Samuel Smith - History

Samuel Smith - History

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Smith, Samuel

Smith, Samuel (1752-1839) General: Smith traveled extensively through Europe as supercargo of one of his father's merchant ships. After the Battle of Lexington, he returned to America, and, in 1776, was appointed captain of the 6th company of Colonel William Smallwood's regiment of the Maryland line. He was commanded to go to Annapolis and seize Governor Robert Eden of Maryland on the basis of treasonous correspondence. When Smith arrived in Annapolis, however, the Committee of Safety forbad him from making the arrest because they claimed it would be an undue assumption of authority. Smith's regiment fought at the Battle of Long Island, the Battle of Harlem, and the Battle of White Plains, as well as the retreat from New Jersey. He was promoted to the rank of major, then lieutenant-colonel of the 4th Maryland regiment. He served with credit at the attack on Staten Island and at the Brandywine. At Fort Mifflin, Smith was seriously wounded, but nevertheless took part in the hardships of the winter at Valley Forge and at the Battle of Monmouth. After serving for three and a half years, he was reduced to poverty, and was forced to resign his commission, although he continued to serve in the Baltimore militia until the end of the Revolutionary War. The threat of war with France and England in 1794 led to Smith's appointment as brigadier-general of the militia of Baltimore, with the rank of major-general. Smith was elected a representative to Congress and a senator, and served a short term as Secretary of the Navy under President Thomas Jefferson. He fought in the War of 1812, helped found the Bank of Maryland, and was one of the projectors of the Washington monument and the Battle monument in Baltimore. Near the end of his life, he was elected mayor of Baltimore.

Sam Smith

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Sam Smith, in full Samuel Frederick Smith, (born May 19, 1992, London, England), British soul singer with a mellifluous voice who was noted for lyrics that subverted the notions of romantic love that defined popular soul music.

Smith was raised in Cambridgeshire, born to a father who was a truck driver and greengrocer and a mother who was a banker. Both parents encouraged Smith’s singing at a young age, after the budding vocalist impressed them with a rendition of Whitney Houston’s “My Love Is Your Love.” Smith pursued vocal training and soon appeared in local theatre productions and with Youth Music Theatre UK, going through six managers before ultimately moving to London at age 18 to pursue opportunities there.

The first big break came when Smith teamed with house duo Disclosure on the track “Latch,” which featured Smith’s liquid falsetto vocals astride an effervescent electronic beat. That recording was released in 2012 and emerged as a hit. The collaboration landed Smith a record deal. By early 2013 the singer had released “Lay Me Down,” the first single from Smith’s debut album, In the Lonely Hour. Smith’s vocals were also featured on the propulsive electronica track “La La La” (2013), by producer Naughty Boy. The breakout single from In the Lonely Hour, “ Stay with Me,” a keening falsetto ballad that wistfully implores a one-night stand for affection, became a radio staple following its release in 2014. Smith cited the influences of singers such as Houston and Aretha Franklin, who both propelled their powerful, soaring voices to the high end of their registers as they evoked love and loss. Those themes defined In the Lonely Hour, an album that Smith, who was homosexual, had composed in the wake of a romantic rejection by a heterosexual man.

The young vocalist steadily accrued accolades for dulcet stylings, earning comparisons to crooners ranging from Frank Sinatra to Adele. At the 2015 Grammy Awards, In the Lonely Hour was named best pop vocal album, and “Stay with Me” was awarded record of the year and song of the year. Smith was deemed best new artist.

The revelation in early 2015 that the singer had settled out of court with musician Tom Petty over melodic similarities between “Stay with Me” and Petty’s 1989 single “I Won’t Back Down” was tempered by a statement from the rocker expressing goodwill toward Smith and praising the quickness with which the situation was corrected. Also in 2015 Smith sang “Writing’s on the Wall,” which Smith wrote with Jimmy Napes, for the James Bond film Spectre the duo later won an Academy Award for best original song. During the acceptance speech, Smith misquoted an interview with actor Ian McKellen, incorrectly implying that Smith was the first openly gay man to win an Oscar. The singer expressed regret for the gaffe afterward and took a brief break from the spotlight. Smith’s second studio album, The Thrill of It All, was released in late 2017 and won both popular and critical praise. The song “Him,” a plea for acceptance of Smith’s love for a man, was especially acclaimed. In 2019 Smith announced a nonbinary identity and tweeted that “my pronouns are they/them.”

An American Family History

The State of Franklin was an unrecognized, independent state in what is now eastern Tennessee. It was created in 1784 with the intent of becoming the fourteenth state. Its first capital was Jonesborough. It existed for about four and a half years and then North Carolina re-assumed control.

Samuel Smith was born about 1755.

He married his cousin, Mary Smith.

Samuel Smith (1780),
George Smith (1784)
Jacob Smith (1785)
James Smith

In 1777 a Samuel Smith signed the 1777 Petition of Holston Men.

In 1779 a Samuel Smith was a Justice of the Peace in Sullivan County Tennessee.

In 1780, he was appointed to be a justice of the peace in Sullivan County, Tennessee.

March 20, 1787 a conference was held at Samuel Smith, Esq.'s house between Evan Shelby and John Sevier concerning the State of Franklin.

In 1781 Zebulon Smith substituted for Samuel in the militia.

Samuel Smith received land grants in Sullivan County, Tennessee:
1057 and 1086 in 1782
1446 in 1788

In 1786, Hawkins County was taken from Sullivan County, Tennessee. A Commission including Joseph Martin, James McNeil, John Duncan, William King, Evan Shelby, Samuel Smith, and John Scott were selected to find a site for the county courthouse. Apparently, they did nothing about it, and a new commission was named in 1795. (from Historical Sketches, Volume 10, 1976 by The Historical Society of Southwest Virginia)

In 1791 Samuel received a land grant in Hawkins County.

  • Begining at a pine and black oak on his own line
  • thence south thirty four West one hundred poles to a dogwood pine and Sowerwood
  • thence North sixty seven West two hundred and eighty poles to a stake
  • thence north forty East one hundred and ninty two poles to his Corner duble Chesnut on the top of a ridge thence south forty five East two hundred and eighty poles to the Begining

To all to whom these presents shall come greeting Know ye that we for and in Consideration of the sum of fifty shillings for every hundred acres here by granted paid into our treasury by Samuel Smith have given and granted and by these presents do give and grant unto Samuel Smith a tract of land Containing six hundred and thirty acres [630]

lying and being in our County of Sullivan on the south side of Holston River on hickory Creek

Great with a bowl of mixed nuts, with sharp cheeses, or with a classic molé sauce entrée. For dessert, try with complementary white, milk or dark chocolate hazelnut biscotti or chocolate mousse. Contrast with citrus crème caramel or vanilla ice cream. A glass of Organic Chocolate Stout is a treat with an addition of 10% Lindemans Framboise lambic. Serve at 50 °F.

Gold Medal - US Open 2019. "Chocolate/Cocoa Beer" as announced July 9, 2019. Here is the full list of winners.

4/5 Stars, Highly Recommended, Spirit Journal, December 2016

Best Chocolate Beers, Men's Journal

95 points - "immediately attractive and well-balanced." Wine Enthusiast Magazine, Dec. 2014. Full review here.

Five out of five stars, Celebrator Beer News, October/November 2014.

Gold Medal - World Beer Championships (March, 2013)

Five of five mugs, "Superb," Modern Brewery Age, Dec. 10, 2012.

The Wellfleet Tavern Site - Great Island - Wellfleet

Plate spoon, Great Island Tavern.

Historic period archaeological sites, mainly small farmsteads widely spaced and linearly arranged along small, east-west running valleys, exist throughout the outer Cape. The initial European settlement of the outer Cape occurred about 1644 when colonists from Plymouth relocated in Eastham. Historical research tells us that fishing, whaling, trading, and farming all were important for these new inhabitants of the outer Cape. One unique site that can be visited is the Wellfleet Tavern site (also known as Samuel Smith Tavern Site and Great Island Tavern site) on Great Island, part of the headland that now forms an outer boundary of Wellfleet Harbor. The site was excavated in 1969 and 1970 by archeologists Erik Ekholm and James Deetz. Analysis of the artifacts collected by Ekholm and Deetz indicate activity at the site between 1690 and 1740. The artifact types found at the site relate to its designation as a tavern, including high percentages of drinking vessels, pipe stems, and other kinds of glassware.

The park's Great Island Trail passes by the Wellfleet Tavern site. Interpretive displays describing and illustrating ancient and historic inhabitants and ways of life on Cape Cod can be found at the National Park Service Salt Pond Visitor Center, at the corner of Route 6 and Nauset Road, Eastham.

Samuel Smith - History

"SAMUEL SMITH , called Lieutenant Samuel after his appointment in 1663, was born in England, probably near Hadleigh in Suffolk, in 1601 or 1602 where he married about1624 one Elizabeth who d. in So. Hadley, Mass., Mar. 16,1686, age 84. He died in Hadley Massachusetts in Dec 1680, age 78. (His estate was inventoried in January 1681) He came with his wife and four of his children in the ship "Elizabeth" which sailed from Ipswich, Suffolk, England (see Judds "Hadley") on April 30, 1634. He and his wife Elizabeth gave their ages as 32, and named their four children as follows: Samuel, Jr., age 9 Elizabeth, age 7 Mary age 4 and Philip, age 1. On board the same ship were families named Rayner, Kemball, Scott, Munnings, Mixer, Bradstreet, Underwood, all said to have been Suffolk people, and Lewis, Woodward, Bloomfield, Day, Hastings, Gouldson, Cutting and Firmin whose origins are unknown.

"Assuming a period of two to three months to complete a crossing of the Atlantic in those days, the family probably did not reach the shores of America earlier than late July or early August of 1634. Just where they landed is not known. Some say it was at Salem and indeed a Samuel Smyth(sic) is recorded (Annals of Salem by Joseph B. Felt, Vol. I, p. 167) as having been granted land and made a freeman in Salem subsequent to 1637. But the "History of Salem" by Sidney Perley, Vol. II, page 11, says, "at a meeting of the whole town April 23, 1638 there was grante to Samuel Smith 200 acres of land being 50 more than his former grant of 100 (sic) acres which was annulled" then in a foot note it is stated that Samuel Smith was one of the very first settlers in Enon which became Wenham. He married Sarah who died in the autumn of 1642. On page 127 of the same Vol. II it is stated that Samuel Smith built a house in Wenham where he lived until 1642 when he died.

"This Salem record seems to dispose of the claim that the Wethersfield Samuel Smith first settled in Salem. That he was in Watertown is borne out by the fact that in September of 1634, which must have been soon after his arrival from England, he was a freeman and an early proprietor in that town but with no evidence that he was a resident. ( see Bonds History of Watertown, p. 1017.) Some have conjectured that he immediately went to Wethersfield Connecticut, This writer doubts this because no permission was so early given by the General Court for removal thence and being a freeman and therefore a church member in good and favorable standing and with rights to vote in the town it is improbable that he would have risked so much with his family of wife and four small children in the face of so many other dangers and difficulties. He could, however, have ventured alone leaving his family with friends or relatives on the seaboard while making an exploratory trip and as we shall see later this writer suspects that this is what he did. The General Court gave its approval on May 6th and June 3rd of 1635 for removal of people from Watertown "to any place they shall think meet to make choice, provided they continue still under this government" and it was after one of these dates that it seems reasonable that Samuel Smith and his family departed. Adams and Stiles in their monumental "Ancient Wethersfield", say on page 300 of Vol I that they came "in 1635 or late 1634".

"How he made the journey is not known. He could have done it, as many did, by overland route over Indian trails or he could have gone by water which in some ways was more hazardous because of storms and uncharted channels which took their toll of coastal craft. Some sent their house-hold goods by water but brought themselves, their horses, cattle and hogs by land. Winthrop's "History of New England", page 140 Vol. I, tells of a party of sixty men, women and little children going overland to Connecticut in September of 1635 with their cows, horses and swine, and arriving safely. Wethersfield is said to have been discovered by John Oldham and three others in the autumn of 1633. Those who came in 1635 and 1636 according to "Bonds History of Watertown, Massachusetts", as listed on page 29 of Adams and Stiles "Old Wethersfield", include Samuel Smith and Lieutenant Robert Seeley. There is a strong implication that Samuel may have gone ahead of his family. On page 30 - 31of Adams and Stiles "Ancient Wethersfield" is given a Iist of new arrivals in Wethersfield between 1636 and 1640 "no later than 1645". In that list is Rev. Henry Smith and "his sons Samuel and Philip". Since Rev. Henry had no son Philip and his son Samuel was not born until 1638 or 39(see page 628 of Vol. II of Stiles "Ancient Wethersfield") and Samuel did have sons of both names whose ages in 1636 were 11 and 3 respectively (see page 647 of Vol. II of Stiles "Ancient Wethersfield") it is quite certain the Samuel and Philip listed were sons of Samuel rather than of Rev. Henry. If this be true then here to evidence of them arriving later than their father who came in 1635 or 36, thus solving the question of how he could have housed them that first year in the Wilderness of Pyquag the Indian name of the settlement before it was renamed Wethersfield. Being there ahead of them he could have built a home for their arrival the following year. A map of old Wethersfield with layout of streets and lots, 1633,_34, shows the Samuel Smith homestead as lying on Broad Street between the households of Thomas Killbourn on the north and John Edwards on the south. The household of Rev. Henry Smith, the first pastor of the Wethersfield Church, also the households of Richard Smith and William Smith are indicated on the map. None of these latter three Smiths are thought to have been related to Samuel. Nathaniel Foote and J. Churchill with whose families members and descendants of the Samuel Smith family later intermarried, are shown but not John Roote or Luke Hitchcock who came later. Robert Seeley, from whom the children of this writer's son directly descend, is shown, he having been one of the very early settlers of Wethersfield.

"Samuel Smith is called "The Fellmonger" in the early Wethersfield records meaning very likely that he was a tanner by trade and a dealer in skins and furs of animals. The word generally refers to sheep pelts but there could not have been many sheep in that wolf infested wilderness at so early a date although there were some a little later. This writer rather expected to find that he was a representative or London fur traders who were becoming active in North America at the time but no records to support this conjecture have been found. He must have been a man of some means because he figured in a goodly number of land purchases and sales in Wethersfield. On page 643, Vol. I of Adams and Stiles "Ancient Wethersfield" the statement is made that Samuel Smith was "one of the wealthiest men Wethersfield". This was in 1646. His son John in 1672 was admitted by town vote in Wethersfield as an inhabitant to set up "a trade of tarnning in this town". He had been living in Hadley and evidently had returned to Wethersfield then or before.

"Samuel Smith served Wethersfield as a Deputy to the general Court almost continuously from November 1637 to May 1656. He also served as Assistant to the Connecticut Colony in March and April of 1638. (See Conn. Colonial records )The General Court sat first at Hartford (April 26,836) by authority of a commission from Governor Winthrop - Massachusetts to "govern the people of Connecticut for the space of one year". Rev. Henry Smith was one of the governor's original appointees and was living in Watertown Massachusetts at the time. Later the General Court of Connecticut which included the elected deputies called itself the "General Assembly". In May of 1678 it was known as the "Governor and Council". In May of 1698 it was divided into two sections known as "The Upper House" which consisted of the Governor or his deputy and his assistants and the "Lower House" made up of the deputies of the several towns. In 1819 the Upper House became Senators, the Lower House, Representatives.

"The Court in early days consisted of the Governor and least seven chosen assistants and four deputies from-each town. It not only performed legislative and adjudicative functions but also served as the "Court of Elections" with power to choose the Governor and his assistants. In February 1651 Samuel Smith served as a member of a Particular Court in Hartford, chosen to try John Carrington and his wife for witchcraft. An indictment "thou deservest to dye" was returned but the sentences were probably not carried out.

"Samuel Smith figured in a number of land transactions and seems to have been engaged in various commercial enterprises. In November 1649 the General Court authorized him and "the rest of the owners of the shipp at Wethersfield to fit and make so many pipestaves as will freight out said shipp the first voyage, etc.". Pipestaves were used in the West Indies to make barrels for the shipment of molasses, rum, salt beef, pork and fish. The building of this ship had been authorized by the General Court and was probably the first ship built in Connecticut. Thomas Deming, a ship carpenter, was probably the master builder. The ship was named the "Tryall" and captained first by Mr. Larribee, and the boatswain was Christopher Fox of Wethersfield. It appears that she was still in operation in 1662 plying as far as the West Indles. On December 28, 1629 Samuel Smith Sr., Nathaniel Dickinson and Mr. Trat (probably Richard Treat) were chosen by the town to "seat men and women in the meeting house", an important assignment in those days when social rank as practiced in old England still influenced the settlers. Seating was done on the basis of community standing and could be done peaceably only by freeman most highly regarded both for integrity and social rank.

"On Mar. 28, 1653 in a town meeting Samuel Smith was one of those chosen to meet with a committee from Mattabeseck (Middletown) to fix the boundary line between the two settlements. Boundary matters were troublesome in those days and required many adjustments to settle overlapping and infringement problems that arose among the settlers.

"In May 1653 Samuel Smith was made a member of the Committee for War in Wethersfield and sometime before 1658 was commissioned a Sergeant of the Wethersfield train band. The train band was an organization formed to defend the town and its officers were chosen by the soldiers, subject to confirmation by the Particular Court which dealt with the lesser cases, offenders having the right of appeal to the General Court. Wethersfield sent a contingent of men under the command of Lieutenant Robert Seeley to fight the Pequots in 1637 and it is said that Samuel Smith was one of the group but this writer has seen no definite proof of it. (Many early records of Wethersfield were probably lost at the time of the Stamford and Hadley migrations.)

"Wethersfield during the first twenty five years of its existence suffered two church quarrels one in 1640-41 resulting in a large number of its citizens going to the Rippowam's Country (Stamford Connecticut) and to Saybrook (New Haven, Stratford and Milford), and a second, in 1659 resuiting in an additional number removing themselves from the Jurisdiction of Connecticut into the jurisdiction of Massachusetts and founding Hadley The meeting at which this latter removal was decided was held at Goodman Ward's house in Hartford on April 18, 1659. Here a compact was signed by 59 men, 20 of whom, including Samuel Smith Sr., Samuel Smith Jr. and Philip Smith were from Wethersfield. The signers agreed to remove themselves and families to the new settlement on the east side of the river from Northhampton and to be dwelling there by the 39th day of September 1660. The Rev. John Russell Jr. Of Wethersfield was their spiritual leader and became their first minister at Hadley.

"The History of Northampton by Trumbull Vol. I, page76 refers to the agents of the Hartford Company, one of whom was Samuel Smith of Wethersfield, as purchasing, in 1659, the meadow of "Capewonke", later known as Hatfleld. It was then a part of Nanotuck (Nonotuck) including Northampton, a part of the grant made to the settlers from Connecticut, largely Windsor and Hartford, who settled Northampton in 1653. The price paid was 30 pounds in wheat and peas, delivered at Hartford, and the payment is recorded as having been made promptly. (First Book of Deeds at Springsfield.)

"On November 9th, 1659, at Hartford and approximately at the same time at Wethersfield and at the new plantation at Norwottuck (Hadley) which by then included Capewonke, the settlers and the settlers to be, chose seven men, among-them Samuel Smith, "to order all public occasions that concern the good of that plantation for the year ensueing" (First Book of Records in Hadley)

"There were 48 original proprietors of the settlement in the Norwottuck Country, later called Hadley, including among them Samuel Smith and his sons Chileab and Philip. It will be noted that his sons Samuel and John do not appear. John, it seems by the records, lived alternately in Hadley and Wethersfield. Samuel, Jr. is thought to have removed to New London and thence to Virginia and all track of him lost. (P. 647 Vol. II of Stiles "Ancient Wethersfield".)

"Samuel Smith's public life in the new Norwottuck plantation, later Hadley, began soon after his arrival, He and Peter Tilton were chosen Town Measurers on December 31, 1660 to lay out the lands for the settlers, place stakes at the "front and rear" of every lot and keep a record of them. During the same month at Norwottuck, along with Nathaniel Dickinson, Andrew Bacon, Andrew Warner and William Lewis, Samuel Smith was chosen as one of the first Townsmen, now called Selectmen. He attended the March 1661 session of the General Court at Springfield as a juror. At the next meeting of the court on May 22, the town was named Hadley, after Hadleigh in Suffolk County, England from whence came some of the settlers including, probably, Samuel Smith and his wife, Elizabeth.

"The May 22, 1661 session of the court authorized the town of Hadley to choose commissioners with power, and without jury to determine civil actions not exceeding 5 pounds and to deal with criminal actions where the penalty did not exceed ten stripes for one offense, "provided said offenders may appeal their cases to the Springfield or Northampton courts". The townspeople met, as authorized and chose three commissioners or Deputies to the General Courts one being Samuel Smith, the other two Andrew Bacon and Mr. Wllliam Westwood. He was chosen again in 1663,1664, 1665, 1667, 1668, 1671 and 1673 and very probably, if the record was complete, in some other years as well. He was also made associate of the County Court for Hampshire County in 1678 and 1679.

"Samuel Smith was chosen to be a Townsman or Selectman tine after time, his last election being in 1680 the year of his death. From the records it would appear, also, that in the years when he did not serve as Townsman his talented son Philip served instead. In one year, 1675, when he did not serve, two of his son, Philip and Chileab were chosen.

"At its session of May 1663, the Court approved Samuel Smith as Lieutenant of the Hadley Trainband to serve under Capt. John Pynchon of Springfield a position he held until 1678 when he resigned because or his advanced age. He served inactively in King Philip's War where, in 1676, his son John was killed by Indians at Hatfield and where, a year later, his son-in-law, John Graves met the same fate. These tragic deaths were a portent of what was to come twenty years later when on September 16, 1696 Elizabeth Foote Belden a granddaughter of Lieut. Samuel Smith was killed by Indians at Deerfield, Mass. and 6 of her 14 children were either killed, wounded or captured by them. In 1704, also, a great grandchild, Samuel Foote was ambushed and killed by Indians.

"Returning to the earlier period, Samuel's home in Hadley was said to have served as a hiding place for the regicides, Whalley and Goffe, for a part of the time they were in Hadley. The authority for this is a letter dated March 26, 1793 written by Samuel Hopkins to Yale's president, Ezra Stiles. It's a reasonable conjecture because of Samuel Smith's prominence in Hadley at the time.

"On December 16, 1661 and for a number of years thereafter Samuel Smith "was chosen" rate makers that is to say, assessor. A plat of the village of Hadley for 1663 shows Liert. Samuel Smith and his sons Philip and Chileab owning lots of 8 acres each. (Judds Hadley, Part I, pp. 2h, 26.) Samuel's lot was valued at the top value of 200 pounds, Philip's at 150 pounds and Chileab's at 100 pounds. In1681, after Lieut. Samuel's death, his son Philip was the second largest and his son Chileab the 5th largest tax payer in the town. In 1686 after the son Philip's death (by hideous witchcraft) the son Chileab Smith is shown to have been the largest taxpayer.

"In April 1664 Mr. Samuel Smith was empowered to purchase land "to secure the north line of Hadley", (page 21Judds Hadley, Part I), at a price not exceeding 200 pounds. He did not succeed and petitioned the General Court at the, 1664 session for a gift of 1000 acres of land which could be added to the 200 pounds to satisfy the hard trading owner. The petition was granted and transaction completed on this new basis. The land is now a part of the town of Whately, Massachusetts.

"On January 14, 1667 Lieutenant Samuel Smith, together with Rev. John Russell and Aaron Cooke, was chosen at Town meeting to serve as a trustee of a fund offered by Mr. John Davenport of New Haven and Mr. William Goodwin of Hadley, acting as trustees under the will of the late Mr. Edward Hopkins, for the establishment of a grammar school in Hadley. (The Hopkins fund was divided between Hadley, Mass., Hartford and New Haven, Conn. and Harvard University.) Samuel Smith was also chosen with others, to serve on a committee to select the land that would be used by the school. His son Chileab was made a trustee of the grammar school in 1686 following the death of Philip who succeeded his father as a trustee in 1681.

"Lieutenant Samuel Smith was an original members from 1669 to his death, of the "Hadley School Committee for 50 years" which in effect was a life tenure assignment and, therefore given only to those who were the most trusted and highly respected in the town. He served continuously on this board until his death in 1680 when his place was taken by his son Philip. Philip's brother Chileab was added to the Committee in 1687 and in 1720 the Committee consisted of four citizens, one of whom was Sergeant Joseph Smith and another, deacon John Smith, sons of John and Philip respectively.

"Another evidence of the respect and trust in which Lieutenant Samuel Smith was held by his fellow townsmen was the license they gave him in 1671 to sell wines and strong liquors, a right that was sparingly given by the Selectmen and approved just as sparingly by the Court in those days. In 1677 he was empowered to solemnize marriages, a right he had had since 1661 but only to be exercised in the absence of Wllliam Westwood who was first given that authority.

"In May 1667 Samuel Smith, Rev. John Russell and Peter Tilton, acting in behalf of Hadley, appeared before the General Court in opposition to the petition of the citizens of Hatfield to separate from Hadley. They succeeded for about two years to hold up the withdrawal but on Dec. 22, 1669 Lieut. Samuel gas one of the signers of the agreement that authorized the separation and brought an end to the controversy. About the same time, Feb. 19, 1669, he signed a citizen's petition to the Governor and General Court of Massachusetts, opposing the decree that levied imposts and customs on merchandise, cattle, horses and grain entering Hadley. The next years May 3, 1670, with Rev. John Russell and Henry Clark he signed a petition "in behalf of the freemen of Hadley ", praying the General Court to make inquiry as to the reason for "God's displeasure" upon them One evidence or this displeasure, it seems, was the breaking away of dissenting members of the First Church of Boston to form Old South Church, an event that stirred remote sections of the Massachusetts Colony. The memorial referred to "the Lord's displeasure" and requested that "there be some public and solemn inquiry what it is that has provoke dthe Lord against us". (See History of Northampton by Tru,bull pp 215-216, Vol. I). The same source, page 572, lists Samuel Smith as one of those who contributed to Harvard College, 3 lbs. Of flax values at 0-.03-00 "from that line above and now all set down under our 3 lb. and half more is pck into the great barrell". This untranslatable gift seems small but it was about the average given by the 89 givers whose total gifts were valued at 29-17-0.

"Lieutenant Samuel Smith and his sons Philip and Chileab were well-to-do for their time. They were engaged in pursuits outside their regular professions indicating that they had capital. In 1678 Lieut. Samuel and Philip had out on loans to John Pynchon, the most prominent man in Springfield, 50 and 25 pounds respectively, at interest. These amounts appear small today but in that early period they were considerable sums

"A review of the Records or the Colony of Massachusetts Bay, Vol. IV, Part II and Vol. V, shows a number of instances where the General Court placed responsibilities upon Lieut. Smith and reposed confidence in him. He was at times assigned duties of dealing with the Indians, hearing their complaints and investigating their requests. The October Court of 1667 chose him as one of a committee of three to treat with the Indians about, "setting of a chief or head over them and by advising with them thereabouts to learn whom they account or desire to be their chief that the English may have their recourse to for satisfaction for injuries from them . and in the case of the Indians not agreeing . that the next General Court may appoint or declare some meet man to be their chief or sachem".

"Another court record, 1663, tells of a committee of six members, including Samuel Smith, being appointed to lay our a fares of 250 acres at Paucomptucke. This was the beginning of Deerfield, Massachusetts.

"In 1678 Lieutenant Smith requested, since he was "nearing 80 years of age" to be "relieved from military trust". His request was granted and his son Philip made Ensign immediately, and later in the same year raised to Lieutenant. Samuel's death two years later, (the inventory of his estate was taken January 17, 1781), indicates, perhaps, that he was justified in seeking some repose after so extended and active a career in the wilderness of a new world. The regret is that so little is known about his wife Elizabeth who remained at his side through all of these hard years, bearing and rearing his children and enduring the hardships of those pioneer times with him. Not one word is written about her trials and activities that this writer has seen. She died March 16, 1686 at the age of 84 leaving a family, the descendents of whom in the next three hundred years, were to swarm over the land producing worthy citizens and many distinguished ones, all Christian and God fearing.

"The children of Lieutenant Samuel Smith and his wife Elizabeth were four sons and two daughters. Four of these children were born in England and two in Wethersfield, Connecticut.

Recovery from Mormonism

--The Strange Death of Samuel H. Smith, Brother of Joseph Smith and Heir Apparent to the Assassination-Emptied Mormon Throne--

In a previous thread, RfM poster “Charley” mentioned the suspicious death of Samuel Harrison Smith, younger sibling of Joseph Smith.

As with circumstances surrounding the agonizing and mysterious death of Brigham Young, allegations have been made over the years that Samuel, too, was the victim of deliberate poisoning deviously administered by those angling for power in the time period following the assassination of Joseph Smith.

“There's . . . the rumor that Brigham Young was behind the suspicious death of Samuel Smith who is also believed to have been poisoned. Instant Karma's gonna get you.”

(“Re: Hard to Swallow: Mormon Apologists Refuse to Consider That Brigham Young May Have Been Deliberately Poisoned In His Own Household . . .,” posted by “Charley,” on “Recovery from Mormonism” board, 20 June 2011, 9:39 p.m. see also, "Hard to Swallow: Mormon Apologists Refuse to Consider That Brigham Young May Have Been Deliberately Poisoned In His Own Household," by Steve Benson, on "Recovery from Mormonism" board, 20 June 2011, 2:08 p.m.)

That rumor appears to be well-grounded.

Samuel Harrison Smith was an early baptized member of the Mormon Church, one of its original founders and one of the so-called "Eight Witnesses." He was also one of the Church's first missionaries and served on the Kirtland, Ohio, High Council.

That apparently wasn't enough to protect him, however.

Samauel died under mysterious circumstances on 30 July 1844, at the age of 36, barely a month after Joseph and Hyrum Smith were shot to death in the jailhouse siege at Carthage, Illinois.

Perhaps not coincidentally, Joseph Smith had chosen his brother Samuel to take on the leadership mantle for the Church if both he and Hyrum were killed. According to Joseph Smith's private secretary William Clayton, Joseph had "said that if he and Hyrum were taken away, Samuel H. Smith would be his successor."

After their deaths in Carthage, Samuel personally transported Joseph's body by wagon--lain in a plain pine box covered with prairie grass--back to Nauvoo.

Soon thereafter, he became violently ill and was himself dead in a matter of weeks.

(see: "Samuel Harrison Smith," at H. Michael Marquardt, “The Rise of Mormonism: 1816-1844” [Longwood, Florida: Xulon Press, 2005], p. 635 Dallin H. Oaks and Marvin S. Hill, “Carthage Conspiracy: The Trial of the Accused Assassins of Joseph Smith” (Urbana, Illinois, University of Illinois Press, 1976], p. 21) and Ernest H. Taves, “Trouble Enough: Joseph Smith and the Book of Mormon” [Buffalo, New York: Prometheus Books,1984], p. 216)

--Cries of Foul Play from Members of Joseph Smith's Family--

Despite efforts by the Mormon Church to dismiss allegations that Samuel Harrison Smith was a victim of a murder plot at the hands of LDS Church leaders conspiring to succeed Joseph Smith, members of the Smith family vigorously contended that Samuel had been purposely killed in a power grab that took place in the aftermath of Joseph's assassination.

Five years after Samuel's death, published media accounts by the only Smith brother to survive the Nauvoo period, William, charged that Samuel had been deliberately poisoned:

"In the October 1849 issue of his newspaper, the 'Melchisedek & Aaronic Herald,' William Smith publishe[d] a list of Mormon martyrs, including Samuel H. [Smith], 'who died from the effects of poison administered to him. He died within one month after the martyrdom of his brother.'"

("Martyrs of the Latter Day Saints," in 'Melchisedek & Aaronic Herald' (Covington, Kentucky) 1, no. 7, Oct. 1849)

A few years later, in a letter to the “New York Tribune,” William Smith provided further details on the suspicious death of his brother, Samuel, pointing a direct finger at Brigham Young and Willard Richards, accusing them of orchestrating Samuel's murder:

"I have good reason for believing that my brother Samuel H. Smith, died of poison at Nauvoo, administered by order of Brigham Young and Willard Richards, only a few weeks subsequent to the unlawful murder of my other brothers, Joseph and Hiram Smith, while incarcerated in Carthage jail.

"Several other persons who were presumed to stand between Brigham Young and the accomplishment of his ambitions and wicked designs, mysteriously disappeared from Nauvoo about the same time, and have never been heard from since."

(William Smith, "Mormonism," letter to the “New York Tribune,” 28 May 1857)

In private correspondence in 1892, William Smith further asserted that Willard Richards asked Hosea Stout (who happened to be Samuel's caretaker) to kill Samuel in order to prevent Samuel from taking office as Mormon Church president before the Quorum of the Twelve (which happened to be led by Brigham Young) could convene to handpick a successor.

(William Smith, letter to "Bro. [ . . . ] Kelley,” 1 June 1892)

Samuel H. Smith's own daughter, Mary B. Smith, expressed her belief that her father and her uncle Arthur Milliken were simultaneously poisoned through the administration of a powdery toxin purported to be medicine--noting, as well, that the same doctors attended both men.

According to Mary, Milliken stopped taking the fatal substance but Samuel continued to the last dose, which "he spit out and said he was poisoned. But it was too late--he died."

(Mary B. Smith Norman, letter to Ina Coolbrith, 27 March 1908 the above citations found in "Samuel H. Smith (1808-1844)," under “Death and Succession Crisis,” in “Saints Without Halos,” at:

Moreover, Samuel H. Smith's wife, Levira Clark Smith, also concluded that her popular husband had, in reality, been murdered--and proceeded to name the murderer.

Writes author Richard Abanes:

"[In the wake of Josepsh Smith's death,] Samuel Smith . . . seemed a reasonable choice to many Saints [for the Church's next president]. In fact, he nearly took control of the Church before the Twelve had returned [to Nauvoo], much to the irritation of Willard Richards, who wanted no leader to be named until all the Apostles were present.

"Richards may have gone so far as to have Samuel murdered to prevent any succession. Samuel's wife believed this to be the case, naming as her husband's murderer the Chief of Police--Hosea Stout, a Danite widely known for having a violent streak and a cold-hearted disposition.

"Everyone knew he was more than capable of homicide. He had already been, and would continue to be, connected with several murders and assaults involving apostates and Church critics. . . .

"In the case of Samuel Smith, Stout had acted as Samuel's care-giver when he fell ill, and in that capacity had given Samuel 'white powder' medicine daily until his death. Samuel's wife, daughter, and brother . . . all believed the powder to be poison."

(Richard Abanes, "One Nation Under Gods: A History of the Mormon Church" [New York, New York: Four Walls Eight Windows, 2002], p. 207)

--Brigham Young Denies Ordering the Murder of Samuel Smith--

Brigham Young hotly denied allegations that he had also been involved in the death of Samuel H. Smith, instead offering up a questionable alibi:

". . . William Smith has asserted that I was the cause of the death of his brother Samuel when brother Woodruff, who is here to day, knows that we were waiting at the depôt in Boston to take passage east at the very time when Joseph and Hyrum were killed.

"Brother Taylor was nearly killed at the time and Doctor Richards had his whiskers nearly singed off by the blaze from the guns. In a few weeks after, Samuel Smith died and I am blamed as the cause of his death.'"

(Brigham Young, "Journal of Discourses," vol. 5, July 1857, p.77)

--Dissecting Young's Shaky Denial--

Former “Recovery from Mormonism” poster "Perry Noid" raises serious questions about the truthfulness of Young's denial of involvement in the death of Samuel H. Smith:

" . . . I [am] struck at how weak [Young's] defense [is].

"He simply seem[s] to be relying on the 'Hey. I was out of town' alibi that Mafia types like to rely on after giving instructions to an agent who just happens to be 'in town.'

"It seems like he's counting on suckers not asking the next obvious question, i.e., '[S]ince [Young] and his pro-polygamy faction obviously were the prime beneficiaries of Sam[uel] Smith's untimely demise, doesn't it stand to reason that [Young] could have given instructions to a subordinate or have knowingly approved of the plan in advance?

"At the very least, isn't it possible that [Young] knew what happened after the fact and covered it up because it worked out so nicely for himself?'

"The pattern of denial by [Young] in this instance sure does feel similar to that used in the Mountain Meadows Massacre case.

"But it's also highly likely that [Young] literally got a 'taste of his own medicine' since his own death followed a prolonged episode of painful, violent vomiting and discomfort that may have been the result of a revenge poisoning."

"Perry Noid" offers additional intriguing and compelling information which makes it entirely possible to conclude that Samuel H. Smith could well have been seen as a dire threat to the interests of Young's conniving inner circle of power-mongering polygamists:

" . . . Samuel was probably the last best hope that the Smith clan had to maintain a dominant leadership position in the Church.

"If he had succeeded Hyrum to the office of Patriarch, that position could have been leveraged into a hereditary presidency that only Smiths were eligible to attain.

"Samuel probably wasn't capable of being a strong leader like Joseph, or even Hyrum, but the Smith clan was likely hoping that he would be able to hold things together long enough for Joe III to ascend to the throne.

"Samuel's claim, in addition to being supported by the fact that he was the eldest Smith male in line after Joe and Hyrum, was also supported by the fact that he was the third official convert to Mormonism, after Joe and Oliver.

"So, I believe that, first and foremost, he was a serious obstacle to the ambitions of the strong pro-polygamy faction that was coalescing behind Brigham.

"I don't know whether or not Samuel would have continued to go along with polygamy but my impression was that he was not an enthusiastic supporter and the remainder of the Smith clan would probably have intended to dump it all together, knowing that it would be a continuing source of trouble for their Church.

"One biography of Samuel indicates that he had no plural wives, but only married his second wife after his first wife had died."

“Perry Noid” further adds that Hosea Stout, former police chief of Nauvoo, may indeed have been the administrator of deadly toxins to Samuel Smith during a power struggle over the issue of polygamy:

“ . . . Samuel was possibly intentionally poisoned by an agent of Brigham Young in 1844. (Samuel was considered by many to be well ahead of Brigham Young in the contest for succession to Joseph Smith, but suddenly fell ill and died on July 30, 1844--barely a month after the deaths of his brothers, Joseph and Hyrum.) . . .

“[Historian D. Michael] Quinn argues that Willard Richards instructed Hosea Stout, a former Danite and police chief of Nauvoo, to poison Samuel Smith. He died not long after Joseph died. While most of the Church leaders were away from Nauvoo at the time, the Church leadership quickly split along the lines of polygamy. Those who favored the continued practice of polygamy and secret ordinances were partial to Brigham Young and wanted to wait until the Quorum of Twelve Apostles returned to Nauvoo before choosing a successor.

"Those who were opposed to the practice of polygamy and secret ordinances favored the leadership of William Marks. Sidney Rigdon quickly made a proposal to become guardian of the Church and Marks threw his support behind Rigdon. However, the day before the meeting to decide whether Rigdon should be appointed guardian, the Apostles returned to Nauvoo.” (Garn LeBaron, Jr., “'The Mormon Hierachy: Origins of Power'--A Review,” 1995, at: )”

("Thanks for the re-post," by "Perry Noid," Recovery from Mormonism board, 5 June, year unknown and "My understanding of the situation . . .," idem, RfM board, 5 June, year unknown, at )

--Further Reasons to Question Brigham Young's Attempts at Distancing Himself from the Dastardly Deed--

Noting the documentation amassed by historian D. Michael Quinn as well as others, avid student of Mormon history and former RfM poster "Deconstructor" asks, "Why would such an accusation be laid against Brigham Young?," then explains:

“This troubling piece of information came from a Church talk Brigham Young gave in 1857:

"'And William Smith has asserted that I was the cause of the death of his brother Samuel, when brother Woodruff, who is here to day, knows that we were waiting at the depôt in Boston to take passage east at the very time when Joseph and Hyrum were killed. Brother Taylor was nearly killed at the time, and Doctor Richards had his whiskers nearly singed off by the blaze from the guns. In a few weeks after, Samuel Smith died, and I am blamed as the cause of his death." (Prophet Brigham Young, July 1857, 'Journal of Discourses,' vol. 5, p.c77)

“I checked Church history sources and found these clues about the death of Joseph Smith's brother [Samuel] in Navuoo, who died little over a month after Joseph was killed:

"'Samuel Harrison Smith, born in Tunbridge, Vt., March 13, 1808. Died July 30, 1844, broken-hearted and worn out with persecution. Aged 36. The righteous are removed from the evils to come.' (“Times and Seasons,” Vol.5, No.24, p. 760)

"'Hyrum & Joseph w[ere] murdered in Carthage Jail in Hancock Co[,] Illinois. Samuel Smith died in Nauvoo, supposed to have been the subject of conspiricy by Brigham Young.' (“Joseph Smith Family Testimony, William Smith Notes,” circa 1875, in Vogel, “Early Mormon Documents,” p. 488)

"To understand the context, you have to remember that after Smith and Hyrum were killed, there was some conflict over who should be his successor.

"Brigham Young was not in Nauvoo when Smith was killed but started to head back as soon as he heard the news.

"Meanwhile in Nauvoo, several potential leaders were positioning to take the reins of leadership. The most popular replacement was Samuel Smith, the brother of Joseph Smith. William Clayton had recorded Joseph declaring his brother William his successor if both he and Hyrum were killed.

"But Brigham Young's first cousin and Church apostle, William Richards, insisted that nothing should be decided until Brigham Young could return to Nauvoo.

"However, many members did not want to wait, and more and more support was gathering behind Samuel Smith, Joseph Smith's brother, to become the next Prophet and leader of the Church.

"For a select few, this presented a problem because Samuel was violently against polygamy. It was looking like Samuel Smith would become the next prophet and promised to denounce the practice of plural marriage.

"Michael Quinn, from 'The Mormon Hierarchy: Origins of Power,' explains what happened next:

"'Then Samuel Smith suddenly became violently ill and died on 30 July 1844. This added suspicion of murder to the escalating drama.

"'Council of Fifty member and physician John M. Bernhisel told William Smith that anti-Mormons had somehow poisoned his brother.

"'William learned from Samuel's widow that Hosea Stout, a Missouri Danite and senior officer of Nauvoo's police, had acted as his brother's nurse. Stout had given him "white powder" medicine daily until his death. Samuel became ill within days of the discussion of his succession right, and by 24 July was "very sick."

"'There had been enough talk about Samuel's succession claims that the newspaper in Springfield, Illinois, reported, "A son of Joe Smith [Sr.] it is said, had received the revelation that he was to be the successor of the prophet."

"'William Smith eventually concluded that Apostle Willard Richards asked [Hosea] Stout to murder (his brother) Samuel H. Smith.

"'The motive was to prevent Samuel from becoming Church president before Brigham Young and the full Quorum of Twelve arrived (in Nauvoo).

"William's suspicions about Stout are believable since Brigham Young allowed William Clayton to go with the pioneer company to Utah three years later only because Stout threatened to murder Clayton as soon as the apostles left.

"Clayton regarded Hosea Stout as capable of homicide and recorded no attempt by Young to dispute that assessment concerning the former Danite.

"One could dismiss William Smith's charge as a self-serving argument for his own succession claim, yet Samuel's daughter also believed her father was murdered.

"'My father was undoubtedly poisoned,' she wrote. 'Uncle Arthur Millikin was poisoned at the same time--the same doctors were treating my father and Uncle Arthur at the same time. Uncle Arthur discontinued the medicine-without letting them know that he was doing so. (Aunt Lucy [Smith Millikin] threw it in the fire).

"'Father continued taking it until the last dose [which] he spit out and said he was poisoned. But it was too late--he died.'

"Nauvoo's sexton recorded that Samuel Smith died of 'bilious fever,' [which was] the cause of death listed for two children but no other adults that summer.

"This troubling allegation should not be ignored but cannot be verified.

"Nevertheless, Clayton's diary confirms the efforts of Richards to avoid the appointment of a successor before his first cousin Brigham Young arrived.

"'Stout's diary also describes several occasions when Brigham Young and the apostles seriously discussed having Hosea "rid ourselves" of various Church members considered dangerous to the Church and the apostles. Stout referred to this as "cut him off--behind the ears--according to the law of God in such cases."

"'Stout's daily diary also makes no reference whatever to his threat to murder Clayton in 1847. When the Salt Lake "municipal high council" tried Hosea Stout for attempted murder, he protested that "it has been my duty to hunt out the rotten spots in the Kingdom." He added that he had "tried not to handle a man's case until it was right."

"'Evidence does not exist to prove if the prophet's brother was such a "case" Stout handled."' (D. Michael Quinn, “The Mormon Hierarchy: Origins of Power”

(“Did Brigham Young Murder Joseph Smith's Brother? (References),” posted by “Deconstructor,” on “Recovery from Mormonism” board, 6 April, year unknown, at:

In support of William Smith's charge that Samuel H. Smith was rubbed out on the orders of Brigham Young in order to prevent him from becoming head of the LDS Church, historian Dan Vogel repeats testimony from members of Joseph Smith's own family:

"'Hyrum & Joseph w[ere] murdered Carthage Jail in Hancock Co[,] Illinois. Samuel Smith died in Nauvoo, supposed to have been the subject of conspiracy by Brigham Young.'"

(Dan Vogel, "Joseph Smith Family Testimony, William Smith Notes," circa 1875, in "Early Mormon Documents," p. 488 and "Was Joseph Smith's brother Samuel Murdered?," by "Deconstructor," at:

--Mormon Supporters Claim Samuel Smith's Death Was Due to Accidental Injury or Fever--

Despite numerous indications fueling deep suspicions that Samuel H. Smith may have died of deliberate poisoning at the hands of an inner Mormon circle cabal, the LDS Church-owned and -published "Encyclopedia of Mormonism" makes the suggestion that he actually died from a conveniently unidentified horse-riding injury, supposedly sustained during Samuel's dramatic effort to save the lives of his brothers Joseph and Hyrum:

"Upon hearing of the dangers to his brothers at Carthage, Samuel attempted to ride to their aid, but arrived too late to intervene. He died within the month, apparently of an injury sustained in that ride."

(Sydney Smith Reynolds, "Smith Family," in "Encyclopedia of Mormonism: The History, Scriptures, Doctrine, and Procedure of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints," vol. 3 (New York, New York: Macmillan Publishing Company, 1992], p. 1360)

--Other Mormon Historians Don't Parrot the LDS Apologist Spin--

LDS historian Donna Hill mentions nothing about Samuel suffering a riding injury, claiming instead that in his gallop to Carthage to save his brothers, he was chased by a mob, arrived too late to rescue them, carried the murdered bodies of Joseph and Hyrum back to Nauvoo and, amid this ordeal, "[c] ontracted a fever and survived his brothers by only a few weeks."

Fellow LDS historians Leonard J. Arrington and Davis Bitton agree with Hill's explanation of Samuel Smith's death, adding only that the mob that chased Samuel on his ride to Nauvoo had "mud-daubed faces."

(Donna Hill, “Joseph Smith, the First Mormon: The Definitive Story of a Complex and Charismatic Man and the People Who Knew Him” [Garden City, New York: Doubleday & Company, 1977], p. 448 and Leonard J. Arrington and Davis Bitton, “The Mormon Experience: A History of the Latter-day Saints” [New York, New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1979], p. 82)

--The Assessment of Samuel Harrison Smith's Death from Non-Mormon Historical Circles--

Other professional observers--notably the non-Mormon variety--aren't as willing to shrug off Samuel H. Smith's death to a riding injury or a fever.

Richard N. and Joan K. Ostling, in their book, “The Power and the Promise: Mormon America,“ note that Joseph Smith designated his brother Samuel to be his successor, adding that Samuel "would have succeeded [his assassinated brother] Hyrum as [Church] Patriarch and thus had a claim [to succeed Joseph as prophet], but died just weeks after Joseph and Hyrum, amid rumors he had been poisoned."

(Richard N. Ostling and Joan K. Ostling, “The Power and the Promise: Mormon America” [San Francisco, California: HarperSanFrancisco, 1999], p. 337)

--Conclusion: In Mormonism, the Living Prophets Are More Important Than the Dead Prophets--

Could it be that some of the dead prophets became dead at the hands of those who wanted to become the living prophets?

You might be inclined to drink to that.

Sounds like TSCC we all know, and detest today.
It would make sense for the likes of BY & friends to protect their interests to the point of murder. Their interests being power over the people to control the money, and women. I guess the lard was too busy to manage a nice, orderly succession for his so-called church.

The actual history of TSCC is fairly violent. All I ever heard was the whitewashed version.

I think the Smith's probably felt entitlement to the "family business". As interested parties fought over the empire, how many of the sheeple thought the lard was in charge? I think the men vying for power knew they did not have any special powers from on high.

Re: Another Poisoning in the Murderous Saga of Machiavellian Mormonism?: Bumping Off the Next In Line to the Prophet's Throne

It's interesting how blood soaked the church is right from its inceptions.
One can only speculate how many people lost their lives under JS reign. He may have been a bit less ostentatious in his executions than BY but still, I if you didn't support and agree with Joseph your life was on the line. I believe the church was founded on blood but not Christ's.

Re: Another Poisoning in the Murderous Saga of Machiavellian Mormonism?: Bumping Off the Next In Line to the Prophet's Throne
Why don't they exhume the body and test the fair fibers. If he was in fact poisoned, it would definitely show up!

Re: Another Poisoning in the Murderous Saga of Machiavellian Mormonism?: Bumping Off the Next In Line to the Prophet's Throne
Very interesting. This would shed some light on why Brigham Young pushed blood atonement doctrine so heavily. I always wondered where he had gotten that from, if he had picked it up from some obscure statements he had heard from Joseph, or what? Even so, it doesn't make sense why he would talk about it so much. This is the first explanation I've heard that makes sense. Deep down he knew he was responsible for murder, so he subconsciously (or consciously) was trying to justify that action. Saying things like it would have been better for apostates had their blood been spilt, and we don't fully understand blood atonement doctrine, but it's right in the sight of God - it all makes sense now.

steve benson
It's called theological reverse engineering. Embark on a killing policy, then invent a divine justification for it. Religion has a bloody history of doing exactly that.

I made this hypothesis too about 2 months ago.
I already brought up the notion that BY was behind the death of Samuel but possibly also Joseph and Hyrum. His trip to Boston could have been an alibi. Joe called for the mormon militia who never showed up plus Govern. Ford was setting up the demise. Almost like BY was corredinating the whole thing from the printing press of the Navuoo Expositor all the way down to Sam's death in order to take over.

steve benson
Interesting hypothesis. Mormonism was certainly a bloody business in BY's day--and under his rule.

Re: It's called theological reverse engineering. Embark on a killing policy, then invent a divine justification for it. Religion has a bloody history of doing exactly that.
Brigham or Willard was probably reading about Nephi and Laban when he first concocted the idea. It's better for one man to perish than for an entire religion to dwindle in unbelief (in the divine and imperative concept of polygamy). The Book of Mormon could have given them the idea!

I think BY preached blood atonement to keep the sheeple in line like any abuser would.
Abusers often make death threats or are violent to third parties to intimidate their victims. In my family, several times, while out driving, my dad threatened to deliberately cause an accident to kill me. He said if he knew he was going to die he would kill me first, because I was not worth going to jail over, and then pretend he had cancer. One morning while I was getting ready for school, he was telling my brothers that I was not to be buried in the family cemetery. This is what abusers do to keep victims scared.

To me it makes perfect sense why BY would talk about it so much. The Masonic penalties, and oaths, and retribution of the OT were conveniences that made their job easier. I see them as abusers from the outset, and the whole of TSCC is an exercise in justification for "leaders" taking things they have no right to in the first place. Religion was made for patriarchal abusers!

steve benson
Abusive religions attract abusive people--and since many abusive religions are headed by men, they attract abusive patriarchal men . . .
. . . although any here who attended parochial Catholic school as kids might be able to attest to the reign of terror by those nuns. :)

Re: Another Poisoning in the Murderous Saga of Machiavellian Mormonism?: Bumping Off the Next In Line to the Prophet's Throne
Very interesting post Steve. We all know BY condoned murder. After all he kept Rockwell and Hickman around for just such reasons. And it sure looks like JS ordered Rockwell to murder the governor of Missouri.

Early mormonism has a lot in common with the Catholic church under the Borgias. If someone pisses you off poison them. Not that I know that much about the Borgias. I'm still wondering how someone could be pope and have children.

Re: Another Poisoning in the Murderous Saga of Machiavellian Mormonism?: Bumping Off the Next In Line to the Prophet's Throne
Well-yes in the Bom there is a scripture that state the chief judger is murdered and the kingdom descends thru murder, mystery n intrigue. I've been poisoned w drano rat poison n warfarin. They are masters at arranging things and yes its all over power. As if what's not going in the world isn't bad enough. Its an inhouse they have in house craziness. Can't get away from the misery.

Samuel Smith - History

Henry “Box” Brown was born enslaved in Louisa County, Virginia in 1815. When he was 15, he was sent to Richmond to work in a tobacco factory. His life was filled with unrewarded drudgery, although he had it better than most of his enslaved peers. The loss of freedom prevented him from living with his wife, Nancy, who was owned by a slave master on an adjacent plantation. She was pregnant with their fourth child when, in 1848, he heard the tragic news: Nancy and his children were to be sold to a plantation in North Carolina. He stood with tears in his eyes on the side of the street as he watched 350 slaves in chains walk by him, including his wife with their unborn child and three young children. He could only wish them a tearful last farewell— he was helpless to save them.
After months of mourning his loss, Henry resolved to escape from slavery. He was a man of faith and a member of the First African Baptist Church where he sang in the choir. He acknowledged that, through his faith in God, he was given the inspiration and courage to put together a creative plan of escape.

The plan and preparation to obtain his freedom:

Henry enlisted the help of his choir-member friend, James Caesar Anthony Smith, a free Black who knew Samuel Alexander Smith, a White sympathizer. (They were not related but had the same last name.) Samuel Smith liked to gamble and, for a profit, agreed to help Henry Brown with his plan. The plan that Henry envisioned was for himself to be shipped in a box by rail from Richmond to Philadelphia, a very creative, unique, and dangerous endeavour.

Samuel Alexander Smith in turn contacted James Miller McKim, a White abolitionist and seasoned member (along with William Still) of the Philadelphia Anti-Slavery Society. Samuel Alexander Smith shipped Henry by Adams Express Company on March 23, 1849, in a box 3 feet long by 2 feet 8 inches deep by 2 feet wide, and sent the box as “dry goods.” Henry Brown traveled in the box lined with baize, a coarse woollen cloth, carrying with him only one bladder of water and a few biscuits. There was a hole cut in the box for air, and it was nailed and tied with straps in large words, “This side up” was written on the box. Brown traveled by a variety of wagons, railroads, steamboats, ferries, and finally, for added safety, a delivery wagon that brought the box to the Philadelphia Anti-Slavery Society before daybreak.

During the 27- hour journey, the box was turned upside down on several occasions and handled roughly. Henry wrote that he “was resolved to conquer or die, I felt my eyes swelling as if they would burst from their sockets and the veins on my temples were dreadfully distended with pressure of blood upon my head.” At one point, Henry thought that he might die, but fortunately two men needed a place to sit down and, “so perceiving my box, standing on end, one of the men threw it down and the two sat upon it. I was thus relieved from a state of agony which may be more imagined than described.” The box with Brown in side was received by William Still, James Miller McKim, Professor C.D. Cleveland, and Lewis Thompson. Upon the box being opened, Brown said, “How do you do, Gentlemen?” then recited a psalm: “I waited patiently on the Lord and He heard my prayer.” He then began to sing the psalm to the delight of the four men present, and was christened Henry “Box” Brown.

The aftermath of Henry "Box" Brown's Courageous journey to freedom:

Samuel Alexander Smith attempted to ship more enslaved from Richmond to Philadelphia on May 8, 1849, but was discovered and arrested. In November of that year, he was sentenced to six-and-one-half years in the state penitentiary. James Caesar Anthony Smith, the free Black, was also arrested on September 25 for attempting another shipment of slaves, but he fared better. The trial that followed resulted in a divided panel of magistrates, and James Caesar Anthony Smith was released and later joined Brown in Boston.

The abolitionist movement of the day held two opposing points of view. Frederick Douglass made it clear that Henry Brown’s escape should not be made public, as others could use this same method. However, others thought that the publicity would help the movement, and that it was just too good a story to keep from the growing number of the public who opposed slavery.

Henry Brown was intoxicated with the feeling that freedom brought, and his personality would not allow him to remain quiet about his achievement. He was his own man and a working class individual. He used this miraculous event to make a new life for himself. He also used his great imagination to support himself. In May 1849, Henry appeared before the New England Anti-Slavery Society Convention in Boston, where he left no doubt in the minds of the audience that the enslaved desired freedom. Brown also became a performer, often reciting the psalm he had sung when he first emerged from the box. In September 1849, the narrative of Henry “Box” Brown was published in Boston by Charles Stearns.

Henry “Box” Brown again showed his creativity late in 1849 when he hired artists and others to begin work on a moving panorama about slavery. In April 1850 Henry “Box” Brown’s “Mirror of Slavery” opened in Boston and was exhibited throughout the summer. With the passing of the Fugitive Slave Act on August 30, 1850, it was no longer safe for Brown to remain in the Northern Free States, as he could be captured and returned to Virginia. Therefore, he sailed for England in October 1850. His panorama was exhibited throughout England. In May 1851, Brown’s own “First English Edition” of the narrative of his life was published in Manchester.

All, however, was not well for Henry “Box” Brown. He was being criticized over finances and for not trying harder to purchase his own family. Thus, Brown left the abolitionist circuit completely and embraced English show business for the next 25 years. He married in 1859, and in 1875, accompanied by his wife and daughter Annie, he returned to the United States. He performed as a magician and continued to climb into his original box as part of his act throughout the eastern United States.

Brown’s last performance is reported to have taken place in Brantford, Ontario, Canada as stated in a Brantford newspaper on February 26, 1889. No later information on Henry “Box” Brown and his family has been discovered. The date and location of his death are unknown.

What is known is that he was a symbol of the Underground Railroad Freedom Movement. He was a man who took courage and combined it with creativity. Henry “Box” Brown soon discovered that in order to survive in the free world, he had to reinvent himself. He realized also that courage is not always given to you. By an act of faith, he said to that “Higher Power” who gave him the creative idea to seek freedom in a box, “Continue to command me now as a freeman, to do the impossible!”

African Colonization

The first half of Smith’s outlandish scheme had a strange afterlife, thanks to the careers of two of his students. Robert Finley, who became a clergyman in Basking Ridge after graduating from Princeton in 1787, was fascinated by the problem Smith had defined in his lectures: how could the evil of slavery be safely removed from the nation? Charles Fenton Mercer, the son of a Virginia slaveholder, graduated from Princeton in 1797 with the conviction that slavery should be abolished. He went on to become a U.S. congressman, a role that gave him a powerful platform from which to promote his beliefs.[16]

In 1816, Finley and Mercer proposed a colonization plan by which African Americans could escape the debilitating effects of white prejudice. They had tweaked Smith’s scheme in two important ways: the colony would be located in West Africa rather than the western territories of the United States, and it would be limited to black colonists only. Mercer and Finley met with Samuel Stanhope Smith in the fall of 1816 as their plans took shape. Finley then convened his first meeting in Princeton, before traveling to Washington in December 1816 to found the new American Colonization Society (ACS).

The ACS immediately attracted the most powerful men in the nation to its ranks. James Madison, another Princeton alumnus, welcomed Finley to Washington, while James Monroe, his successor in the White House, helped the society to purchase what became the colony of Liberia in 1820. (The colony received its name from Maryland politician Robert Goodloe Harper, yet another colonizationist taught by Samuel Stanhope Smith at Princeton.) The ACS quickly became the most popular solution to the problem of slavery among ‘moderate’ whites across the nation. Colonization struggled to win support from free blacks, however, who suspected its motives and its white managers, and the ACS eventually drew fire from William Lloyd Garrison and other radical white abolitionists. But in the decades before the Civil War, the ACS received support from some of the most celebrated figures in American public life: from James Madison, who became the ACS president in 1833, to Henry Clay, Daniel Webster, Harriet Beecher Stowe, and Abraham Lincoln.

The numerous connections between Princeton and the colonization movement led back to Samuel Stanhope Smith, and to the intellectual ambiguities of his racial universalism. Smith’s thinking was hamstrung by an over-dependence on physical malleability and a quiet privileging of whiteness. He rejected permanent racial hierarchies and recognized the corrosive effects of slavery, but placed so much faith in environment (and in the essential benevolence of the antislavery slaveholder) that his writings on race and slavery lacked a critical edge. By the time he’d developed his fantasy of moving black people to the West and experimenting with amalgamation, his more sober disciples had already embraced colonization without any reference to racial mixing.

Smith, like many reformers before 1830, was both a gradualist and a believer in the logic of cooptation: he sincerely imagined that slavery could be abolished with the consent of slaveholders, and that the common origins of blacks and whites would lead to a recognition of their shared humanity. By 1816, as the ACS established exile as the precondition for black freedom, Smith’s partial universalism had terminated in an early version of separate-but-equal. That same year, Virginia abolitionist George Bourne pronounced a harsh verdict on the man who had shaped the racial thinking of the post-Revolutionary generation:

Watch the video: Samuel Smith and Upper Canada History