveline, the assistant U.S. attorney assigned to Sharp’s case.

Sharp traveled across the country for day-lily speaking engagements and conventions, but federal authorities say they believe he made time to visit Mexico for his other line of work. “Bosses in Mexico know of the Grandfather,” Moore said.

According to one theory, it was the Internet that turned Leo Sharp from a day-lily farmer into a cocaine courier. For years, he had produced an annual color catalog of all of his new day lilies, a lush production that his admirers held onto as keepsakes. The 1995 edition was a classic, with 24 new Brookwood day lilies, including the Rose Carver, a delicate variety with lavender petals and a green heart.

The catalogs were a hit — until they weren’t. Of all the industries that the Internet reshaped, few gained as little notice as the day-lily market. But if true love, one-night stands, Nike sneakers and new refrigerators could be found on the Internet, why not day lilies?

“I knew Leo right at the rise of day lilies on the Internet,” Schmith, the day-lily blogger, said. “We had lots of conversations about how he was going to get in. But he never went electronic. He always stayed on paper.” His catalog business dried up. The publication got thinner and thinner, and sometime in the late ‘90s, devolved to black and white.

Sharp’s lawyer, Darryl A. Goldberg, said that it was unclear precisely when Sharp began working with the cartel, but he believed it started at the day-lily farm. “He has Mexican fellas working on the farms,” Goldberg said. “They happen to know people who introduced him to other people who asked him if he wanted to get involved in something.” His first assignments were to ferry cash, he said. “And then it morphed into something bigger.”

Law-enforcement authorities said the cartel deliberately recruited couriers who played against type. Walter Ogden, a 57-year-old man from Oklahoma, was another trusted driver. Ogden has been on disability since 2010 and has had four heart attacks, according to his lawyer. He was a former heavy-equipment operator for an excavation company in Oklahoma City and, like Sharp, had no criminal record.

“Leo is the perfect courier for the cartel,” said Special Agent Jeremy Fitch, one of the D.E.A. agents who worked the case. “He has a legitimate ID, he’s an older guy, he wouldn’t be pegged as a drug runner and he has no criminal history.”

It’s easy to see how the work might have been tempting: Couriers were generally paid $1,000 per kilo, so Sharp would have made $104,000 on the trip where he was arrested and a total of more than $1 million in 2010.

Sharp’s gardening friends still search for clues as to what happened. Gisela Meckstroth, the former head of the Great Lakes region of the A.H.S., points to a Hispanic farmhand who traveled with Sharp to a flower symposium in Cleveland around 2005. “In retrospect you look back and you say, ‘What was he doing there with his manager?’ ” she said. “What was that all about? No one else traveled like that with a manager.”

Prosecutors are less interested in what caused Sharp to go into business with the cartel. “The defendant clearly chose his role in this conspiracy for two reasons,” they wrote. “(1) he saw nothing wrong with the trafficking of cocaine and (2) greed.”

The Detroit D.E.A. office is in a nondescript building a block from the federal courthouse. A triple-beam scale rests on a desk next to overstuffed files, and a particularly great “Scarface” poster, complete with a cutout for a fake machine gun, looms over their computers. “Every house we hit has a ‘Scarface’ poster,” Moore said.

Moore has short, spiky dark hair and a thin goatee. At 43, he is fairly certain that the Sinaloa investigation will be the biggest of his career. “I’ll never see another case like this,” he said, sounding a bit wistful, as we drove around Detroit on a recent afternoon, visiting the cartel’s old haunts. (One of them, an excellent taqueria in Mexicantown, had served as a meeting point both for D.E.A. agents and drug couriers.)

Moore started out as a street cop in Kansas City, Mo., working domestic disputes and traffic violations. Eventually he made his way to narcotics, where he worked undercover. He grew his hair long, stopped shaving and visited every crack house in town, usually with a prostitute in tow. Kansas City crack houses all had the same basic protocol, Moore said: As soon as you entered, you were greeted with a smoldering crack pipe and a demand that you smoke it to prove you were not a cop.

The art of the undercover assignment lies in delivering an excuse that doesn’t get you shot: My kid is waiting in the car I have a drug test in the morning I’m on my way to work. Moore’s identity was never revealed. “Most fun I ever had,” he said.

When Moore joined the D.E.A. in Detroit in 2004, he was eager to put his undercover expertise to the test. On his first undercover assignment, he tried to buy a few thousand dollars’ worth of heroin in a McDonald’s parking lot. It did not go well. The dealer stuck a gun to his head and led the police on a high-speed car chase. Moore never worked undercover again.

The Sinaloa case began in the summer of 2011 with a routine bust involving two kilograms of cocaine. That bust led to a dealer named Tusa, whom Moore tried to turn into an informant. During their first and only conversation, Tusa mentioned the name of a local heavyweight: Ramon Ramos. Moore had never heard the name before. A few days later, he tried to follow up with Tusa, but it was too late — his informant had already disconnected his phone and moved back to Mexico.

Moore began investigating Ramos, trailing him across Detroit. After six months, Moore got a search warrant for Ramos’s house and found more than $350,000 in cash. It could have ended there, but Ramos said he was the bookkeeper for a trafficking ring that was part of the Sinaloa cartel. And he was willing to cooperate in the hope that agents would help him get immunity and enter the witness-protection program.

Informants are often low-level functionaries with few contacts beyond their immediate handlers, but Ramos knew everyone in the Detroit cell. As he opened up his ledgers, recorded in codes and symbols, he offered a paper trail that allowed the D.E.A. to diagram a far-flung network that, until now, they didn’t even know existed.

“It’s kind of like you got Al Capone’s accountant,” Chris Graveline, the U.S. attorney, said.

To show that he was serious, Ramos told them about a coming meeting. In a few days, he said, a courier driving an R.V. would pick up nearly $2 million in drug proceeds at 9:30 a.m. from a warehouse in Wyandotte, Mich. Moore was skeptical — they almost never saw such a major transaction.

This wasn’t a major transaction, Ramos said. It was routine.

At the appointed time, from inside a surveillance van parked a block away, Moore locked his binoculars on the warehouse. It was utterly anonymous, a plain one-story building opposite a quiet park in a blue-collar suburb. “We would never know about this place,” Moore said as he showed me the building. “There’s nothing suspicious about it.”

Waiting at the warehouse was Teddy Czach, who ran McCaffery’s, a well-known Irish bar in Lincoln Park with a ye-olde-pub design and $2 Long Island iced teas. According to Moore, Czach was once an important person for the cartel, but Ramos had replaced him as the main bookkeeper. (Czach’s lawyer did not respond to a request for comment.)

Moore watched an R.V. turn onto the quiet street and nose into the warehouse’s garage door. The driver, Walter Ogden, the retiree from Oklahoma, got out, and Czach helped him load some duffel bags. A “routine” traffic stop after the R.V. drove away confirmed it: Ogden had picked up $1.96 million, just as Ramos said he would. Law-enforcement officials arrested Ogden — “that’s a tremendous amount of money to let walk,” Moore said — without revealing to the cartel that they now had an inside source.

Over the next six months, Moore and Ramos met twice a week in parking lots outside Walmart, Home Depot or Lowe’s. The organization generally worked like this, Ramos told him: Senior cartel leaders in Mexico would send the drugs to a house in Tucson, where a contact known as Viejo, the head of Detroit distribution, would hire a courier to drive the drugs to Ramos and other cartel members in Michigan. They would then sell it to Detroit’s biggest drug dealers, people like Pancho, the one-legged distributor. Pancho could have been the target of his own major D.E.A. investigation but this case was so big that Pancho sat somewhere on the third tier of suspects. (His lawyer disputed that he was one of the largest drug dealers in Detroit.)

Ramos proved to be the ideal informant. While he was taking a tremendous risk in working with the D.E.A., he was perhaps less vulnerable than most. Authorities will not say where he is from, but he is not Mexican and, Graveline said, he may have felt somewhat less fearful because “his family is not down in Sinaloa country.”

With Moore listening in, Ramos would call cartel leaders in Mexico to discuss coming shipments. He agreed to wear video-recording devices into his meetings at Untouchables, an auto-body shop, and to the various parking lots where he met dealers in parked cars. It was Ramos who first told Moore about the elderly courier the cartel liked to work with. He only knew him as Tata.

On Sept. 17, 2011, Ramos met with Tata at Czach’s warehouse. It was Moore’s first sighting of Sharp. “I was kind of surprised that he seemed like he was in pretty good health,” Moore said. “When you hear 87 years old, you think of someone in a wheelchair. He was in good shape.”

While several men loaded up his truck with three duffel bags filled with cash, Tata cracked jokes about the drive and told the group that his doctor told him he would live to be 100. After the car was packed and Sharp was preparing to drive off, he asked Ramos to take some Georgia onions.

Onions? Moore had spent countless hours decoding the secret language of the cartel — cocaine was called food, heroin was called fea. Onions was a new one. Was it opium? Weapons?

“Onions,” Moore said. “We thought it was kind of weird at first.” But onions were not a code for anything. The Grandfather was talking about a bag of vegetables.

At Detroit’s federal courthouse last month, it was hard to square the prosecutor’s descriptions of Sharp’s crimes — “the amount of wrecked lives is staggering” — with the kindly old man with crepe-paper skin slouching at the defense table, so hard of hearing that his lawyer had to stage-whisper his sotto voce counsel: “I’m going to have you stand for a minute!” In a previous court appearance, Sharp apologized to a frustrated magistrate judge that he had lost “a terrific amount” of his hearing. “My doctor said I was too near a cannon during the war,” he said.

Sharp wore a baggy black suit, and his hair was a shock of dandelion fluff. He had watery eyes and a nervous habit of chuckling to himself every few minutes. He fidgeted at the defense table, waiting for the judge to enter. He pulled out an overstuffed leather wallet to show photos of his daughter in Hawaii to courtroom officers. “They live in a good place,” he said in a froggy voice. “It’s paradise.” The court officers nodded politely. During another break, he leaned back at the defense table and belched. Twice.

One fundamental question looming over the case is whether Leo Sharp was savvy or senile. His lawyer, Darryl Goldberg, argues that merciless criminals took advantage of a sick old man slipping further into dementia every day. A prison sentence would amount to a death sentence, he said. “This is a man who has lived an exemplary life, and then at old age he started suffering from dementia,” Goldberg said. “The hallmark of dementia is poor judgment and poor decision-making.”

Goldberg submitted to the court a neuropsychological assessment conducted by Dr. Mary F. Zemansky, an Indiana psychologist, that found Sharp’s profile to be “consistent with dementia, demonstrated by a significant loss of information over short time periods.”

Goldberg argued that Sharp was coerced into working as a courier — a claim Sharp first made in an early court appearance. “You’re dealing here with a man who was forced to do what I did by gunpoint,” Sharp told a magistrate judge not long after he was arrested.

Was a gun really pulled? Goldberg acknowledges that if it was, it was late in the relationship with the cartel, not at the beginning. But he said that Sharp wanted out of the drug-running business and that the cartel wouldn’t let him leave. He points to a conversation caught on wiretap a few days before Sharp was arrested about whether the Grandfather would make another run.

“I mean, he doesn’t want to really, the old man,” Viejo said. “He . . . isn’t afraid, right?”

An associate said that the Grandfather might in fact be frightened.

“Brainwash him some there,” Viejo said. “So once he gets there, he’ll go on and grab the kit.”

“I hope the old man will,” he added. “Sometimes he gets testy.”

Goldberg says the recordings speak for themselves: A sick old man was being exploited. “I’m not saying dementia is his excuse, but it certainly explains a little bit about how he got involved with these folks,” he said.

Prosecutors scoff at the notion that Sharp was forced into being a drug mule. The D.E.A. has photos of Sharp and Viejo, one of the senior leaders of the Detroit ring, vacationing together in Hawaii. The repeat trips, the chumminess, the sheer volume of cocaine — it all points to a man in control, prosecutors argue.

“Leo is a sharp guy,” Graveline said. “At no point was it, ‘Oh, we’ll take advantage of this guy.’ They had been working with him for a decade. They knew him.”

Sharp drove cross-country routes on his own that would have exhausted men half his age — on his last trip, he went from Florida to North Carolina to Arizona to Michigan, all in eight days. He was also more trusted than nearly every other courier. Typically, a drug courier parks his car with the keys inside and leaves it in a hotel parking lot. A different person drives it away. Several hours later, the courier returns to find the car packed with drugs. He never sees anyone’s face.

Sharp was different. His trips often began in Tucson, where there are several drug houses near one another, law-enforcement officials said. One is filled with product for Chicago one for Boston one for Detroit. Sharp would begin his cross-country journeys at Tucson’s Detroit house. That’s almost unheard-of in the world of couriers. “That’s a huge risk,” Moore said. “You can tell there’s a long history of trust.”

As effective and trusted as Sharp was as a courier, there were signs that he was becoming a liability for the cartel. During one leg of his final trip, Moore said, he dropped his truck off at a repair shop with the cocaine still inside it. And when he was making runs for the cartel, a contact had to meet him at the exit ramp and guide him through the streets around Detroit to the drop spot. No other courier required that service.

His hygiene had deteriorated, a common indicator of dementia. “Could he be losing his sharpness over the years?” Graveline asked. “Possibly.”

Sometimes the cartel called him El Viejito, the little old man. More often it was Mi Tata, my grandpa. He was particularly close with Viejo. But Viejo teased Sharp as well. In a wiretapped call, Viejo joked that Tata was happy because “he’s getting teeth put in in the next few days.” (These weren’t code words. The cartel leaders were discussing their courier’s dentures.) Just days before Sharp’s arrest, they poked fun at his forgetfulness. “What did the old man tell you?” Viejo asked. The other cartel member replied, laughing, “He wanted to verify what he had told me because he couldn’t remember.”

Despite trips to Indiana and Michigan, and months of requests for an interview with Sharp, Goldberg ultimately decided not to let me speak to his client — not on the record, off the record, with lawyers present or with ground rules. I never figured out whether he was worried Sharp was too senile for an interview or not senile enough.

But before Goldberg made that decision, I introduced myself while he and Sharp were sitting on a bench outside the courtroom. “This man is very interested in your life, Leo,” Goldberg said to his client, speaking slowly and emphatically.

The Trials of Apollo

The Hidden Oracle

Six months after Gaea's 'death', Leo, Calypso, and Festus finally return to Camp Half-Blood after the camp is almost destroyed by the Colossus Neronis. The campers take numbers from Nico di Angelo, so they could both welcome Leo back and punch him, as well as a few campers he never met and Chiron (with Nico himself being the last one to do so). After some discussion, Leo and Calypso decide to go on the quest with the former god Apollo. He was given extreme love and anger and was keen on finding Jason and Piper. 

The Dark Prophecy

Leo, along with Apollo and Calypso, lands in Indianapolis. He stops Festus from burning the state flag on the capital building. He asks Apollo if he senses Meg or the Oracle, but he does not. He notices Festus is functioning strangely and sets him on the ground before turning the dragon off, but not before his clothing is burned off leaving the son of Hephaestus in his underwear in public. He says they if they can find a machine shop, they can leave in about half a day. They are approached by a woman named Nanette who identifies and grabs Apollo. When Calypso frees the former god, she goes to check up on his wounded girlfriend. The woman is then revealed to be a Blemmyae working for Triumvirate Holdings, who then calls for back up. He helps Calypso again after she breaks her ankle kicking Nanette. He tries to go back for Festus, but Apollo tells him they would be captured if they do so. They head to an alley where a headless ghost tells them to go somewhere. They are soon cornered by their headless hunters. Leo asks Apollo and Calypso to distract the blemmyae while he heads softly for the bulldozer the headless foes brought with them. He reaches the bulldozer and blinds the driver. The three try to get away, but Nanette catches up to them. Leo throws a fireball at her, but she eats it. Before anything can happen to them, Nanette is killed by an arrow. They see a woman who takes out all the blemmyae. She introduces herself as Emmie and tells them to come with her to the Waystation.

They arrive, and as Emmie takes Calypso to the infirmary, she tells them to head to Josephine. They meet up with the other woman, whom he almost immediately bonds with over a shared love of machinery. She explains who founded the Waystation and what it is used for before going back to her wielding and telling her guests to make themselves at home. He goes to talk with Josephine when Apollo passes out while having a vision. He and the others watch over him during this time. The trio learns that Emmie and Josephine's adoptive daughter, Georgie, has been taken by Triumvirate Holdings. They also find out that he fits into an eight-year-old's clothes, much to Josephine's amusement. The five prepare and eat lunch while Josephine and Emmie explain the condition of the cave of Trophonius and their abducted guests. They hear a banging coming from the roof. The ex-hunters go to investigate while Leo and the others stay put. The three do the dishes while Apollo tells the ritual to gain a prophecy from Trophious. Leo suggests he reprogram Festus, but Calypso scolds him for think technology can fix everything. They then find Apollo trapped in a net by the net goddess Britomartis. The goddess tells the trio of the emperor's plan to rename the city and kill Apollo and Georgina in three days. He disarms her traps during the conversation. She sends Apollo, Andy, and Calypso to the city zoo to free her griffins and tells Leo to say and work on the Waystation's defenses. After they tell the ex-hunters what Britomartis told them, they have their guests do chores with Leo cleaning out the griffin's nest. They eat dinner and send him and Apollo to a separate wing from Calypso. The son of Hephaestus tells Apollo that he feels Calypso sometimes blames him for her lack of powers at times before going to bed. He is left asleep while his companions leave to free the griffins at the zoo.

He and Josephine get Calypso to the infirmary after she returns from freeing the griffins. He is enraged at the net goddess for channeling her power through Calypso. Josephine calms him down before Britomartis gives them the information they want. He is told to go with Apollo and Meg McCaffrey to the river to find a back entrance into Commodus's palace. When learning that Lityerses will be there, he eagerly agrees to go. After the goddess leaves, Meg says the god-emperor's name while Leo and the others tell her to stop.

The next day he, Apollo, and Meg head to Canal walk and take a pedal boat down the river. He asks Apollo why he was so quiet and understood why he drowned Commodus. The trio sees a monster under the river and proceeds with caution. They find the entrance, but they are attacked by the Carthaginian Serpent. He tries to open the gate while Apollo and Meg fend off the serpent. He opens the door and they slay the serpent and head into Commodus's lair. They wade until they see an alcove to dry off on before continuing. He opens a second door while Apollo and Meg stand watch. They enter and find Commodus planning to attack the Waystation by the next morning. After the god-emperor leaves, the three devise a plan of action. They locate the prison, and he and Meg take out the guard. He then opens the door. He melts the Plexiglas of the cells, letting the prisoners go free. He takes the prisoners and Festus back to the Waystation while Apollo and Meg find the Throne of Memory. Leo flies in on Festus as part of the reinforcements along with the Hunters of Artemis. He reluctantly takes Lityerses with him when retreating.

He was working on Festus when Apollo returned and headed the message. After he pointed out the part about Commodus, Literyses says Commodus pout a tracer on the griffins and is going to destroy the Waystation the next morning. He and Josephine have been working on the Waystation's defenses in preparation for the battle. After talking with Emmie and Josephine, he and Calypso decided they want to stay at the Waystation and live normal lives. 

He set up mines to stop bulldozers before the battle but was taken hostage by Commodus along with Emmie and Georgie. He looks to Apollo to see if he has a plan when the mortal god goes into his Divine Form and blinds the emperor, he helps Emmie and Georgie getaway. After the battle he and Josephine rebuilt Festus.

During dinner, he volunteers to fly on Festus to Camp Jupiter to warn them of their impending attack. He reassures Calypso that he will be back in time for the spring semester. The next morning he is arguing with her about what to pack.

The Burning Maze

Leo makes it to Camp Jupiter twenty-four hours in advance and warns them about the attack. After the legion takes numbers to punch and hug him, they use his semi-advanced warning to prepare for the attack. He and Festus burn the undead forces of Tarquin and help the legion gain a narrow victory.

He and Festus arrive at an airfield in Santa Monica but is distraught over Jason’s death, wishing he could have seen the son of Jupiter one last time. He then discusses what happened during the attack on Camp Jupiter. He says the Twelfth Legion Fulminata managed to ward off the attack, however, there were many casualties (minus Frank, Reyna, and Hazel) and the camp is in ruins. The son of Hephaestus insists on taking Piper McLean to Oklahoma on his way back to Indiana.

The Tyrant’s Tomb

Frank Zhang mentions how the son of Hephaestus’s warning gave them a slight advantage over the attack, and that the legion took numbers to stand in line and punch him.

The Tower of Nero

After becoming a god again, Apollo visits the Waystation where Leo has just returned from a day of doing community service teaching homeless kids at a shelter shop skills. Leo compares the kids to himself, stating that they've never had much and he can at least show them that somebody cares. Leo is also pleased that some of them are excellent mechanics. Apollo questions if Leo wouldn't need a shop or tools, but Leo explains that he has Festus who makes a great mobile shop. Also, while most of the kids only see the bronze dragon as a truck due to the Mist, some of them are capable of seeing his true form. Passing by, Jo comments that Leo is doing good and he has a lot of potential.

Apollo asks about Calypso, causing a flurry of emotions to pass over his face, causing Apollo to realize that Leo is more lovesick than ever and that things are still complicated with Calypso. Leo states that Calypso is enjoying going to high school and is currently working as a counselor at a mortal band camp for the summer. Apollo notices that Leo is clearly worried, clearly missing her and possibly having nightmares about all the hot clarinet player counselors that Calypso might be hanging out with. With a forced smile, Leo states that its all good and that they'll make it work, suggesting that a little time apart to think might be good for them. Passing by, Reyna tells Apollo that she'd had to have a heart-to-heart with Leo and teach him about respecting women more. Reyna states that Leo grew up without a mom and as such, never learned these things, but he now has two foster moms and a big sister who isn't afraid to smack him if he gets out of line. Seeing how glum he still is, Reyna reassures Leo that Calypso will come around because Leo is a doofus sometimes, but he has a heart of Imperial gold.

Author: Anusha

Anusha Sankar, the head of LogoWhistle, is a passionate web designer at heart. A computer science graduate, she has associated herself with sketching and designing quite early in her life. As a self-learner, she began experimenting with logo designs from her home and made her way into the industry with sheer passion and talent. As a professional logo and web designer she has worked in hundreds of projects and have received accolades for her unique style and creativity. Through LogoWhistle, Anusha and her team are working on identifying, emphasizing and transforming logo design as a professional service in the industry. When she is not seen experimenting with colors and patterns, this working mom can be seen running her household and experimenting cuisines in her kitchen. View all posts by Anusha

Researching Costume Jewelry History, Companies and Signatures -“G”

Information and images contained in Researching Costume Jewelry (RCJ) were created by Illusion Jewels and are currently maintained and updated by Costume Jewelry Collectors Int’l (CJCI). Written permission by CJCI is needed to use any information obtained from RCJ in any other publication whether written or electronic.

see New England Glass Works
see New England Glass Works



  • Mark: Galanos Photo courtesy Plenty O’[email protected]
  • American fashion designer.


  • Mark: Image of a girl in evening dress with “Gale Creations” on the skirt — since July 1955 Photo courtesy www.shopgoodwill.com.
  • Mark: By Gale Photo courtesy Linda Lange.

GALL NOVELTY CO. — Dallas, TX c. 1955

  • Mark: ©Gall Photo courtesy David Pritchett.
  • Mark: Bubbleite – 1955 – extremely lightweight jewelry that almost looks like cooked meringue made in an assortment of colors with rhinestone accents ad seen in 1957 magazine.


  • Mark: Garicraft Courtesy Kathy Taylor.

GARNE – Jewelry NY, NY c. 1945�s

  • Mark: Garne Photo courtesy Beth Rowlands.
  • A 1946 ad from Harper’s showed a New York, New York address.




GELL, WENDY 1975- present

  • Mark: Wendy Gell in script Courtesy Cheryl Killmer
  • Mark: Wendy Gell © 1989 (block print) Courtesy Lilly Vittetow
  • Mark: Wendy Gell © Disney Co. (block print) Courtesy Lilly Vittetow
  • Mark: Wendy Gell © (block print) Courtesy Lilly Vittetow
  • Mark: Wendy Gell – hand etched script Courtesy Lilly Vittetow Courtesy Judy Miller
  • Did jewelry for Disney, Wizard of Oz, Roger Rabbit, Phantom of the Opera, and a Disney line for Napier
  • Currently designing and selling from site on the internet.

GEM-CRAFT CORP. — Providence/Cranston, RI c.1945 – present

  • Mark: Craft 1979 Photo courtesy Di Kemp.
  • Mark: Gemelli Jewelry marked Craft also appeared on cards marked Gemelli
  • Mark: Jewelcraft mark first used by Coro in 1920, now owned by Gem-Craft last renewed in 2006 (RCJ)
  • Mark: Attachables 1980
  • Mark: The Adjustable 1980
  • Mark: Anywear 1981
  • Founded by Gene and Alfeo Verri soon after the end of WWII.
  • Originally called Craftsman, then Sample Art.
  • Company also made jewelry for Oscar de la Renta, Kenneth J. Lane, Capri, R. Mandle, Tancer, Kramer, & Cadoro
  • After WWII Verri had his own jewelry company and worked for Coro at the same time.
  • Gene Verri (Verrecchia) worked for Coro as head designer for over 30 years, with many of their most famous designs to his credit.
  • Gem-Craft is currently operated by Ron Verri, Gene’s son.
  • Mark: Gem-Tone Hand Carved — 1946 Courtesy Gloria
  • Mark of C.L. Stuempges, Seattle, WA



  • Mark: General Mfg. Photo courtesy Stefanie Brawner.

GENO Division of Richelieu See JOSEPH MEYER


  • Mark: Georgiou Photo courtesy ID: justabunchawildflowers.
  • Probably the mark of the now defunct clothing store chain by that name.


  • Mark: ges.gesch. (Abbreviation of gesetzlich geschutt, a German phrase that translates as “legally protected” or “copyrighted.” Information courtesy of Pamela Wiggins Siegel)
  • Photo courtesy of Deb Schneider
  • Mark: Germany Courtesy RCJ
  • Mark: Made in Germany West Photo courtesy RCJ
  • Mark: Made in Germany Photo courtesy RCJ
  • Mark: W. Germany Photo courtesy RCJ
  • Mark: Western Germany Photo courtesy RCJ
  • Mark: Germany Sterling Photo courtesy RCJ
  • Mark: Photo courtesy of Cynthia Fore Miller
  • Mark: Germany US Zone Photo courtesy of Nona Grampp

GERRY’S c. early 1950s must have closed about 1996



GILBERT, JACK c . Sept. 1964


  • Mark: Ginnie Johansen Courtesy Lilly Vittetow
  • Contemporary


GIOVANNI, INC., Providence, RI

  • Mark: Giovanni first used April 1959


GIVENCHY Hubert de Givenchy 1952-present

  • Mark: Givenchy
  • Mark: Photo courtesy of Gail Gupton
  • Mark: Givenchy Bijoux Courtesy RCJ
  • Mark: Givenchy© Courtesy Lin Patterson
  • Givenchy began his fashion house is 1952 but did not add jewelry to his lines until the late 1960s. The house was sold to LVMH group (a company owning various luxury brands including Lous Vuitton) in 1988. He retired in 1995, and passed away in 2018 at the age of 91.

GLAMOUR GLAMOUR JEWELRY CO. 114 East 28th St., NY, NY c. 1946

  • Mark: Sterling by Glamour Courtesy JoAnn Crampton, ID oldpeoplesstuff
  • Have ad from 1946 that shows gold plated Sterling jewelry.


GLAMOR (block print) See CORO

GLAMOUR (script) See CORO


GLASS, LEO 1928-1957

  • Mark: Leo Glass Courtesy Cathy Gordon.
  • Mark: L G – c. 1941 Elizabeth Taylor MGM Star, Fashion Jewelry styled by Leo Glass Courtesy Aged and Opulent Jewelry
  • Founded by Leo Glass in NY in 1928. He had worked for Lisner 10 years prior to that. He was a manufacturer & importer. He went bankrupt in 1957.

GLENTEX c. Aug. 1967



GLORIA Gloria Jewelry

  • Mark: “Gloria” on paper hang tags
  • Jewelry was manufactured by DeLizza & Elster for Gloria Jewelry
  • Similar in style to “Juliana” which was also manufactured by DeLizza & Elster
  • Gloria Jewelry was owned by Ruth Stern.



  • Contemporary artist, she works in 24K gold or sterling silver over brass or white metal, semi-precious stones and fresh-water pearls.
  • Mark: Courtesy ID: eclecticgramma.



  • Mark: A. Goodman Photo courtesy MJ DeCourley of Crystal Violin.


  • Mark: Goossens, Paris Photo courtesy Carolyn Newhouse
  • Dates: c. 1950
  • Founded: Robert Goossens – b. 1927
  • Location: Paris, France
  • Notes: He designed jewelry for Coco Chanel, Yves Saint Laurent, Cristobal Balenciaga, Christian Dior
  • Notes: Goossens was purchased by Chanel in 2005


GRANDEUR (script) See CORO


  • Mark: David Grau Courtesy Dave
  • Mark: David Grau From the US Trademark site
  • First use 1988
  • Cancelled 2004



  • Mark: R.J. Graziano Photo courtesy Erik Yang.
  • Contemporary designer jewelry is sold through HSN, boutiques, and department stores.


  • Greenbaum Novelty Corp. is listed in a booklet for the “Handbag & Accessories Show” – January 1954.
  • See more information at the “Florida Featherweights” listing on RCJ.
  • Thanks to Elaine from Chatsworth Vintage for bringing Greenbaum to our attention.

GREENBERG CO., B.B. Providence, RI from at least 1962 until 1999

  • Mark: Mamselle first used June 1962 Photo courtesy ID: justabunchawildflowers.
  • Mark: Mamselle with Eiffle Tower first used Jan. 1968 Courtesy Robin Smith
  • In 1999 they petitioned to have a trademark removed from the books — info found in US Trademark documents by Robin Smith.

GRIFFITH, R.L. Providence, RI 1879 to at least 1981

  • Became part of JED Industries in 1981.
  • Mark: Sterling and “G” with an arrow through it Courtesy JhaRee.
  • Mark: The Golconda Gem
  • Mark: The Baroda Gem
  • Mark: “B” inside a gemstone ring
  • Information from Rainwater.






PAT SEAL: research files
DOTTY STRINGFIELD: research files
BOBYE SYVERSON: research files.
A TRIBUTE TO AMERICA by Carla and Roberto Brunialti
AMERICAN COSTUME JEWELRY by Carla and Roberto Brunialti
COPPER ART JEWELRY by Burkholz and Kaplan
COSTUME JEWELRY (2nd Ed.) by Harrice Simons Miller
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Personal Life, Marriage, Spouse & Kids

The 39-year-old man lives a happy married life with his wife in Manila, Philipines. Francis Leo Marcos got married to his wife on 22 July 2019. He has not yet revealed his wife’s name to the media. I’ll update soon if I will know his wife’s name.

Francis Leo Marcos with his wife

The couple has no child yet. Moreover, he likes to spend most of his time with his family. There is no information is available about his previous love life and affairs. Because of his busy work schedule, he is quite active on social media.

St. Leo I

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St. Leo I, byname Leo the Great, (born 4th century, Tuscany?—died November 10, 461, Rome Western feast day November 10 ([formerly April 11]), Eastern feast day February 18), pope from 440 to 461, master exponent of papal supremacy. His pontificate—which saw the disintegration of the Roman Empire in the West and the formation in the East of theological differences that were to split Christendom—was devoted to safeguarding orthodoxy and to securing the unity of the Western church under papal supremacy.

Consecrated on September 29, 440, as successor to St. Sixtus III, Leo, one of the few popes termed great, immediately worked to suppress heresy, which he regarded as the cause of corruption and disunity. Yet his most significant theological achievement was not his negative suppression of heresy but his positive formulation of orthodoxy.

His treatment of the monk Eutyches of Constantinople provides an example. The monk had founded Eutychianism, an extreme form of monophysitism holding that Christ had only one nature, his human nature being absorbed in his divine nature. Patriarch Flavian of Constantinople excommunicated Eutyches, who then appealed to Leo. After examining the case, Leo sent Flavian (449) his celebrated Tome, which rejected Eutyches’ teaching and presented a precise, systematic doctrine of Christ’s Incarnation and of the union of both his natures. In 451 the Council of Chalcedon (modern Kadikoy, Turkey), summoned to condemn Eutychianism, declared that Leo’s Tome was the ultimate truth. Furthermore, the council recognized Leo’s doctrine as “the voice of Peter.” Thus for the church Leo’s Tome established the doctrine that Christ’s natures coexist and his Incarnation reveals how human nature is restored to perfect unity with divine, or absolute, being.

Leo’s 432 letters and 96 sermons expound his precept of papal primacy in church jurisdiction. He held that papal power was granted by Christ to St. Peter alone, and that that power was passed on by Peter to his successors. In one letter, for example, he cautioned the Bishop of Thessalonica that although he had been entrusted with office and shared Leo’s solicitude, he was “not to possess the plenitude of power.”

Leo further enhanced the prestige of the papacy and helped to place Western leadership in its hands by dealing with invading tribes. He persuaded the Huns, a nomadic people terrorizing northern Italy, not to attack Rome (452), and the Vandals, a Germanic people, not to sack Rome when they occupied it three years later. Leo was declared a doctor of the church by Pope Benedict XIV in 1754.

The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica This article was most recently revised and updated by Melissa Petruzzello, Assistant Editor.

The Story of Hollywood’s Most Famous Lion

Leo the Lion has been the most regular star of MGM Pictures since it was founded on this day in 1924, and his roar is probably the sound most commonly associated with the studio.

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It’s one of the noises most reminiscent of the Golden Age of Hollywood, when Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer (generally known as MGM) was one of the biggest studios around. What better symbol than a lion?  But the first MGM lion was actually named Slats, not Leo, and he didn’t roar once in the “ bumper”–the technical term for the little clip that’s like a moving logo for each studio involved with a film. With the sang froid that befits movie royalty, Slats just looked around.  

That’s because Slats made his first appearance pre-sound. He was born at the Dublin Zoo and had previously appeared in the Goldwyn Pictures Corporation bumper, writes Matt Soniak for Mental Floss: ”Designer Howard Dietz chose the lion as a mascot as a tribute to his alma mater Columbia University and its athletic team, The Lions,” he writes. Volney Phifer, who was MGM’s choice animal wrangler, trained Slats. “The two became close, and when Slats died in 1936, Phifer had the body sent to his farm and buried it there, marking the grave with a granite slab and a pine tree to ‘hold down the lion’s spirit,’” Soniak writes.

After Slats came Jackie, who Phifer also trained. Jackie’s roar, which appeared on movies between MGM’s first sound feature in 1928 ( White Shadows in the South Seas) and 1956, was captured via gramophone. Jackie was also the first lion to appear in Technicolor, opening The Wizard of Oz.  

Several other lions have appeared in the MGM logo, according to Soniak: Tanner and George, followed by Leo, who has appeared in MGM’s logo from 1957 to today. In the 1980s, MGM trademarked the familiar lion’s roar, although that “sound mark” is now expired.

As Soniak notes, the MGM logo has received its share of official and unofficial spoofs, from the Marx brothers appear in the lion’s place to Mary Tyler Moore Enterprises adaptations featuring a kitten and even a tipsy lion at the start of Strange Brew. All these remixes are in line with the Latin motto that surrounds each Leo’s face in the logo: “Ars Gratia Artis” means “Art for Art’s Sake.”

Watch the video: Leo Marks interviewed on BBC HardTalk