The Sinister Roman Cavalry Helmet of the Ribchester Hoard

The Sinister Roman Cavalry Helmet of the Ribchester Hoard


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The Ribchester Helmet is a cavalry helmet dating to the Roman period in Britain. As indicated by its name, the helmet was found in Ribchester, Lancashire, in the northwest of England. The Ribchester Helmet was not used for combat but served either a sporting or ceremonial purpose. This helmet is a unique artifact, as only two other examples, the Crosby Garrett Helmet and the Newstead Helmet, have been unearthed in Great Britain thus far.

How was the Ribchester Helmet Discovered?

The Ribchester Helmet was discovered in 1796 by John Walton, the 13-year-old son of a clog maker. In “the waste land at the side of the road leading to the church, and near the bed of the river”, Walton stumbled upon a Roman hoard. The hoard was buried in a hollow about 2.7 m (9 feet) in the ground and contained a mass of corroded metalwork.

Ribchester cavalry sports helmet viewed at British Museum, London. (Helen Simonsson / CC BY-SA 2.0 )

What Was the Condition of the Helmet?

The metal objects were preserved thanks to the dry condition they were in, which was attained by covering the artifacts with sand when they were deposited. Although this kept the objects dry, it also resulted in them being defaced, due to the corrosive effects of the sand on copper. The Ribchester Hoard also contained a number of other artifacts, including a bust of the Roman goddess Minerva, the remains of a vase, and many items that seemed to have served a religious function. Needless to say, the most significant item in the hoard was the Ribchester Helmet.

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Cavalry sports helmet - The Ribchester Helmet. (Rex Harris / CC BY-SA 2.0 )

How Old is the Ribchester Helmet?

The Ribchester Helmet has been dated to between the late 1 st and early 2 nd centuries AD. Although a Roman cavalryman used the helmet, it is clear that it was not meant to be worn in actual combat. This is due to the helmet’s fine workmanship and rich ornamentation, which would have made it impractical on the field of battle. The Ribchester Helmet was made using copper alloy and consists of a cavalry helmet with a visor in the form of a human face. The helmet is decorated with reliefs depicting a skirmish between infantry and cavalry. It is believed that there was a sphinx attached to the top of the helmet, though this had been lost prior the object’s discovery.

How Was the Ribchester Helmet Used?

The Ribchester Helmet may have been used by a participant of the hippika gymnasia (meaning ‘ cavalry sports’ or ‘horse exercises’). These exercises were meant to hone a cavalryman’s skills and to provide a display of his skills to entertain the troops. During the hippika gymnasia , both horse and rider would be dressed in ornate gear, so as to make displays even more spectacular. Alternatively, it has been suggested that the Ribchester Helmet could have been a trophy that was “erected in the celebration of military festivals or carried in procession among the Greeks and Romans”.

Calvary Sports - knightly competition in the Middle Ages and Renaissance. ( acrogame / Adobe)

Why is the Discovery of the Ribchester Helmet Such a Rare Find?

The Ribchester Helmet has been displayed in London since its acquisition by the British Museum in 1814. In 2014, the helmet returned to Ribchester, where it was temporarily exhibited in the Ribchester Roman Museum. At the time of its discovery, the Ribchester Helmet was the only helmet of its kind to be discovered in Great Britain. Since then, two other helmets have been discovered – the Newstead Helmet and the Crosby Garrett Helmet. The former was unearthed in 1905, while the latter in 2010. While the Newstead Helmet, like the Ribchester Helmet, became part of a museum’s (the National Museum in Edinburgh, Scotland) collection, the Crosby Garrett Helmet had a different destiny.

Crosby Garrett Helmet. (Mike Bishop / CC BY-SA 2.0 )

In 2010, the Crosby Garrett Helmet was discovered by a metal detectorist. As the artifact was a single item of non-precious metal, it was not considered to be a treasure under the 1996 Treasure Act. Therefore, the finder and the landowner were free to dispose of the helmet as they best saw fit and the helmet was auctioned at Christie’s. Although Carlisle's Tullie House Museum and Art Gallery were able to raise a total of £ 1.7 million, they lost out to an anonymous bidder who secured the artifact for a total of £ 2.3 million. The Crosby Garrett Helmet has been on public display four times since then.


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The Controversial Dashka Stone: 120 Million-Year-Old Map?

The Dashka Stone is a controversial artifact that it is believed by some to be the guidelines used by the architect of the world. Known as the Map of the Creator, this stone tablet has baffled researchers since its discovery in 1999. As impossible as it may seem, Russian experts believe the stone map, could be 120 million years old.

The Dashka slab depicts not only the environs of the Ural Mountains, but also a series of civil engineering projects including 7457 miles (12,000 km) of channels, several dams, and hieroglyphic notations of unknown origin. The accuracy and perspective of the map suggest that it was created from an aerial point of observation. The hieroglyphs have not, as of the time of writing, been deciphered but are thought to be related to an ancient form of Chinese.

Archeologists from the Bashkir State University discovered the Dashka stone in the Ural Mountains of eastern Russia on July 21, 1999. The discoverers were immediately struck by the size of the tablet. It measures 58 inches (148 cm) high, 42 inches (106 cm) wide, 6 inches (16 cm) thick, and weighs one ton. Upon further examination, the researchers were even more stunned: the tablet appears to show a highly accurate topographical map of Bashkiria, a specific area of the Ural Mountains, at a scale of approximately 1:1.1km. Alexandr Chuvyrov, a professor at Bashkir State University who led the team, named the stone Dashka in honor of his granddaughter who was born on that day.

Photo of Alexander Chuvyro next to the Dashka Stone. ( bibliotecapleyades.net)

“At first sight, I understood that was not a simple stone piece,” said Chuvyrov. “But a real map, and not a simple map, but a three-dimensional. You can see it yourself.”

The Map of the Creator is comprised of three levels, strongly suggesting that it did not originate in nature but was artificially made. The first layer is roughly 7 inches (18cm) of a cement or ceramic compound based on dolomite. The second layer is roughly 1 inch (2.5cm) of diopside glass enriched with silicon. The third layer is only a few millimeters thick and is made of a calcium-porcelain mixture, perhaps to give the tablet added protection or perhaps to create a diffused light to better illuminate the stone.

“How did we manage to identify the place?” said Chuvyrov. “At first, we could not imagine the map was so ancient. Happily, relief of today’s Bashkiria has not changed so much within millions of years. We could identify Ufa Height, while Ufa Canyon is the main point of our proofs, because we carried out geological studies and found its track where it must be according to the ancient map. Displacement of the canyon happened because of tectonic stabs which moved from East. The group of Russian and Chinese specialists in the field of cartography, physics, mathematics, geology, chemistry, and Old Chinese language managed to precisely find out that the slab contains the map of Ural region, with rivers Belya, Ufimka, Sutolka. You can see Ufa Canyon – the break of the earth’s crust, stretched out from the city of Ufa to the city of Sterlitimak. At the moment, Urshak River runs over the former canyon.”

The Dashka stone undoubtedly points to a Ural civilization more advanced than previously suspected, however, the claims that it was made 120 million years ago by a geographic Creator are mostly likely false. The Bashkir researchers derived this date from a pair of ancient seashells found locked in the stone slab. The first shell, Navicopsina munitus of the Gyrodeidae family, could be as old as 500 million years. The second shell, Ecculiophalus princeps of the Ecculiomphalinae subfamily, could be as old as 120 million years. Why these shells, still intact, were incorporated into the tablet or if they were purposefully included at all cannot be known for certain. Scientists suspect that, aside from the ancient shells, the tablet was made approximately 3000 years ago, however, it is exceedingly difficult to radiocarbon date the engravings themselves. This is still an incredible date, given the detail and advanced craftsmanship of the map.

Some commentators are even more skeptical, claiming that regardless of the age of the stone, it is just an accident that the fissures resemble Bashkiria. To these doubters, the cracks are no map, just an interesting coincidence.


Contents

Construction Edit

The construction of the helmet is complex. [2] Apart from the neck guard the basic form is shared by the contemporaneous Pioneer Helmet, a sparsely decorated fighting piece, [3] [4] and consists of four parts: an iron skull cap with brass edging and decorations, two iron cheek guards with brass edging, and camail protecting the neck. [5]

The cap of the helmet has eight iron components. [6] A brow band encircles the head a nose-to-nape band extends from back to front, where it narrows and continues downwards as the nasal two lateral bands each connect the side of the brow band to the top of the nose-to-nape band and four subtriangular infill plates sit underneath the resulting holes. [6] The eight pieces are riveted together. [7] The brow band, 572 mm (22.5 in) long and 74 mm (2.9 in) to 87.4 mm (3.44 in) wide, is not entirely circular a 69.8 mm (2.75 in) gap at the front is covered by the nose-to-nape band, which overlaps the brow band at the front and underlaps it at the back. [8] Quadrant-shaped cutouts at the front, and rectangular cutouts at the sides, create eye-holes and attachment points for the cheek guard hinges. [9] On the dexter side is a light and unexplained sketch of a rectangle with two lines in the shape of an 'X' connecting the corners. [9] The nose-to-nape band is 492.8 mm (19.40 in) long and about 87.5 mm (3.44 in) wide, and is shaped at the front, possibly with a template before assembly, both to help facilitate the eye-holes and to continue down as the nasal. [10] The two lateral bands, about 125 mm (4.9 in) long and 82 mm (3.2 in) wide, are riveted to the inside of the brow and nose-to-nape bands by three iron rivets on each end. [11] The four infill plates are roughly triangular, but have their corners cut off to avoid overlapping the rivets holding the bands together. [12] Their sizes vary considerably, likely because the edges are hidden from view. [12] At the front the two infill plates are affixed underneath the bands by four rivets on either side and three at the bottom at the back, five rivets on either side, and three at the bottom, hold each infill plate to the bands. [12]

Four different types of brass edging, comprising seven individual pieces, are used on the cap. [13] A plain binding extends around the front of the helmet, connecting the two cheek guard hinges and covering the edges of the nasal and eye-hole cutouts a short strip on either side fills the space between the hinge and the end of the eyebrow behind the hinge on either side, another short piece extends to the end of the cheek guard and across the back of the helmet, connecting the ends of the cheek guard, runs a mail suspension strip. [14] The plain binding is made from a piece of brass, up to 9.8 mm (0.39 in) wide, that is folded in half around the edge of the helmet. [14] It appears to be made from a single piece of metal, and is attached with six brass rivets. [15] Above these on either side, a strip approximately 19.4 mm (0.76 in) long and 9 mm (0.35 in) tall fills the space between the hinge and the end of the eyebrow, on which side it is moulded to the shape of the eyebrow's terminal animal head. [16] The upper edges are folded over at the top. [17] These strips are each affixed with two brass rivets and are primarily decorative, for they match the height of the two types of edge binding on the back of the helmet. [18] The first of these types is made from one rectangular strip of brass per side, folded over into a U-shape and fitted over the approximately 35.5 mm (1.40 in) long portion of the brow band between the cheek guard hinge and the back of the cheek guard. [19] On the exterior of the helmet the strips are about 11.7 mm (0.46 in) tall, and have the tops folded over, as on the filler strips. [19] Two brass rivets per side hold them in place. [20] The final type of edge binding, the mail suspension strip, is similar to the pieces behind the hinges that it abuts. [20] It is made of folded over rectangular strips of brass, fitted over the edge of the brow band and with the top of the exterior edge itself folded down. [21] Two pieces of equal length were used, abutting at the back of the helmet, although the sinister strip was not found with the helmet. [22] The dexter strip is 162 mm (6.4 in) long and 10.3 mm (0.41 in) tall, and between its bottom and the bottom of the brow band, leaves a hollow 3.3 mm (0.13 in) high gap. [22] Seven or eight slots, each between 1.1 mm (0.043 in) and 1.7 mm (0.067 in) wide, were cut for every 25 mm (0.98 in) of the strip. [22] One ring of mail was placed into each slot, and a piece of iron wire 2.5 mm (0.098 in) in diameter was slotted through to hold them in place. [23] The mail suspension strip was held on by silver rivets with domed heads only two survive, though five were probably originally used. [22]

Suspended from the cap are two cheek guards and a mail curtain. [5] The cheek guards are made from individual pieces of iron and at their maximum dimensions are approximately 127 mm (5.0 in) long and 88 mm (3.5 in) wide. [24] They are curved inward both laterally and longitudinally, and each held to the brow band by a single hinge. [25] Both hinges are made of two pieces of iron, approximately 50 mm (2.0 in) long and 25 mm (0.98 in) wide, that were bent in half over a circular rod and then cut to create matching slots the upper dexter piece has four slots and the lower piece three—one of which is broken—a pattern that is reversed on the sinister side. [25] The upper halves fit over sections cut out of the brow band, the lower halves over the cheek guards, and all four pieces are held in place with two iron rivets. [25] The slots mesh together, and are held in place by 2.4 mm (0.094 in) diameter iron pins, the sinister of which is missing and has been replaced. [25]

The mail is remarkable in consisting of forge-welded links, rather than the far more common riveted links. [26] The helmet was found to be made of iron, with applied brass-work containing approximately 85% copper. [27] It is very like the helmets depicted being worn by Anglo-Saxon Northumbrian cavalrymen on one of the Pictish Aberlemno Sculptured Stones, believed to depict the Battle of Dun Nechtain of 685. [28] [ page needed ]

Decoration Edit

The helmet has two low crests of brass, one running from front to back, the other from side to side, forming a cross shape when viewed from above. The brass banding within the crests bears a Latin inscription:

IN NOMINE : DNI : NOSTRI : IHV : SCS : SPS : DI : ET : OMNIBVS : DECEMVS : AMEN: OSHERE : XPI

In the name of our Lord Jesus, the Holy Spirit, and God and to all we say Amen / Oshere / Christ

An alternative interpretation suggests the following translation:

In the name of our Lord Jesus Christ and of the Spirit of God, let us offer up Oshere to All Saints. Amen. [29]

Oshere is a male Anglian name and XPI are the first three letters of the word Christos Χριστός (khristos) in Greek. [27]

The brass crest terminates in a decorative animal head at the base of the nasal. The brass eyebrow decorations that flank the nasal also terminate in animal heads. The decoration of the nasal consists of two intertwined beasts, whose bodies and limbs degenerate into interlace ornament. [30]

Like many other helmets of Germanic Western and Northern Europe in the Early Middle Ages the construction of the Coppergate helmet is derivative of Late Roman helmet types. [31]

The helmet was discovered on 12 May 1982 during excavations for the Jorvik Viking Centre in York, North Yorkshire. [32] The York Archaeological Trust had previously excavated 1000m 2 in the area from 1976 to 1981, finding evidence of Roman occupation in the area but very little indication of Anglo-Saxon settlement. [33] In 1981 and 1982 an area five times the size of the initial excavation was developed, including for the construction of the Coppergate Shopping Centre and the Jorvik Viking Centre. [32] As most of the land had not been subject to the earlier archaeological excavations, a watching brief was maintained during the construction. [32]

At approximately 2:40pm an excavator, using a flat scraper bucket to remove the natural clay a few centimetres at a time, struck an object. [32] The foreman stopped work to check on the object's size, thinking it was a stone. [32] His fingers wiped away the dust and exposed the golden band at the top of the helmet, after which he alerted the archaeologists on site. [34] Their investigation showed a wood-lined pit, approximately 1.4m long on each side, and 20 cm (7.9 in) deep nineteenth-century construction of a factory had removed the upper portion, and had come within a few centimetres of the helmet. [35] Within the remaining portion were found a seemingly random collection of several pieces of wood and twigs, a sword-beater with textile impressions, a churn dasher, a fragment of a crucible, an antler beam, a rubbing stone, a fragment of glass, a fragment of hearth lining, seven fragments of slag, and three fragments of iron. [36] These were removed before the helmet to free up space. [2] The helmet itself had to be removed quickly, both to prevent corrosion caused by its first exposure to air in more than 1,000 years and for reasons of security, and by 8:30 it had been placed atop crumpled paper in a plastic bowl and packed away to spend the night in the "strong room" of the Borthwick Institute of Historical Research at the University of York. [37]

The helmet is easily the best preserved Anglo-Saxon example, [38] although its violent manner of discovery caused it significant damage. The excavator appears to have struck near the top of the rear dexter side, [39] shearing off rivets and taking the rear infill plate to pieces. The front infill plate was itself dislodged, while the lateral band was broken off and folded. This caused with it the crumpling and breaking into three pieces of the lateral inscription band, the rear edge pieces of which were lost entirely these may have been catapulted across the construction site. The rear dexter portion of the nose-to-nape band was also driven inwards. The shock of the excavator's strike probably also accounts for a missing portion along the rear sinister brow band, which may have corroded before disintegrating with the impact. The suspension strip from which the camail would have hung was also missing in this area, although it may have been removed before the helmet's deposition.

Archaeological context Edit

The pit in which the helmet was found was lined with oak planks that had been pressed into the clay. [40] It was most probably a well the lack of food or human parasite ova remains suggests that it was not a toilet or cesspit, while plant and animal remains are consistent with an open, aquatic environment. [41] The helmet appears to have been intentionally hidden within it, probably with the intention of recovery. [42] The sinister cheek piece and the camail had been carefully removed and placed inside the cap, which was then placed upside down in the pit, keeping the three parts together. [42] At the same time, the random assortment of items also found in the pit does not suggest that the helmet was deposited as a type of offering. [43] The volatile state of York during the eighth and ninth centuries would have given the helmet's owner ample opportunity to consider hiding it in a well. [44] The Vikings invaded York in 866, the Northumbrians, unsuccessfully, a year later. [44] Nor had the preceding century of Northumbrian rule been peaceful between 758 and 867, every King of Northumbria whose fate is known was either murdered, killed in battle or forced out. [44] Any one of these turbulent periods could have inspired the owner of the helmet to hide it with the unrealised intention of recovering it later. [44]

For the five weeks following its discovery, the helmet was placed in an airtight Perspex box with a humid nitrogen atmosphere. [45] [46] This was to solve the seemingly contradictory problems of conserving any remaining organic matter, which would need to be kept moist, and conserving the iron of the helmet, which would normally need to be kept dry to avoid corrosion. [47] [46] The humid nitrogen container avoided the latter danger by removing the oxygen needed for oxidation to occur. [47] [45] [46] In this state the helmet was held stable to allow for radiography and other examination it was removed from its container four times, for no more than two hours at a time, at which point some rusting occurred. [48] [46] The scans revealed the presence of the camail and the sinister cheek guard within the cap of the helmet, otherwise filled with clay. [47] [49] In mid-June the interior of the helmet was excavated in 10 mm (0.39 in) intervals, corresponding to the vertical slices taken of the helmet when it was CT scanned. [46] [49] No significant organic materials were found—it had been hoped that an interior leather cap, worn as additional padding, might be present—allowing the helmet to be protected against corrosion more easily, by sealing it in a new Perspex box desiccated with sachets of silica gel. [46] [50]

The helmet next had the accumulated layers of corrosion removed. This was done manually, using brushes and a scalpel, with an eye towards preserving the corrosion which itself retained the original surface texture of the helmet. [51] Micro-abrasive blasting was used on some areas such as the sinister cheek guard, after its broken fragments were adhered together, as the corrosion was too heavy and the surfaces too fragile to press against with the scalpel. [52] Most of the brass fittings needed only cleaning with glass bristle brush, and the interior of the cap was only lightly cleaned, leaving material for possible future analysis. [53] The mail, extremely well preserved despite being a cemented block when removed from the cap of the helmet, was freed by using a scalpel and mounted needle to chip away the corrosion. [54] Open rings were adhered closed, and cotton thread used to connect incomplete rings. [53]

Discussions the following year considered sending the helmet away for restoration, and on 21 June 1983 it was sent to the British Museum. [55] The museum's task was largely to undo the damage caused by the excavator by reshaping deformed pieces, reattaching loose fragments, and filling in missing areas. [55] It was also tasked with creating a mount for display. [55] The decision to restore the helmet was controversial. [2] The York Archaeological trust argued that doing so would risk destroying archaeological evidence, but was overruled by the York City Council. [56]

The nose-to-nape band was first reshaped with the use of a jig fastened to the helmet with three clamps, the middle of which was tightened to bend the metal into place. [57] The remaining reshaping was primarily carried out with padded clamps, hammers, and wooden stakes, although small fragments of the dexter lateral band and rear infill place were soldered in place at a high temperature. [58] The reshaped components were held in place using steel bolts unlike the rivets originally used, the heads of the bolts are slightly raised from the surface of the helmet. [59] The crushed and broken lateral inscription band, meanwhile, was annealed with a natural gas bunsen burner before being reshaped with wood and Perspex levers. [59] The two surviving strips edging the inscription band were manually reshaped, while the missing pieces, which may have been catapulted across the construction site by the excavator, [60] were recreated with brass. [59] The recreated strips did not repeat the engraved chevron pattern of the originals, creating a visible distinction between old and new. [59] In its restored state, the inscription band was placed on the helmet with a cellulose nitrate adhesive. [59] At some point in the process a slight dent in the front portion of the nose-to-nape inscription band was also reshaped, despite the belief that it represented contemporary use of the helmet, not post-deposition damage. [61]

A new suspension strip was created to replace the missing sinister half, and damaged rings had new rings of iron wire adhered to them in support. [62] The camail was then rehung, and attached to three loops on each cheek guard. [63] Replacements were made for several missing loops. [62] Gaps in protection were apparent between the loops, and so a wire was threaded through the loops to pull the rings against the cheek pieces this was an invention of the laboratory with no evidence of contemporary practice, but is reversible. [5]

The significant gaps in the helmet were filled in with polyester resin paste and fine copper gauze. [59] The gauze was cut to fit the size of the holes and edged with tin solder. [59] It was then held in place either by metal bolts put through the original rivet holes, or by the polyester resin paste. [59] This paste was spread atop the gauze, creating a smooth surface that was then coloured with natural powder pigments and shellac dissolved in industrial methylated spirits to match the original tone of the helmet. [59] Finally, the helmet was cleaned with 15% formic acid, washed with distilled water, dried in hot air, and coated with Renaissance Wax. [5] A Perspex mount was built, containing three silicone rubber buffers on which the helmet rests. [5] The restoration was completed in February 1984. [55]

The helmet forms part of the permanent collection of the Yorkshire Museum and has been included in many public exhibitions since its discovery.

During the 2009–2010 closure of the Yorkshire Museum for a major refurbishment, the helmet was displayed in the British Museum as part of the exhibition 'Treasures from Medieval York: England's other capital'. [64] When the museum reopened in August 2010 the helmet was displayed in the Medieval gallery in the exhibition 'Medieval York: The Power and the Glory'. [65] From 2012-2013 it was displayed in the 'York 1212: The Making of a City' exhibition, celebrating 800 years since York received a Royal charter. [66]

From 8 April to 5 May 2017, the helmet was on display in the Jorvik Viking Centre. [67]

From 2017 the helmet formed part of a touring exhibition titled 'Viking: Rediscover the Legend' and was displayed alongside the Bedale Hoard, the Vale of York hoard and the Cuerdale hoard, with the tour starting at the Yorkshire Museum in May 2017 with subsequent displays at the Atkinson Art Gallery and Library in Southport, Aberdeen Art Gallery, Norwich Castle Museum, and the University of Nottingham. [68] [69]

The helmet went back on display at the Yorkshire Museum in September 2019. [70]


The Rise of Hieratic, Demotic, and Coptic Scripts

Around 2700 BC, hieratic (meaning ‘priestly’ by the Greeks) script was introduced, which was a form of writing more akin to alphabet letters. Hieratic script eventually became widely used as a faster, more functional form of writing and it was used for monumental inscriptions. It remained the Egyptian script for about two millennia, or until Demotic script was introduced in the 7th century BC.

Demotic script was developed from hieratic and was an even simpler, more readable script favored throughout Egypt. It was used for administrative purposes and literary texts, scientific treatises, legal documents and business contracts. It marked a new development in language namely because it was a kind of dialect with its own grammar. During the Greco-Roman period demotic became the script of everyday life, while the older hieratic was reserved for sacred writings.

It is impossible to know exactly how the ancient Egyptian language sounded but by studying Coptic, the first alphabetic script of the Egyptian language, it is possible to gain an approximate idea. Coptic is written in the Greek alphabet and six signs are from demotic script. It was the language of the Christian period in Egypt from 395 – 641 AD.

The Coptic script eventually replaced Demotic as the commonly used script in Egypt. It was comprised of a series of dialects of which at least six had the status of written language and went out of fashion around the 14th century when the Arabs conquered Egypt and Arabic became the predominant language. The Coptic script and the language it represents were restricted to liturgical purposes in the Coptic Orthodox Church .

After the Roman Empire began its rule of the Egyptian nation, hieroglyphics began to fade from popular use. By the fourth century AD, Egypt had been converted to Christianity and summarily adopted the Greek alphabet and Coptic script, whereby the country’s traditional forms of writing fell into disuse. The last dated inscription in hieroglyphs was made on the gate post of a temple at Philae in 396 AD.


The Sinister Roman Cavalry Helmet of the Ribchester Hoard - History

3

Overview of Kaldheim's new Foretell mechanic!

Can anyone explain how foretell works in paper for tracking multiple foretell cards when you can't play those you foretold that turn? I feel like this could be a lot like the miracle mechanic problems.

Foretell functions like the mechanic Morph from Onslaught and Khans of Tarkir. You do need to track the order of cards you Foretell (This one was first, then this, etc.) and also keep them separated from your hand at all times. It's totally possible that someone foretells a card and then puts it back in their hand, but as long as you keep it face-down somewhere on the board, it'll probably be okay. Paper packs also sometimes come with Foretell markers which you can place on top of your exiled cards to make it a bit easier to keep track of.

In tournaments, you're also required to show what the foretold cards are at the end of the game in paper, which I get why they have to do, but also seems easy to mess up.

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Unfortunately, you can't. An effect has to completely resolve once it's started, so you will have to put some cards back on top of your deck.


Coppergate Helmet

The Coppergate Helmet (also known as the York Helmet) is an eighth-century Anglo-Saxon helmet found in York, England. It was discovered in May 1982 during excavations for the Jorvik Viking Centre at the bottom of a pit that is thought to have once been a well.

The helmet is one of six Anglo-Saxon helmets known to have survived to the present day, and is by far the best preserved. It shares its basic form with the helmet found in Wollaston, Northamptonshire, and like the others—from Benty Grange, Sutton Hoo, Shorwell, and Staffordshire—is one of the "crested helmets" that flourished in England and Scandinavia from the sixth through to the eleventh centuries. It is now in the collections of the Yorkshire Museum. [1]


10 Archaeological Finds Scientists Still Can't Explain!

10 Archaeological Finds Scientists Still Cant Explain!

I sometimes find it funny that people seem to think that they know everything. In reality, we know very little! In fact, I would say we know close to nothing, and the things we do “know” are based on the best evidence we currently have. Scientists, historians and archeologists are constantly discovering new information about the history of life on Earth, and some discoveries totally change the picture. In today’s video we are talking about 10 Archeological Finds that Scientists Still Can’t Explain! Can you?

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12 Most Amazing Archaeological Finds Scientists Still Cant Explain

All over the world, the civilizations who came before us have left clues about who they were, how they lived, and what they believed in. Most of the time, experts are very good at picking up on these clues and explaining what they mean to the public, but sometimes they’ll come across discoveries that leave them totally perplexed. Everything you’re about to see in this video has provoked wonder among archaeologists, but it’s a form of wonder that comes without any definitive answers!

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12 Most Mysterious Recent Archaeological Finds And Artifacts Scientists Still Cant Explain

Finding a historically significant artifact is only half of the battle for an archaeologist. As soon as they’ve located an object or a place, their next job is to explain its purpose or its history. That isn’t always possible for them, and nor is it always possible for their fellow experts, who they contact when they get stuck! That means some of the most amazing discoveries of recent times are currently unexplained, so we’ve put them together in this video for you to see if you can solve the mysteries!

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12 Most Mysterious Recent Archaeological Finds Scientists Still Cant Explain

While it's always exciting to find out what experts know about ancient civilizations and artifacts, it's also just as exciting to find out what they don't know. We're talking about mysteries they haven't solved and creations they can only guess at. They sometimes don't like to talk about it, but experts are often baffled by the discoveries they make.

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12 Most Amazing Archaeological Finds Scientists Still Cant Explain

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Scientists have a lot of answers to the world’s most difficult-to-solve problems, but they don’t have all the answers. That just doesn’t go for the problems that face the world today, but also some of the most puzzling discoveries of the past. Archaeologists often turn to scientists for help when they can’t explain the things they find, but there are times when scientists can’t help them. Everything you’re about to see in this video is an archaeological mystery that science struggles to get to the bottom of.

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12 Most Mysterious Archaeological Finds Scientists Still Cant Explain

Where's the fun in solving a problem if all the answers come at once? As human beings, we love a little mystery, and if that mystery comes in the shape of an ancient wonder, it's even better! We know of a few ancient finds that match that description, and we've collected some of the best of them so we can tell you their stories in this video.

12 Most Mysterious Archaeological Finds Scientists Still Cant Explain

In this video, you're about to see a series of compelling archaeological mysteries. They're discoveries that have been made and studied but haven't yet been fully understood. There's a great deal we don't know about our ancient ancestors, and in some cases, we may never be able to find all the answers - or at least not until someone invents time travel! See them for yourself - perhaps you can work out the mysteries and succeed where the world's best experts have failed?

12 Most Mysterious Archaeological Finds Scientists Still Cant Explain

There are a lot of gaps and guesses in our history books. Our historians have done the best they can with the information they have, and archaeologists help them with that by supplying them with as much information as they can about the things that they find. The problem with that arrangement is that archaeologists are sometimes mystified by the things that they discover, as we’re about to see with the amazing and enigmatic finds in this video!

12 Most Amazing Archaeological Finds Scientists Still Cant Explain

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There’s always something new to look at and study when it comes to archaeology. Archaeologists never stop digging, and so there will always be new discoveries and new information to sink our teeth into! While new archaeological discoveries are made almost every day, only the best of them make it to our channel. This is a video collection of all the most remarkable finds made in recent times!

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12 Most Mysterious Archaeological Finds Scientists Still Cant Explain

They say that ‘seeing is believing,’ and perhaps that’s true, but seeing definitely isn’t understanding. Just because we can see something doesn’t mean we truly know what we’re looking at. This is a common problem encountered by scientists and archaeologists when they find relics of our world’s distant past. They might know a little about who built it, or when it was built, but they don’t always understand the how or the why. All the discoveries in this video left the experts with more questions than answers!

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12 Most Incredible Finds That Scientists Still Cant Explain

We love a good mystery. As fascinating as it is when an archaeologist pulls something out of the ground and is immediately able to tell us all about what it is, and what it says about the people who came before us, we're much more excited when they come across something they can't explain. Even with all our current technology, the amount of information we're missing about our ancestors and the way they lived is startling. Perhaps we'd understand them a little better if we correctly understood the purpose of the strange artifacts you're about to see in this video!

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12 Most Mysterious Finds Scientists Still Cant Explain

The practice of archaeology doesn't only involve finding ancient objects and artifacts. It also involves explaining what they are and what they mean in the context of history. In a lot of ways, discovering something is an easy part. Understanding it is far harder, and in some cases, proves to be impossible! All the discoveries you're about to see challenged the archaeologists who made them, and some of them remain equally as puzzling today.

12 Most Mysterious Archaeological Finds Scientists Still Cant Explain

For all we know about ancient history, there’s still a lot of knowledge which we haven’t yet obtained, and may never obtain. A lot of our ancestors took their secrets to their graves, leaving us to guess and what they meant by their customs, rituals, and architectural works all these years later. Without better explanations being available, some of the items you’re about to see in this video are claimed to have paranormal or extraterrestrial origins. Some have been hidden under the ground, but others hide in plain sight!

12 Most Mysterious Archaeological Finds Scientists Still Cant Explain

One of the hardest truths that archaeologists have to face is that they'll never know everything there is to know about their discoveries. Some of the things they come across during their work don't seem to fit with the established narrative of history, and others have purposes that we can only guess at. Not knowing all the details only makes the discoveries more mysterious, though, and we all love a good mystery! Here are some fantastic and mysterious archaeological discoveries that baffled the people who found them.

12 Most Mysterious Discoveries Scientists Still Cant Explain

Even the most intelligent people in the world don’t know everything. You can spend your whole life studying science or history, but there will still be things that you’ll never completely understand. That doesn’t just go for new discoveries - it also covers objects and places that were created by our ancient ancestors. We might have vastly underestimated the abilities and intelligence of the civilizations that came before us, because all of the things you’re about to see remain a mystery to all the experts who’ve ever studied them.

12 Most Mysterious Artifact Finds Scientists Still Cant Explain

Understanding an artifact isn't as easy as looking at it. If the artifact is unusual, it will need to be studied, researched, and carefully assessed before any conclusions can be drawn. Even then, it's possible to get things wrong, and in some cases, you might find yourself short of answers even when you've done all the research! That's what this video is about - artifacts that have found ways of keeping their secrets no matter how much they're studied.

12 Most Mysterious Places Scientists Still Cant Explain

When it comes to life on Earth and human history, scientists and historians have some of the answers, but not all of them. They're great at their job, and they can reach grand conclusions based on tiny clues and pieces of evidence, but sometimes they encounter something that leaves them totally stumped. That's what today's video is about. These are the strange and wonderful places all over the world that are amazing to see, but impossible to understand even for a scientist!

Ancient Discoveries Scientists Still Cant Explain

Scientist's can't explain these ancient artifacts from recent archeological digs. From ancient Mayan's to modern day mysteries - can you help us solve any of them?

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Throughout time humans have done some amazing things. Across the globe archaeologists have found ancient relics that astound our modern sensibilities. Much of these remnants from the past have left archeologists asking more questions than answering them. Did ancient Mesoamericans worship batman? How did societies with limited technology move 3000 ton stones? What prompted our ancestors to design stunning works of art that can only be seen from the sky? As hard as they’ve tried, not even the experts have been able to solve some of these bizarre ancient mysteries. So to provoke your imagination as to what human beings were once capable of, let’s look at some of the greatest mysteries from the ancient world, that modern science has yet to fully understand.

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Top 10 Archaeological Mysteries Science STILL Cant Explain!

From an ancient sword with a mysterious script to underground chambers with weird artifacts, and a famous curse, here are ten archaeological mysteries science can’t explain.

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10. Hanging Disc
Better known as the “disco colgante”, this copper disc was made by the Moche or Mochica Culture from the northern coast of Peru. The Moche made many discs, made from large sheets of copper that they would then hammer into shape and decorate. Most of them have embossed creatures or symbols such as the sun and its rays.

9. Malta’s Megalithic Mysteries
The island of Malta is home to several ancient temples that pose more questions than answers about their builders. They were built during the fourth and third centuries B.C. and are aligned to the equinoxes with some containing special markers for the solstices and even an ancient calendar marker.

8. The Encoded Crusader Sword
In July 1825, a 13th-century double-edged sword was discovered in the River Witham in Lincolnshire, England. In 2015, the British Library appealed to the public for help deciphering a strange inscription found on the sword.

7. Phaistos Disk
Discovered in 1908 at the Minoan Palace of Phaistos on Crete, the Phaistos disk is a fired clay disk measuring roughly 6.3 inches (16 cm) in diameter, with each side containing 242 undeciphered symbols arranged in a spiral.

6. Rozhirche Cave Monastery
In the Carpathian Mountains of western Ukraine sits Rozhirche Village, where there’s a unique cave monastery dating back to sometime between the 13th and 14th centuries. Built into 70-million-year-old rock, no one knows when the monastery was founded and for what purpose. What we do know is that it was used heavily by pagans, as evidenced by artwork on the walls, but the rest is still a mystery.

5. Bighorn Medicine Wheel
Sitting at an altitude of nearly 10,000 feet (3,048 meters) at the summit of Medicine Mountain in north central Wyoming’s Bighorn Mountains is a mysterious stone pattern that spends most of the year covered in snow. It measures 80 feet (24 meters) across and has 28 spokes stemming from a central ring-shaped rock pile, or cairn, which is surrounded by six similar cairns throughout the wheel’s circumference.

4. Nan Madol
Nan Madol is the only ancient city built on top of a coral reef. It was constructed on the southern shore of what is now the island of Pohnpei in Micronesia. Its ruins, which constitute one of the oldest archaeological sites not on a heritage list, are made of elaborate stones and columns that are so heavy, nobody knows how they were transported to the site.

3. Glozel Artifacts
In 1924, a 17-year-old French farmer named Émile Fradin got his foot stuck in the ground while plowing a field in Glozel, France. Instead of being a regular hole, it turned out to be an underground chamber. Over the following years, more than 3,000 artifacts were allegedly found in the cavern, including items made of ceramic and bone, as well as masks and statues!

2. Pyramids Of Sona
It is easy to overlook the 8 grassy mounds in a field, but known as the pyramids of Sona, these formations have an unclear past. Located in Brasov County, Romania, roughly 155 miles (250 km) from Bucharest, the country’s capital city, the pyramids of Sona are situated in two rows, with each measuring up to 100 feet (30 meters) high.

1. Hope Diamond Curse
The Hope Diamond is a 45-carat blue gem roughly the size of a walnut. It is arguably the world’s most well-known diamond. Many believe that the stone, which is worth an estimated $350 million dollars, is cursed.

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12 Most Amazing Archaeological Finds Scientists Still Cant Explain

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Just because an archaeologist finds something doesn’t automatically mean that they understand it. An archaeologist can look at an object, measure it and weigh it, but often they can only guess at its true purpose. Occasionally, further investigations only serve to generate more questions than answers! Everything you’re about to see in this video is a fantastic archaeological discovery, but also something of a mystery both to the people who found it, and the experts who’ve had the chance to study it since.

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12 Most Incredible Recent Archaeological Finds Scientists Still Cant Explain

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Archaeology is the study of human history, but you don't have to travel very far back in human history to find great archaeological discoveries. In fact, incredible artifacts and objects are found almost every week of the year! There's always something new and interesting to report in this exciting field of the sciences, and we're always excited to bring the biggest and best new discoveries to you on this channel. That's what we're doing in this video!

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12 Most Mysterious Artifacts Finds Scientists Still Cant Explain

The world would be a very boring place if we understood everything we ever saw - so we’re glad that isn’t the case! Life is made more exciting by mysteries, and mysteries crop up all the time in the field of archaeology. Our leading experts are frequently baffled by some of the astonishing discoveries they make, but if you ask us, that only makes their discoveries more interesting. Here, we’re going to check out some of the all-time great mysterious archaeological finds!

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12 Most Mysterious Discoveries That Scientists Still Cant Explain

Just because you can see, weigh, and measure something doesn't mean that you have a full understanding of it. For everything that science has taught us and continues to teach us, there are things that it simply cannot explain, however hard it tries. Everything you're about to see in this video is a mystery. The mysteries come with theories, but none of them have one single satisfying explanation. They're objects and places that give us questions, but very few answers!

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10 Mysterious Discoveries Scientists Still Cant Explain

From 5,000 year old coffins to giant footprints embedded in the rock, here are 10 mysterious discoveries scientists can’t explain.

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10. Coffins Of The Cursed Well
Thirteen completely sealed Ancient Egyptian graves were recently excavated from an alleged “cursed” well, where they were buried 36 feet (11 meters) underground in several niches. The wooden coffins, rare for their remarkably preserved state and even bearing some of their original colors, were stacked atop one another within the tombs.

9. Giant Footprint
In one of the most bizarre discoveries ever, in a rocky area in South Africa, a hunter discovered what looks like an enormous fossilized footprint embedded in the rock. Measuring four feet (1.2 meters) tall, to some it is evidence that giants once roamed the earth a long, long time ago.

8. Mystery Coin Hoard
Earlier this year, Israeli teenagers volunteering on an archaeological dig made quite the discovery- a clay jar stuffed to the brim with gold coins, dating back 1,100 years. They were very excited as it’s not very often that people strike gold!! Researchers and experts are now very curious about the 425 coins.

7. Mustang Caves
Also called the Sky Caves of Nepal, the Mustang Caves are a collection of around 10,000 artificially-constructed rock-cut cave tombs in Nepal’s Mustang District. Nepal annexed the region, formerly known as the Kingdom of Lo, during the 18th century.

6. Saudi Desert Gates
In 2017, archaeologists identified around 400 previously unknown stone structures, called “gates,” in the Arabian desert. Thought to be constructed by nomadic tribes thousands of years ago, the gates, made from basalt boulders, call attention to the lack of scientific attention paid to the vast region.

5. Horned Face Ornament
Southeast of Krakow, Poland in the village of Biskupice, archaeologists recently unearthed an ancient ornament bearing an eerie, horned face. Measuring just four inches (10 cm) across, the strange object was found beneath one of three ancient homesteads dating back to the Stone Age.

4. Royston Cave
Located near Cambridge, England, Royston Cave is an artificial cave believed to have once been used by the Order of the Knights Templar as a secret meeting place. Measuring roughly 26 feet (8 meters) high and 17 feet (5 meters) in diameter, the circular, bell-shaped chamber was accidentally discovered during the mid-18th century, and its origins remain unknown to this day.

3. Ancient Human-Like Footprints
Eerily human-like footprints discovered in Crete in 2017 suggest that a previously unknown hominid -- in other words, an ancient primate closer to humans than chimps -- wandered the area as far back as 5.7 million years ago.

2. The Havering Hoard
Popularly known as a “Bronze Age Mystery,” the Havering Hoard is the largest-ever collection of Bronze Age artifacts ever discovered in London. Unearthed in 2018, the nearly 3,000-year-old hoard contains axe heads, spearheads, and fragments of swords, daggers, and knives, as well as other objects rarely discovered in the U.K., amounting to 453 artifacts total, dating back to between 900 and 800 B.C.

1. The American “Lost Colony”
One of the earliest groups of settlers in the United States, including the first European baby born in the U.S., inhabited the long, lost colony of Roanoke Island east of modern-day Virginia during the 1570s and ‘80s, from which they disappeared without a trace. The group of several hundred stayed on Roanoke while their ship returned to England to re-supply and pick up more people bound for the “New World.”

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Real Ancient Artifacts That Scientists Cant Explain

Scientists have made some amazing discoveries that they still can't explain. Ancient alien coins turning up in Egyps, and giant ancient weapons, like the samurai sword currently on display! Does this change our origins?

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Welcome back, Richest fans! The human race has been plodding about on the earth for a long, long time. As civilisations rise up and fall, artefacts about their existence can be lost to time. Yet sometimes, just below the earth's surface, a treasure waits to be discovered. From there, it can fill in the blanks of human history. But sometimes, those discoveries don’t provide any definitive answers. In fact, those ancient assets can generate many questions. Today, we’re going to look at those instances. When some archaic discoveries can leave scientists scratching their heads in confusion.
If you don’t want any spoilers for the video, probably best to look away now (and watch the video). We’re going to take a look at the Norimitsu Odachi Samurai Sword from Japan. Is it the weapon of giants? Some think so! There’s also the Terracotta Army figures in China. A cluster of antique coins were found in Egypt. Could they be alien? We also have the oldest, analogue computer in existence, the Antikythera Mechanism. In Saudi Arabia, the Al-Naslaa Monolith could be split due to lasers! In the country of Jordan, they have the wall known as Khatt Shebib and unexplained structures known as the Big Circles. Back in Japan, there’s the Underwater Monument Yonaguni. It’s like a submerged pyramid of Atlantis. Speaking of, there’s some secrets in Egypt around the Great Sphinx and Pyramid Of Giza. Also, another mysterious tomb is involved. Finally, there’s the story of Delhi’s Iron Pillar in India. It somehow hasn’t rusted for over a thousand years! So, for these bizarre occurrences and more, check out the video today!

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12 Most Mysterious Archaeological Finds Scientist Still Cant Explain

Some of the objects and artifacts that have been found by the world's archaeologists are utterly baffling. They're confusing when they come out of the ground, and even when they've been sent away and examined by experts, they're still a complete mystery. It seems we'll never know all there is to know about our ancestors and some of their strange customs and beliefs! All of the discoveries you're about to see in this video left the people who found them with more questions than answers.

12 Most Mysterious Ancient Artifacts Finds Scientists Still Cant Explain

You might have heard the old expression that “seeing is believing.” That might be true, but seeing and believing isn’t the same as understanding. Historians, archaeologists, and even members of the public have come across countless artefacts in their travels that have turned out to be hiding surprising secrets - and here’s a collection of the very best of them!

12 Most Mysterious Archaeological Artifacts Scientists Still Cant Explain

When you go to look at a historical artifact in a museum, it will be accompanied by a plaque that tells you what it is and where it came from. In some museums, you might even get an audio recording or a guided tour to provide you with more detail. Not every discovery comes with an explanation, though! Even with all the information at our disposal in the modern age, there are some things that are best scientists and experts find it hard to explain. See if you can come up with explanations for the things you're about to see in this video!

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12 Most Amazing Archaeological Finds Scientists Still Cant Explain

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Some of the discoveries made by archaeologists are surprising. We don’t just mean that they’re surprising to us - they also surprise the archaeologists who find them! Not everything that our ancient ancestors left behind for us to discover is easily explained away, so today we’re going to take a close look at some of the most incredible and mysterious archaeological discoveries of all time. Strap in - it’s going to be a wild ride!

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12 Most Incredible Discoveries Scientists Still Cant Explain

Human beings love mysteries, and scientists might love mysteries more than anybody else. Whenever they’re confronted by something inexplicable, they use all their skills and training to try to understand and explain it. Often, they succeed. Sometimes, though, they’re left just as baffled and confused as the rest of us. Many archaeological discoveries leave scientists with that frustrated, baffled theory, and we’ve packed some of the very best of them into this video for you!

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12 Most Mysterious Artifact Finds Scientists Still Cant Explain

When an artifact is discovered, it represents either the end of a story or the beginning of one. It might be the case that the artifact answers a question posed by historians or archaeologists and can be understood immediately. That's fine, but we prefer the other types of artifacts - those that provoke questions and create new questions to answer and puzzles to solve! You're about to see plenty of those artifacts in this mystery-packed video.

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12 Most Mysterious Things Science Still Cant Explain

There's a lot we can tell about an ancient building through archaeology and scientific research. We can tell when it was built, and usually how it was built, too. We might even be able to get an idea of what it was used for, but we can't always get all of the answers. Every structure you're about to see in this list is an outstanding feat of ancient construction, and although we know a little about all of them, we're still left with more questions than answers.

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12 Most Amazing Archaeological Finds Scientists Still Cant Explain

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Archaeology and science can tell us quite a lot about the way our ancestors and forefathers lived, but not quite everything. While there’s a good chance that an expert might be able to identify a new archaeological discovery, there are some finds that totally perplex them and leave them as mystified as the rest of us. This video is a celebration of those perplexing finds - it contains some amazing archaeological mysteries that have confounded the greatest minds on the planet!

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12 Most Mysterious Archaeological Finds Scientists Still Cant Explain

Archaeological discoveries are always interesting. Finding out more about the people and places that came before us will never be boring, and that’s why the latest news in archaeology is always worth reporting. Some discoveries are more exciting than others, though. Much as we enjoy it when an archaeologist can tell us everything about the discovery they’ve just made, we get more excited when they find something that they can’t explain at all. That’s what this video is about - archaeological mysteries that remain unexplained!

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15 Oldest Technologies That Scientists Cant Explain

We often believe modern society to be the zenith of humanity thus far, incorrectly perceiving ‘technology’ as a modern craft. But some societies of the past were actually significantly more creative than we ever give them credit for. Not only did they craft technology we still use today but sometimes they designed things that we still don’t fully understand! These are the oldest technologies that scientists can’t explain!

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12 Most Incredible Finds That Scientists Still Cant Explain

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Not all discoveries can be easily explained. All over the world, there are scientific and archaeological mysteries that even the best minds in the world can't get to the bottom of no matter how much time they spend studying them, and the questions they have about them might never be answered. We love those mysteries, though, because they mean we can make exciting videos like this one, full of wonders old and new!

#Mysterious #Archaeological #Finds #EverSee #Compilation #LightningTop

12 Most Mysterious Artifacts That Scientists Still Cant Explain

You can’t tell everything there is to know about an object, a place, or even a person just by looking. Sometimes you still don’t know everything there is to know even after a detailed examination. The technologies and rituals of our ancestors are still largely a mystery to us, and that mystery gets bigger every time archaeologists pull another inexplicable object out of the ground.

12 Most Amazing Recent Archaeological Finds Scientists Still Cant Explain

One of the toughest things about being an archaeologist or scientist is accepting that there are things that you'll never know. Every discovery you're about to see in this video has been observed, tested, and considered by some of the brightest minds on the planet, and yet those bright minds have been forced to concede that they don't understand them completely, and they probably never will. They're archaeological finds that have kept their mysteries, and we're excited to show them to you!

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MYSTERIOUS Discoveries Science STILL Cant Explain!

Check out these mysterious discoveries science still can't explain! This top 10 list of bizarre and unexplained archaeological findings has some weird discoveries we still don't have answers for today!

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10. The Ulfberht Swords
Ulfberht swords were the weapon of choice of the Vikings, along with other tribes around northern Europe. They had a long, double edged blade, and a straight crossbar over the grip. There are only about 170 still known to exist today, each of which dates to between the 9th and 11th centuries! And the cool thing is they have the tell-tale inscription in the blade itself.

9. The Drepanosaurus
Whenever a new fossil is found, it gives further clues as to the evolution of animals, and of those that once roamed the earth. Every now and then, though, something is found that makes no sense at all in terms of scientific understanding, and requires a complete re-think of what is taken as fact. This is exactly what’s happening with a little known creature, the Drepanosaurus.

8. Rat Kings
The Rat Kings are a rare phenomena from the animal kingdom that is so bizarre, no-one is entirely sure how it happens. You may have seen one before, but if you haven’t- they really are something quite unusual. They have been a part of legend for centuries, and are formed when a number of rats become attached by the tail.

7. The Martian Meteorite
In 1984, a meteorite fell to earth, something that in itself is no unusual thing. But this one, known as ALH84001, was found to hold secrets that no-one has been able to explain. The 4.1 billion-year-old rock is thought to have originated on Mars, having been dislodged during a collision, and floated through space until it fell into earth’s atmosphere. Unlike other similar specimens, the surface of this rock had something very unusual- what appeared to be the signs of fossilised bacteria.

6. The Longyou Grottoes
The Longyou Grottoes are a series of underground structures near the village of Shiyan Beicun, in the Zhejiang province in China. They are thought to be at least 2000 years old, but scientists and researchers have no idea how they were built, what they were used for, or even who was responsible for them.

5. What was the first dinosaur?
Since we first realized that dinosaurs roamed the earth, palaeontologists have been trying to understand the full range of creatures that once lived, with particular interest revolving around which was the first dinosaur to ever live.

4. The Nampa Stone Doll
The Nampa figurine looks like any other that has been made by an ancient civilisation. The mystery surrounding this one, though, is how it came to be in the place where it was found. It was discovered in 1889 near the town of Nampa in Idaho. Workers were searching for water, and dug a well, which involved drilling a borehole to 295 feet.

3. The Piri Reis Map
Today we take maps for granted. Satellite technology combined with the work of cartographers over the years, plus Google of course, have created incredibly detailed depictions of our planet. All we have to do is use our smartphone! This wasn’t always the way, clearly, and maps from centuries ago were just kind of close approximations based on ship voyages.

2. The Voynich Manuscript
The 600 year old Voynich manuscript is often thought of as being the most mysterious book that has ever been written, and still, to this day, scientists aren’t able to explain what’s inside.

1. Dinosaur and Human Footprints
The final mystery is one which calls into question the idea that humans weren’t around at the time of the dinosaurs, because their footprints have been found side by side. The discovery was made in the Paluxy river, Texas, where hundreds of dinosaur footprints have been found. Their foot impressions were perfectly preserved by the river bed.

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9 Mysterious Recent Discoveries Scientists Cant Explain

From incredible ancient building techniques to unexplained objects in the sky, here are 9 incredible finds that scientists can’t explain.

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9. Djoser Pyramid
The Egyptians built their first pyramid, known to us today as the Step Pyramid of Djoser, around 4,700 years ago in the ancient necropolis of Saqqara. Djoser was the first king of Egypt’s Third Dynasty. His vizier, Imhotep, diverted from traditional building methods and materials by designing a six-layered, 197-foot (60 meters) high stone pyramid far unlike the rectangular dry clay brick monuments that were customary at the time.

8. Ufo Sightings In Idaho
Idaho ranked as the number one state for UFO sightings in 2020, tallying up an impressive -- or, perhaps, troubling -- 164 reports of strange objects seen in the sky. Some of these sightings can be easily explained. For instance, people around the world have been baffled by SpaceX’s StarLink satellites, which seem like an otherworldly string of white lights passing through the sky.

7. World’s Oldest Bridge
In the early 20th century, archaeologists in Girsu, Iraq discovered a monumental brick structure that was huge, but they had no idea what it was so they called it the “enigmatic construction”. Girsu was once the center of a large city state in ancient Mesopotamia, the Cradle of Civilization. This is one of the earliest known cities in the world. Now known as Tello, it was built during the third millennium B.C. -- around 4,000 years ago, and it was rediscovered in 1929.

6. White Island Mining Disaster
Whakaari, also known as White Island, is New Zealand’s most active volcano. It’s located roughly 30 miles (48 km) off the east coast of the country’s North Island. In September 1914, part of the volcano’s crater wall collapsed, triggering a landslide that sent mud and rock gushing into the lake below. All eleven sulfur miners on the island at the time were buried alive in the disaster.

5. Bosnia Pyramids
Amateur archaeologist Sam Osmanagich made headlines in 2008 with his adamant claims that the world’s oldest and largest pyramids are actually in Bosnia, near the city of Visoko. He insisted that they were built 12,000 years ago by an advanced ancient society, and his stories about them became increasingly more abstract in the following years.

4. Encoded Sword
During the 19th century, someone discovered a unique double-edged 13th-century sword in the River Witham in northern England. It contains a cryptic 18-letter inscription that runs down its central groove.

3. Skyquakes
There are various names for skyquakes depending on where you live in the world, including Barisal Guns (India), Uminari (Japan), Mistpoeffers (Netherlands and Belgium), Lagoni (Italy), and Retumbos (Philippines).

2. The Stargate Of Sri Lanka
Located on a 40-acre (16 hectares) plot of land in Sri Lanka, Ranmasu Uyana is a park containing the beautiful gardens enjoyed by past royals. The gardens themselves and the nearby Tessa Wewa reservoir were built in the third century B.C., during the time of King Tissa.

1. Muziris
During the early 2000s, archaeologists excavated at a site in Pattanam, a village in southern India where strange beads surfaced every year during monsoon season. Over the following years, they discovered a plethora of artifacts, including Roman amphorae, a 2,000-year-old dugout canoe, building foundations, glass beads, gold ornaments iron, lead, and copper tools, and a wharf-like structure.

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You probably can’t remember every single fact or skill you were taught when you were at school. Our memories fade over time, and if we don’t practice the skills that we’ve been taught regularly, we eventually forget how to use them at all. That doesn’t just apply to individual people, though - that applies to the whole human race! There’s plenty of evidence that our ancestors had skills and abilities that we lack today, and this video contains all the proof of that you’ll ever need.

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Who doesn’t love a mystery? Almost all of us do - that’s why mystery thrillers are among the most popular genres of films, books, and television! You don’t have to resort to fiction to find a good mystery, though. They’re all around us, and they’re found by archaeologists, paleontologists, and curious members of the public all the time. We’re going to prove that with this video tour of incredible-yet-mysterious discoveries!

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CHAPTER. V

THE END OF ROMAN BRITAIN, A.D. 211-455

SECTION A.

Era of Pretenders&mdashProbus&mdashVandlebury&mdashFirst notice of Saxons&mdashOrigin of name&mdashCount of the
Saxon Shore&mdashCarausius&mdashAllectus&mdashLast Romano-British coinage&mdashBritain Mistress of the Sea
&mdashReforms of Diocletian&mdashConstantius Chlorus&mdashRe-conquest of Britain&mdashDiocletian provinces
&mdashDiocletian persecution&mdashThe last "Divus"&mdashGeneral scramble for Empire&mdashBritish Army wins
for Constantine&mdashChristianity established.

A. 1.&mdashAfter the death of Severus in A.D. 211, Roman historians tell us nothing more concerning Britain till we come to the rise of the only other Emperor who died at York, Constantius Chlorus. During the miserable period which the wickedness of Caracalla brought upon the Roman world, when Pretender after Pretender flits across the scene, most to fail, some for a moment to succeed, but all alike to end their brief course in blood, our island remained fairly quiet. The Army of Britain made one or two futile pronunciamentos (the least unsuccessful being those for Postumus in A.D. 258, and Victorinus in A.D. 265), and in 277 the Emperor Probus, probably to keep it in check, leavened it with a large force [219] recruited from amongst his Vandal prisoners, [316] whose name may, perhaps, still survive in Vandlebury Camp, on the Gog-Magog [317] Hills, near Cambridge. But not till the energy and genius of Diocletian began to bring back to order the chaos into which the Roman world had fallen does Britain play any real part in the higher politics.

A. 2.&mdashThen, however, we suddenly find ourselves confronted with names destined to exert a supreme influence on the future of our land. The Saxons from the Elbe, and the Franks from the Rhine had already begun their pirate raids along the coasts to the westwards. [318] Each tribe derived its name from its peculiar national weapon (the Franks from their throwing-axe (franca), [319] the Saxons from the saexes, long murderous knives, snouted like a Norwegian knife of the present day, which they used with such deadly effect) [320] and their appearance constituted a [220] new and fearful danger to the Roman Empire. Never, since the Mediterranean pirates were crushed by Pompey (B.C. 66) had it been exposed to attacks by sea. A special effort was needed to meet this new situation, and we find, accordingly, a new officer now added to the Imperial muster,&mdashthe Count of the Saxon Shore. His jurisdiction extended over the northern coast of Gaul and the southern and eastern shores of Britain, the head-quarters of his fleet being at Boulogne.

A. 3.&mdashThe first man to be placed in this position was Carausius, [321] a Frisian adventurer of low birth, but great military reputation, to which unfortunately he proved unequal. When his command was not followed by the looked-for putting-down of the pirate raiders, he was suspected, probably with truth, of a secret understanding with them. The Government accordingly sent down orders for his execution, to which he replied (A.D. 286) by open rebellion, took the pirate fleets into his pay, and having thus got the undisputed command of the sea, succeeded in maintaining himself as Emperor in Britain for the rest of his life.

A. 4.&mdashHis reign and that of his successor (and murderer) Allectus are marked by the last and most extraordinary development of Romano-British coinage. Since the time of Caracalla no coins which can be definitely proved to deserve this name are found but now, in less than ten years, our mints struck no fewer than five hundred several issues, all of different [221] types. Nearly all are of bronze, with the radiated head of the Emperor on the obverse, and on the reverse devices of every imaginable kind. The British Lion once more figures, as in the days of Cymbeline and we have also the Roman Wolf, the Sea-horse, the Cow (as a symbol of Prosperity), Plenty, Peace, Victory, Prudence, Health, Safety, Might, Good Luck, Glory, all symbolized in various ways. But the favourite type of all is the British warship for now Britannia, for the first time, ruled the waves, and was, indeed, so entirely Mistress of the Sea that her fleet appeared even in Mediterranean waters. [322] The vessels figured are invariably not Saxon "keels," but classical galleys, with their rams and outboard rowing galleries, and are always represented as cleared for action (when the great mainsail and its yard were left on shore).

A. 5.&mdashThe usurpation of Carausius, "the pirate," as the Imperial panegyrists called him, [323] brought Diocletian's great reform of the Roman administration within the scope of practical politics in Britain. The old system of Provinces, some Imperial, some Senatorial, with each Pro-praetor or Pro-consul responsible only and immediately to the central government at Rome, had obviously become outgrown. And the Provinces themselves were much too large. Diocletian accordingly began by dividing the Empire into four "Prefectures," two in the east and two in the west. Each [222] pair was to be under one of the co-Augusti, who again was to entrust one of his Prefectures to the "Caesar" [324] or heir-apparent of his choice. Thus Diocletian held the East, while Galerius, his "Caesar," took the Prefecture of Illyricum. His colleague Maximian, as Augustus of the West, ruled in Italy and the remaining Prefecture, that of "the Gauls," fell to the Western Caesar, Constantius Chlorus. Each Prefecture, again, was divided into "Dioceses" (that of Constantius containing those of Britain, Gaul, Spain, and Mauretania), each under a "Vicar," and comprising a certain number of "Provinces" (that of Britain having four). Thus a regular hierarchy with rank above rank of responsibility was established, and so firmly that Diocletian's system lasted (so far as provincial government was concerned) till the very latest days of the Roman dominion.

A. 6.&mdashWhen Constantius thus became Caesar of the West, his first task was to restore Britain to the Imperial system. He was already, it seems, connected with the island, and had married a British lady named Helen. [325] Their son Constantine, a youth of special promise (according to the panegyrists), had been born at York, about A.D. 274, and now appeared on the scene to aid his father's operations with supernatural speed, [223] "quasi divino quodam curriculo." [326] Extraordinary celerity, indeed, marked all these operations. Allectus was on his guard, with one squadron at Boulogne to sweep the coast of Gaul, and another cruising in the Channel. By a sudden dash Constantius [in A.D. 296] seized the mouth of Boulogne harbour, threw a boom across it, "defixis in aditu trabibus," and effectually barred the pirates from access to the sea. [327] Meanwhile the fleet which he had been building simultaneously in various Gallic ports was able to rendezvous undisturbed at Havre.

A. 7.&mdashHis men were no expert mariners like their adversaries and, for this very reason, were ready, with their Caesar at their head, to put to sea in threatening weather, which made their better-skilled pilots hesitate. "What can we fear?" was the cry, "Caesar is with us." Dropping down the Seine with the tide on a wild and rainy morning, they set sail with a cross wind, probably from the north-east, a rare thing with ancient ships. As they neared the British coast the breeze sank to a dead calm, with a heavy mist lying on the waveless sea, in which the fleet found it impossible to keep together. One division, with Constantius himself on board, made their land-fall somewhere in the west, perhaps at Exeter, the other far to the east, possibly at Richborough.

A. 8.&mdashBut the wonderful luck which attended Constantius, and on which his panegyrists specially [224] dwell, made all turn out for the best. The mist enabled both his divisions to escape the notice of the British fleet, which was lying off the Isle of Wight on the watch for him and the unexpected landing at two such distant points utterly demoralized the usurper. Of the large force which had been mustered for land defence, only the Frankish auxiliaries could be got together in time to meet Constantius&mdashwho, having burnt his ships (for his only hope now lay in victory), was marching, with his wonted speed, straight on London. One battle, [328] in which scarcely a single Roman fell on the British side, was enough the corpse of Allectus [ipse vexillarius latrocinii] was found, stripped of the Imperial insignia, amongst the heaps of slain barbarians, and the routed Franks fled to London. Here, while they were engaged in sacking the city before evacuating it, they were set upon by the eastern division of the Roman army (under Asclepiodotus the Praetorian Prefect) [329] and slaughtered almost to a man. The rescued metropolis eagerly welcomed its deliverers, and the example was followed by the rest of Britain the more readily that the few surviving Franks were distributed throughout the land to perish in the provincial amphitheatres.

A. 9.&mdashThe Diocletian system was now introduced [225] and, instead of Hadrian's old divisions of Upper and Lower Britain, the island south of his Wall was distributed into four Provinces, "Britannia Prima," "Britannia Secunda," "Maxima Caesariensis," and "Flavia Caesariensis." That the Thames, the Severn, and the Humber formed the frontier lines between these new divisions is probable. But their identification, in the current maps of Roman Britain, with the later Wessex, Wales, Northumbria, and Mercia (with East Anglia), respectively, is purely conjectural. [330] All that we know is that when the district between Hadrian's Wall and Agricola's Rampart was reconquered in 369, it was made a fifth British Province under the name Valentia. The Governor of each Province exercised his functions under the "Vicar" of the "Diocese," an official of "Respectable" rank&mdashthe second in precedence of the Diocletian hierarchy (exclusive of the Imperial Family).

A. 10.&mdashWith the Diocletian administration necessarily came the Diocletian Persecution&mdashan essential feature of the situation. There is no reason to imagine that the great reforming Emperor had, like his colleague Maximian, any personal hatred for Christianity. But Christianity was not among the religiones licitae of the Empire. Over and over again it had been pronounced [226] by Imperial Rescript unlawful. This being so, Diocletian saw in its toleration merely one of those corruptions of lax government which it was his special mission to sweep away, and proceeded to deal with it as with any other abuse,&mdashto be put down with whole-hearted vigour and rigour.

A. 11.&mdashThe Faith had by this time everywhere become so widespread that the good-will of its professors was a political power to be reckoned with. Few of the passing Pretenders of the Era of Confusion had dared to despise it, some had even courted it and thus throughout the Empire the Christian hierarchy had been established, and Christian churches been built everywhere while Christians swarmed in every department of the Imperial service,&mdashtheir neglect of the official worship winked at, while they, in turn, were not vigorous in rebuking the idolatry of their heathen fellow-servants. Now all was changed. The sacred edifices were thrown down, or (as in the famous case of St. Clement's at Rome) made over for heathen worship, the sacred books and vessels destroyed, and every citizen, however humble, had to produce a libellus, [331] or magisterial certificate, testifying that he had formally done homage to the Gods of the State, by burning incense at their shrines, by pouring libations in their name, and by partaking of the victims sacrificed upon their altars. Torture and death were the lot of all recusants and to the noble army of martyrs who now sealed their testimony with [227] their blood Britain is said (by Gildas) to have contributed a contingent of no fewer than seventeen thousand, headed by St. Alban at Verulam.

A. 12.&mdashSo thorough-going a persecution the Church had never known. But it came too late for Diocletian's purpose and it was probably the latent consciousness of his failure that impelled him, in 305, to resign the purple and retire to his cabbage-garden at Dyrrhachium. Maximian found himself unwillingly obliged to retire likewise and the two Caesars, Galerius and Constantius, became, by the operation of the new constitution, ipso facto Augusti.

A. 13.&mdashBut already the mutual jealousy and distrust in which that constitution was so soon to perish began to manifest themselves. Galerius, though properly only Emperor of the East, seized on Rome, and with it on the person of the young Constantine, whom he hoped to keep as hostage for his father's submission. The youth, however, contrived to flee, and post down to join Constantius in Gaul, slaughtering every stud of relays along the entire road to delay his pursuers. Both father and son at once sailed for Britain, where the former shortly died, like Severus, at York. With their arrival the persecution promptly ceased [332] for Helena, at least, was an ardent Christian, and her husband well-affected to the Faith. Yet, on his death, he was, like his predecessors, proclaimed Divus the last formal bestowal of that title being thus, like the first, [333] specially connected with Britain. [228] Constantius was buried, according to Nennius, [334] at Segontium, wherever that may have been and Constantine, though not yet even a Caesar, was at once proclaimed by the soldiers (at his native York) Augustus in his father's room.

A. 14.&mdashThis was the signal for a whole outburst of similar proclamations all over the Roman world, Licinius, Constantine's brother-in-law, declared himself Emperor at Carnutum, Maxentius, son of Maximian and son-in-law of Galerius, in Rome, Severus in the Illyrian provinces, and Maximin (who had been a Caesar) in Syria. Galerius still reigned, and even Maximian revoked his resignation and appeared once more as Augustus. But one by one this medley of Pretenders swept each other away, and the survival of the fittest was exemplified by the final victory of Constantine over them all. For a few years he bided his time, and then, at the head of the British army, marched on Rome. Clear-sighted enough to perceive that events were irresistibly tending to the triumph of Christianity, he declared himself the champion of the Faith and it was not under the Roman Eagle, but the Banner of Christ, [335] that his soldiers fought and [229] won. Coins of his found in Britain, bearing the Sacred Monogram which led his men to the crowning victory of 312 at the Milvian Bridge (the intertwined letters Χ [Chi] and Ρ [Rho] between Α [Alpha] and Ω [Omega], the whole forming the word ΧΡΑΩ [ARChÔ], "I reign"), with the motto Hoc Signo Victor Eris, testify to the special part taken by our country in the establishment of our Faith as the officially recognized religion of Rome,&mdashthat is to say, of the whole civilized world. And henceforward, as long as Britain remained Roman at all, it was a monarch of British connection who occupied the Imperial throne. The dynasties of Constantius, Valentinian, and Theodosius, who between them (with the brief interlude of the reign of Julian) fill the next 150 years (300-450), were all markedly associated with our island. So, indeed, was Julian also.

SECTION B.

Spread of Gospel&mdashArianism&mdashBritain orthodox&mdashLast Imperial visit&mdashHeathen temples stripped
&mdashBritish Emperors&mdashMagnentius&mdashGratian&mdashJulian&mdashBritish corn-trade&mdashFirst inroad of Picts and
Scots&mdashValentinian&mdashSaxon raids&mdashCampaign of Theodosius&mdashRe-conquest of Valentia.

B. 1.&mdashFor a whole generation after the triumph of Constantine tranquillity reigned in Britain. The ruined Christian churches were everywhere restored, and new ones built and in Britain, as elsewhere, the Gospel spread rapidly and widely&mdashthe more so that the Church here was but little troubled [336] by the [230] desperate struggle with Arianism which was convulsing the East. Britain, as Athanasius tells us, gave an assenting vote to the decisions of Nicaea (σύμψηφος ἐτύγχανε) [sumpsêphos etunchane], and British Bishops actually sat in the Councils of Arles (314) and of Ariminum (360).

B. 2.&mdashThe old heathen worship still continued side by side with the new Faith but signs soon appeared that the Church would tolerate no such rivalry when once her power was equal to its suppression. Julius Firmicus (who wrote against "Profane Religions" in 343) implores the sons of Constantine to continue their good work of stripping the temples and melting down the images&mdashin special connection with a visit paid by them that year to Britain [337] (our last Imperial visit), when they had actually been permitted to cross the Channel in winter-time an irrefragable proof of Heaven's approval of their iconoclasm. It is highly probable that they pursued here also a course at once so pious and so profitable, and that the fanes of the ancient deities but lingered on in poverty and neglect till finally suppressed by Theodosius (A.D. 390).

B. 3.&mdashAnd now Britain resumed her rôle of Emperor-maker. [338] After the death of Constans, (A.D. 350), Magnentius, an officer in the Gallic army of British birth, set up as Augustus, and was supported by Gratian, the leader of the Army of Britain, and by his son Valentinian. Magnentius himself had his [231] capital at Treves, and for three years reigned over the whole Prefecture of the Gauls. He professed a special zeal for orthodoxy, and was the first to introduce burning, as the appropriate punishment for heresy, into the penal code of Christendom. Meanwhile his colleague Decentius advanced against Constantius, and was defeated, at Nursa on the Drave, with such awful slaughter that the old Roman Legions never recovered from the shock. Henceforward the name signifies a more or less numerous body, more or less promiscuously armed, such as we find so many of in the 'Notitia.' Magnentius, in turn, was slain (A.D. 353), and the supreme command in Britain passed to the new Caesar of the West, Julian "the Apostate."

B. 4.&mdashUnder him we first find our island mentioned as one of the great corn-growing districts of the Empire, on which Gaul was able to draw to a very large extent for the supply of her garrisons. No fewer than eight hundred wheat-ships sailed from our shores on this errand a number which shows how large an area of the island must have been brought under cultivation, and how much the country had prospered during the sixty years of unbroken internal peace which had followed on the suppression of Allectus.

B. 5.&mdashThat peace was now to be broken up. The northern tribes had by this recovered from the awful chastisement inflicted upon them by Severus, [339] and, after an interval of 150 years, once more (A.D. 362) [232] appeared south of Hadrian's Wall. Whether as yet they burst through it is uncertain for now we find a new confederacy of barbarians. It is no longer that of Caledonians and Meatae, but of Picts and Scots. And these last were seafarers. Their home was not in Britain at all, but in the north of Ireland. In their "skiffs" [340] they were able to turn the flank of the Roman defences, and may well have thus introduced their allies from beyond Solway also. Anyhow, penetrate the united hordes did into the quiet cornfields of Roman Britain, repeating their raids ever more frequently and extending them ever more widely, till their spearmen were cut [Errata: to] pieces in 450 at Stamford by the swords of the newly-arrived English. [341]

B. 6.&mdashFor the moment they were driven back without much difficulty, by Lupicinus, Julian's Legate (the first Legate we hear of in Britain since Lollius Urbicus), who, when the death of Constantius II. (in 361) had extinguished that royal line, aided his master to become "Dominus totius orbis"&mdashas he is called in an inscription [342] describing his triumphant campaigns "ex oceano Britannico." And after "the victory of the Galilaean" (363) had ended Julian's brief and futile [233] attempt to restore the Higher Paganism (to which several British inscriptions testify), [343] it was again to an Emperor from Britain that there fell the Lordship of the World&mdashValentinian, son of Gratian, whose dynasty lasted out the remaining century of Romano-British history.

B. 7.&mdashHis reign was marked in our land by a life-and-death struggle with the inrushing barbarians. The Picts and Scots were now joined by yet another tribe, the cannibal [344] Attacotti [345] of Valentia, and their invasions were facilitated by the simultaneous raids of the Saxon pirates (with whom they may perhaps have been actually in concert) along the coast. The whole land had been wasted, and more than one Roman general defeated, when Theodosius, father of the Great Emperor, was sent, in 368, to the rescue. Crossing from Boulogne to Richborough in a lucky calm, [346] and fixing his head-quarters at London, or Augusta, as it was now called [Londinium vetus oppidum, quod Augustam posteritas apellavit], he first, by a skilful combination of flying columns, cut to pieces the scattered hordes of the savages as they were making off with their booty, and finally not only drove them back beyond the Wall, which he repaired and re-garrisoned, [347] [234] but actually recovered the district right up to Agricola's rampart, which had been barbarian soil ever since the days of Severus. [348] It was now (369) formed into a fifth British province, and named Valentia in honour of Valens, the brother and colleague of the Emperor.

B. 8.&mdashThe Twentieth Legion, whose head-quarters had so long been at Chester, seems to have been moved to guard this new province. Forty years later Claudian speaks of it as holding the furthest outposts in Britain, in his well-known description of the dying Pict:

"Venit et extremis legio praetenta Britannis,
Quae Scoto dat frena truci, ferroque notatas
Perlegit exsangues Picto moriente figuras."

["From Britain's bound the outpost legion came,
Which curbs the savage Scot, and fading sees
The steel-wrought figures on the dying Pict."]

The same poet makes Theodosius fight and conquer even in the Orkneys and in Ireland

"&mdashmaduerunt Saxone fuso
Orcades incaluit Pictorum sanguine Thule
Scotorum cumulos flevit glacialis Ierne." [349]

["With Saxon slaughter flowed the Orkney strand,
With Pictish blood cold Thule warmer grew
And icy Erin wept her Scotchmen slain."]

The relief, however, was but momentary. Five years later (374) another great Saxon raid is recorded yet eight years more and the Picts and Scots have again to be driven from the land and in the next decade their attacks became incessant.

SECTION C.

Roman evacuation of Britain begun&mdashMaximus&mdashSettlement of Brittany&mdashStilicho restores the Wall
&mdashRadagaisus invades Italy&mdashTwentieth Legion leaves Britain&mdashBritain in the 'Notitia'&mdashFinal
effort of British Army&mdashThe last Constantine&mdashLast Imperial Rescript to Britain&mdashSack of Rome by
Alaric&mdashCollapse of Roman rule in Britain.

C. 1.&mdashBy this time the evacuation of Britain by the Roman soldiery had fairly begun. Maximus, the last victor over the Scots, the "Pirate of Richborough," as Ausonius calls him, set up as Emperor (A.D. 383) and the Army of Britain again marched on Rome, and again, as under Constantine, brought its leader in triumph to the Capitol (A.D. 387). But this time it did not return. When Maximus was defeated and slain (A.D. 388) at Aquileia by the Imperial brothers-in-law Valentinian II. and Theodosius the Great [350] (sons of the so-named leaders connected with Britain), his soldiers, as they retreated homewards, straggled on the march settling, amid the general confusion, here and there, mostly in Armorica, which now first began to be called Brittany. [351] This tale rests only on the authority of Nennius, but it is far from improbable, especially as his sequel&mdashthat a fresh legion dispatched to Britain by Stilicho (in 396) once more repelled the Picts and Scots, and re-secured the Wall&mdashis confirmed by Claudian, who makes Britain [236] (in a sea-coloured cloak and bearskin head-gear) hail Stilicho as her deliverer:

Inde Caledonio velata Britannia monstro, Ferro picta genas, cujus vestigia verrit Coerulus, Oceanique aestum mentitur, amictus: "Me quoque vicinis percuntem gentibus," inquit, "Munivit Stilichon, totam quum Scotus Iernen Movit, et infesto spumavit remige Tethys. Illius effectum curis, ne tela timerem Scotica, ne Pictum tremerem, ne litore toto Prospicerem dubiis venturum Saxona ventis." [352]

[Then next, with Caledonian bearskin cowled, Her cheek steel-tinctured, and her trailing robe Of green-shot blue, like her own Ocean's tide, Britannia spake: "Me too," she cried, "in act To perish 'mid the shock of neighbouring hordes, Did Stilicho defend, when the wild Scot All Erin raised against me, and the wave Foamed 'neath the stroke of many a foeman's oar. So wrought his pains that now I fear no more Those Scottish darts, nor tremble at the Pict, Nor mark, where'er to sea mine eyes I turn, The Saxon coming on each shifting wind."]

C. 2.&mdashWhich legion it was which Stilicho sent to Britain is much more questionable. The Roman legions were seldom moved from province to province, and it is perhaps more probable that he filled up the three quartered in the island to something like their proper strength. But a crisis was now at hand which broke down all ordinary rules. Rome was threatened with such a danger as she had not known since Marius, five hundred years before, had destroyed the Cimbri and Teutones (B.C. 101). A like horde of Teutonic invaders, nearly half a [237] million strong, came pouring over the Alps, under "Radagaisus the Goth," as contemporary historians call him, though his claim, to Gothic lineage is not undisputed. And these were not, like Alaric and his Visigoths, who were to reap the fruits of this effort, semi-civilized Christians, but heathen savages of the most ferocious type. Every nerve had to be strained to crush them and Stilicho did crush them. But it was at a fearful cost. Every Roman soldier within reach had to be swept to the rescue, and thus the Rhine frontier was left defenceless against the barbarian hordes pressing upon it. Vandals, Sueves, Alans, Franks, Burgundians, rushed tumultuously over the peaceful and fertile fields of Gaul, never to be driven forth again.

C. 3.&mdashOf the three British legions one only seems to have been thus withdrawn,&mdashthe Twentieth, whose head-quarters had been so long at Chester, and whose more recent duty had been to garrison the outlying province of Valentia, which may now perhaps have been again abandoned. It seems to have been actually on the march towards Italy [353] when there was drawn up that wonderful document which gives us our last and completest glimpse of Roman Britain&mdashthe Notitia Dignitatum Utriusque Imperii.

C. 4.&mdashThis invaluable work sets forth in detail the whole machinery of the Imperial Government, its official hierarchy, both civil and military, in every land, and a summary of the forces under the authority [238] of each commander. A reference in Claudian would seem to show that it was compiled by the industry of Celerinus, the Primicerius Notariorum or Head Clerk of the Treasury. The poet tells us how this indefatigable statistician&mdash

"Cunctorum tabulas assignat honorum,
Regnorum tractat numeros, constringit in unum
Sparsas Imperii vires, cuneosque recenset
Dispositos quae Sarmaticis custodia ripis,
Quae saevis objecta Getis, quae Saxona frenat
Vel Scotum legio quantae cinxere cohortes
Oceanum, quanto pacatur milite Rhenus." [354]

["Each rank, each office in his lists he shows,
Tells every subject realm, together draws
The Empire's scattered force, recounts the hosts
In order meet&mdashwhich Legion is on guard
By Danube's banks, which fronts the savage Goth,
Which curbs the Saxon, which the Scot what bands
Begird the Ocean, what keep watch on Rhine."]

To us the 'Notitia' is only known by the 16th-century copies of a 10th-century MS. which has now disappeared. [355] But these were made with exceptional care, and are as nearly as may be facsimiles of the original, even preserving its illuminated illustrations, including the distinctive insignia of every corps in the Roman Army.

C. 5.&mdashThe number of these corps had, we find, grown erormously since the days of Hadrian, when, as Dion Cassius tells us, there were 19 "Civic Legions" (of which three were quartered in Britain). No fewer than 132 are now enumerated, together with [239] 108 auxiliary bodies. But we may be sure that each of these "legions" was not the complete Army Corps of old, [356] though possibly the 25 of the First Class, the Legiones Palatinae, may have kept something of their ancient effectiveness. Indeed it is not wholly improbable that these alone represent the old "civil" army the Second and Third Class "legions," with their extraordinary names ("Comitatenses" and "Pseudo-Comitatenses"), being indeed merely so called by "courtesy," or even "sham courtesy."

C. 6.&mdashIn Britain we find the two remaining legions of the old garrison, the Second, now quartered not at Caerleon but at Richborough, under the Count of the Saxon Shore, and the Sixth under the "Duke of the Britains," holding the north (with its head-quarters doubtless, as of yore, at York, though this is not mentioned). Along with each legion are named ten "squads" [numeri], which may perhaps represent the ten cohorts into which legions were of old divided. The word cohort seems to have changed its meaning, and now to signify an independent military unit under a "Tribune." Eighteen of these, together with six squadrons [alae] of cavalry, each commanded by a "Praefect," form the garrison of the Wall&mdasha separate organization, though, like the rest of the northern forces, under the Duke of the Britains. The ten squads belonging to the Sixth Legion (each under a Prefect) are distributed in garrison throughout Yorkshire, Lancashire, and Westmoreland. Those of the Second (each commanded by a "Praepositus") are [240] partly under the Count of the Saxon Shore, holding the coast from the Wash to Arundel, [357] partly under the "Count of Britain," who was probably the senior officer in the island [358] and responsible for its defence in general. Besides these bodies of infantry the British Army comprised eighteen cavalry units three, besides the six on the Wall, being in the north, three on the Saxon Shore, and the remaining six under the immediate command of the Count of Britain, to whose troops no special quarters are assigned. Not a single station is mentioned beyond the Wall, which supports the theory that the withdrawal of the Twentieth Legion had involved the practical abandonment of Valentia. [359]

C. 7.&mdashThe two Counts and the Duke were the military leaders of Britain. The chief civil officer was the "respectable" Vicar of the Diocese of Britain, one of the six Vicars under the "illustrious" Pro-consul of Africa. Under him were the Governors of the five Provinces, two of these being "Consulars" of "Right Renowned" rank [clarissimi,] the other three "Right Perfect" [perfectissimi] "Presidents." The Vicar was assisted by a staff of Civil Servants, nine [241] heads of departments being enumerated. Their names, however, have become so wholly obsolete as to tell us nothing of their respective functions.

C. 8.&mdashWhatever these may have been they did not include the financial administration of the Diocese, the general management of which was in the hands of two officers, the "Accountant of Britain" [Rationalis Summarum Britanniarum] and the "Provost of the London Treasury" [Praepositus thesaurorum Augustensium]. [360] Both these were subordinates of the "Count of the Sacred Largesses" [Comes Sacrarum Largitionum], one of the greatest officers of State, corresponding to our First Lord of the Treasury, whose name reminds us that all public expenditure was supposed to be the personal benevolence of His Sacred Majesty the Emperor, and all sources of public revenue his personal property. The Emperor, however, had actually in every province domains of his own, managed by the Count of the Privy Purse [Comes Rei Privatae], whose subordinate in Britain was entitled the "Accountant of the Privy Purse for Britain" [Rationalis Rei Privatae per Britanniam]. Both these Counts were "Illustrious" [illustres] that is, of the highest order of the Imperial peerage below the "Right Noble" [nobilissimi] members of the Imperial Family.

C. 9.&mdashSuch and so complete was the system of civil and military government in Roman Britain up to the very point of its sudden and utter collapse. When [242] the 'Notitia' was compiled, neither Celerinus, as he wrote, nor the officials whose functions and ranks he noted, could have dreamt that within ten short years the whole elaborate fabric would, so far as Britain was concerned, be swept away utterly and for ever. Yet so it was.

C. 10.&mdashFor what was left of the British Army now made a last effort to save the West for Rome, and once more set up Imperial Pretenders of its own. [361] The first two of these, Marcus and Gratian, were speedily found unequal to the post, and paid the usual penalty of such incompetence but the third, a private soldier named Constantine, all but succeeded in emulating the triumph of his great namesake. For four years (407-411) he was able to hold not only Britain, but Gaul and Spain also under his sceptre and the wretched Honorius, the unworthy son and successor of Theodosius, who was cowering amid the marshes of Ravenna, and had murdered his champion Stilicho, was fain to recognize the usurper as a legitimate Augustus. Only by treachery was he put down at last, the traitor being the commander of his British forces, Gerontius. Both names continued for many an age favourites in British nomenclature, and both have been swept into the cycle of Arturian romance, the latter as "Geraint."

C. 11.&mdashNeither Gerontius nor his soldiers ever got back to their old homes in Britain. What became of them we do not know. But Zosimus [362] tells us that [243] Honorius now sent a formal rescript to the British cities abrogating the Lex Julia, which forbade civilians to carry arms, and bidding them look to their own safety. For now the end had really come, and the Eternal City itself had been sacked by barbarian hands. Never before and never since does history record a sacked city so mildly treated by the conquerors. Heretics as the Visi-goths were, they never forgot that the vanquished Catholics were their fellow-Christians, and, barbarians as they were, they left an example of mercy in victory which puts to the blush much more recent Christian and civilized warfare.

C. 12.&mdashBut, for all that, the moral effect of Alaric's capture of Rome was portentous, and shook the very foundations of civilization throughout the world. To Jerome, in his cell at Bethlehem, the tidings came like the shock of an earthquake. Augustine, as he penned his 'De Civitate Dei,' felt the old world ended indeed, and the Kingdom of Heaven indeed at hand. And in Britain the whole elaborate system of Imperial civil and military government seems to have crumbled to the ground almost at once. It is noticeable that the rescript of Honorius is addressed simply to "the cities" of Britain, the local municipal officers of each several place. No higher authority remained. The Vicar of Britain, with his staff, the Count and Duke of the Britains with their soldiery, the Count of the Saxon Shore with his coastguard,&mdashall were gone. It is possible that, as the deserted provincials learnt to combine for defence, the Dictators they chose from time to [244] time to lead the national forces may have derived some of their authority from the remembrance of these old dignities. "The dragon of the great Pendragonship," [363] the tufa of Caswallon (633), and the purple of Cunedda [364] may well have been derived (as Professor Rhys suggests) from this source. But practically the history of Roman Britain ends with a crash at the Fall of Rome.

SECTION D.

Beginning of English Conquest&mdashVortigern&mdashJutes in Thanet&mdashBattle of Stamford&mdashMassacre of
Britons&mdashValentinian III.&mdashLatest Roman coin found in Britain&mdashProgress of Conquest&mdashThe
Cymry&mdashSurvival of Romano-British titles&mdashArturian Romances&mdashProcopius&mdashBelisarius&mdashRoman
claims revived by Charlemagne&mdashThe British Empire.

D. 1.&mdashLittle remains to be told, and that little rests upon no contemporary authority known to us. In Gildas, the nearest, writing in the next century, we find little more than a monotonous threnody over the awful visitation of the English Conquest, the wholesale and utter destruction of cities, the desecration of churches, the massacre of clergy and people. Nennius (as, for the sake of convenience, modern writers mostly agree to call the unknown author of the 'Historia [245] Britonum') gives us legends of British incompetence and Saxon treachery which doubtless represent the substantial features of the break-up, and preserve, quite possibly, even some of the details. Bede and the 'Anglo-Saxon Chronicle' assign actual dates to the various events, but we have no means of testing their accuracy.

D. 2.&mdashBroadly we know that the unhappy civilians, who were not only without military experience, but had up to this moment been actually forbidden to carry arms, naturally proved unable to face the ferocious enemies who swarmed in upon them. They could neither hold the Wall against the Picts nor the coast against the Saxons. It may well be true that they chose a Dux Britannorum, [365] and that his name may have been something like Vortigern, and that he (when a final appeal for Roman aid proved vain) [366] may have taken into his pay (as Carausius did) the crews of certain pirate "keels" [chiulae], [367] and settled them in Thanet. The very names of their English captains, "Hengist and Horsa," may not be so mythical

as critics commonly assume. [368] And the tale of the victory at Stamford, when the spears of the Scottish invaders were cut to pieces by the swords of the English mercenaries, [369] has a very true ring about it. So has also the sequel, which tells how, when the inevitable quarrel arose between employers and employed, the Saxon leader gave the signal for the fray by suddenly shouting to his men, Nimed eure saxes [370] (i.e. "Draw your knives!"), and massacred the hapless Britons of Kent almost without resistance.

D. 3.&mdashThe date of this first English settlement is doubtful. Bede fixes it as 449, which agrees with the order of events in Gildas, and with the notice in Nennius that it was forty years after the end of Roman rule in Britain [transacto Romanorum in Britannia imperio]. But Nennius also declares that this was in the fourth year of Vortigern, and that his accession coincided with that of the nephew and successor of Honorius, Valentinian III., son of Galla Placidia, which would bring in the Saxons 428. It may perhaps be some very slight confirmation of the later date, that Valentinian is the last Emperor whose coins have been found in Britain. [371]

D. 4.&mdashAnyhow, the arrival of the successive swarms of Anglo-Saxons from the mouth of the Elbe, and their hard-won conquest of Eastern Britain during the 5th century, is certain. The western half of the island, from Clydesdale southwards, resisted much longer, and, in spite of its long and straggling frontier, held together for more than a century. Not till the decisive victory of the Northumbrians at Chester (A.D. 607), and that of the West Saxons at Beandune (A.D. 614) was this Cymrian federation finally broken into three fragments, each destined shortly to disintegrate into an ever-shifting medley of petty principalities. Yet in each the ideal of national and racial unity embodied in the word Cymry [372] long survived and titles borne to this day by our Royal House, "Duke of Cornwall," "Prince of Wales," "Duke of Albany," are the far-off echoes, lingering in each, of the Roman "Comes Britanniae" and "Dux Britanniarum." The three feathers of the Principality may in like manner be traced to the tufa, or plume, borne before the supreme authority amongst the Romans of old, as the like are borne before the Supreme Head of the Roman Church to this day. And age after age the Cymric harpers sang of the days when British armies had marched in triumph to Rome, and the Empire had been won by British princes, till the exploits of their mystical "Arthur" [373] became the nucleus of a whole cycle of [248] mediaeval romance, and even, for a while, a real force in practical politics. [374]

D. 5.&mdashAnd as the Britons never quite forgot their claims on the Empire, so the Empire never quite forgot its claims on Britain. How entirely the island was cut off from Rome we can best appreciate by the references to it in Procopius. This learned author, writing under Justinian, scarcely 150 years since the day when the land was fully Roman, conceives of Britannia and Brittia as two widely distant islands&mdashthe one off the coast of Spain, the other off the mouth of the Rhine. [375] The latter is shared between the Angili, Phrissones, [376] and Britons, and is divided from North to South [377] by a mighty Wall, beyond which no mortal man can breathe. Hither are ferried over from Gaul by night the souls of the departed [378] the fishermen, whom a mysterious voice summons to the work, seeing no one, but perceiving their barks to [249] be heavily sunk in the water, yet accomplishing the voyage with supernatural celerity.

D. 6.&mdashAbout the same date Belisarius offered to the Goths, [379] in exchange for their claim to Sicily, which his victories had already rendered practically nugatory, the Roman claims to Britain, "a much larger island," which were equally outside the scope of practical politics for the moment, but might at any favourable opportunity be once more brought forward. And, when the Western Empire was revived under Charlemagne, they were in fact brought forward, and actually submitted to by half the island. The Celtic princes of Scotland, the Anglians of Northumbria, and the Jutes of Kent alike owned the new Caesar as their Suzerain. And the claim was only abrogated by the triumph of the counter-claim first made by Egbert, emphasized by Edward the Elder, and repeated again and again by our monarchs their descendants, that the British Crown owes no allegiance to any potentate on earth, being itself not only Royal, but in the fullest sense Imperial. [380]

SECTION E.

Survivals of Romano-British civilization&mdashRomano-British Church&mdashLegends of its origin&mdashSt.
Paul&mdashSt. Peter&mdashJoseph of Arimathaea&mdashGlastonbury&mdashHistorical notices&mdashClaudia and Pudens
&mdashPomponia&mdashChurch of St. Pudentiana&mdashPatristic references to Britain&mdashTertullian&mdashOrigen
&mdashLegend of Lucius&mdashNative Christianity&mdashBritish Bishops at Councils&mdashTestimony of Chrysostom
and Jerome.

E. 1.&mdashFew questions have been more keenly debated than the extent to which Roman civilization in Britain survived the English Conquest. On the one hand we have such high authorities as Professor Freeman assuring us that our forefathers swept it away as ruthlessly and as thoroughly as the Saracens in Africa on the other, those who consider that little more disturbance was wrought than by the Danish invasions. The truth probably lies between the two, but much nearer to the former than the latter. The substitution of an English for the Roman name of almost every Roman site in the country [381] could scarcely have taken place had there been anything like continuity in their inhabitants. Even the Roman roads, as we have seen, [382] received English designations. We may well believe that most Romano-British towns shared the fate of Anderida (the one recorded instance of destruction), [383] and that the word "chester" was only applied to the Roman ruins by their destroyers. [384] But such places as London, York, and Lincoln may well have lived on through the first generation of mere savage onslaught, after which the English gradually began to tolerate even for themselves a town life.

E. 2.&mdashAnd though in the country districts the agricultural population were swept away pitilessly to [251] make room for the invaders, [385] till the fens of Ely [386] and the caves of Ribblesdale [387] became the only refuge of the vanquished, yet, undoubtedly, many must have been retained as slaves, especially amongst the women, to leaven the language of the conquerors with many a Latin word, and their ferocity with many a recollection of the gentler Roman past.

E. 3.&mdashAnd there was one link with that past which not all the massacres and fire-raisings of the Conquest availed to break. The Romano-British populations might be slaughtered, the Romano-British towns destroyed, but the Romano-British Church lived on the most precious and most abiding legacy bestowed by Rome upon our island.

E. 4.&mdashThe origin of that Church has been assigned by tradition to directly Apostolic sources. The often-quoted passage from Theodoret, [388] of St. Paul having "brought help" to "the isles of the sea" (ταῖς ἐν τῷ πελάγει διακειμέναις νήσοις) [tais en to pelagei diakeimenais nêsois], can scarcely, however, refer to this island. No classical author ever uses the word πέλαγος [pelagos] of the Oceanic waters and the epithet diakeime/nais [diakeimenais], coming, as it does, in connection with the Apostle's preaching in Italy and Spain, seems rather to point to the islands between these peninsulas&mdashSardinia, Corsica, and the Balearic Islands. But the well-known [252] words of St. Clement of Rome, [389] that St. Paul's missionary journeys extended to "the End of the West" τό τέρμα τῆς δύσεως [to terma tês duseôs], were, as early as the 6th century, held to imply a visit to Britain (for our island was popularly supposed by the ancients to lie west of Spain). [390] The lines of Venantius (A.D. 580) even seem to contain a reference to the tradition that he landed at Portsmouth:

E. 5.&mdashThe Menology of the Greek Church (6th century) ascribes the organization of the British Church to the visitation, not of St. Paul, but of St. Peter in person.

[O Petros . ehis Bretannian paraginetai. Entha dô
cheirotribôsas [sic] kai polla tôn hakatanomatôn hethnôn
eis tôn tou Christou pistin epispasamenos . kai pollous
toi logoi photisas tôs charitos, ekklaesias te sustêsamenos,
episkopous te kai presbuterous kai diakonous
cheipotonhêsas, dôdekatôi etei tou Kaisaros authis eis Rômên
paraginetai.
] [391]

[253] ["Peter . cometh even unto Britain. Yea,
there abode he long, and many of the lawless folk did
he draw to the Faith of Christ . and many did he
enlighten with the Word of Grace. Churches, too,
did he set up, and ordained bishops and priests and
deacons. And in the twelfth year of Caesar [392] came he
again unto Rome."]

The 'Acta Sanctorum' also mentions this tradition (filtered through Simeon Metaphrastes), and adds that St. Peter was in Britain during Boadicea's rebellion, when he incurred great danger.

E. 6&mdashThe 'Synopsis Apostolorum,' ascribed to Dorotheus (A.D. 180), but really a 6th-century compilation, gives us yet another Apostolic preacher, St. Simon Zelotes. This is probably due to a mere confusion between Μαβριτανία [Mabritania] [Mauretania] and Βρεταννία [Bretannia]. But it is impossible to deny that the Princes of the Apostles may both have visited Britain, nor indeed is there anything essentially improbable in their doing so. We know that Britain was an object of special interest at Rome during the period of the Conquest, and it would be quite likely that the idea of simultaneously conquering this new Roman dominion for Christ should suggest itself to the two Apostles so specially connected with the Roman Church. [393]

E. 7.&mdashBut while we may possibly accept this legend, it is otherwise with the famous and beautiful story which ascribes the foundation of our earliest church [254] at Glastonbury to the pilgrimage of St. Joseph of Arimathaea, whose staff, while he rested on Weary-all Hill, took root, and became the famous winter thorn, which

and who, accordingly, set up, hard by, a little church of wattle to be the centre of local Christianity.

E. 8.&mdashSuch was the tale which accounted for the fact that this humble edifice developed into the stateliest sanctuary of all Britain. We first find it, in its final shape, in Geoffrey of Monmouth (1150) but already in the 10th century the special sanctity of the shrine was ascribed to a supernatural origin, [395] as a contemporary Life of St. Dunstan assures us and it is declared, in an undisputed Charter of Edgar, to be "the first church in the Kingdom built by the disciples of Christ." But no earlier reference is known for the passages cited from Gildas and Melkinus are quite untrustworthy. So striking a phenomenon as the winter thorn would be certain to become an object of heathen devotion [396] and, as usual, the early preachers would Christianize the local cult, as they Christianized the Druidical figment of a Holy Cup (perhaps also local in its origin), into the sublime [255] mysticism of the Sangreal legend, connected likewise with Joseph of Arimathaea. [397]

E. 9.&mdashThat the original church of Glaston was really of wattle is more than probable, for the remains of British buildings thus constructed have been found abundantly in the neighbouring peat. The Arimathaean theory of its consecration became so generally accepted that at the Council of Constance (1419) precedence was actually accorded to our Bishops as representing the senior Church of Christendom. But the oldest variant of the legend says nothing about Arimathaea, but speaks only of an undetermined "Joseph" as the leader [decurio] [398] of twelve missionary comrades who with him settled down at Glastonbury. And this may well be true. Such bands (as we see in the Life of Columba) were the regular system in Celtic mission work, and survived in that of the Preaching Friars:

E. 10.&mdashAnd though such high authorities as Mr. Haddan have come to the conclusion that Christianity in Britain was confined to a small minority even amongst the Roman inhabitants of the island, and almost vanished with them, yet the catena of references to British converts can scarcely be thus set aside. They begin in Apostolic times and in special connection with St. Paul. Martial tells us of a British princess [256] named Claudia Rufina [400] (very probably the daughter of that Claudius Cogidubnus whom we meet in Tacitus as at once a British King and an Imperial Legate), [2] whose beauty and wit made no little sensation in Rome whither she had doubtless been sent at once for education and as a hostage for her father's fidelity. And one of the most beautiful of his Epigrams speaks of the marriage of this foreigner to a Roman of high family named Pudens, belonging to the Gens Aemilia (of which the Pauline family formed a part):

"Claudia, Rufe, meo nubet peregrina Pudenti,
Macte esto taedis, O Hymenaee, suis.
Diligat illa senem quondam sed et ipsa marito,
Tunc quoque cum fuerit, non videatur anus." [401]

[To RUFUS.
Claudia, from far-off climes, my Pudens weds:
With choicest bliss, O Hymen, crown their heads!
May she still love her spouse when gray and old,
He in her age unfaded charms behold.]

It may have been in consequence of this marriage that Pudens joined with Claudius Cogidubnus in setting up the Imperial Temple at Chichester. [402] And the fact that Claudia was an adopted member of the Rufine family shows that she was connected with the Gens Pomponia to which this family belonged.

E. 11.&mdashNow Aulus Plautius, the conqueror of Britain, had married a Pomponia, who in A.D. 57 was accused of practising an illicit religion, and, though pronounced guiltless by her husband (to whose [257] domestic tribunal she was left, as Roman Law permitted), passed the rest of her life in retirement. [403] When we read of an illicit religion in connection with Britain, our first thought is, naturally, that Druidism is intended. [404] But there are strong reasons for supposing that Pomponia was actually a Christian. The names of her family are found in one of the earliest Christian catacombs in Rome, that of Calixtus and that Christianity had its converts in very high quarters we know from the case of Clemens and Domitilla, closely related to the Imperial throne.

E. 12.&mdashTurning next to St. Paul's Second Epistle to Timothy, we find, in close connection, the names of Pudens and Claudia (along with that of the future Pope Linus) amongst the salutations from Roman Christians. And recent excavations have established the fact that the house of Pudens was used for Christian worship at this date, and is now represented by the church known as St. Pudentiana. [405] That this should have been so proves that this Pudens was no slave going under his master's name (as was sometimes done), but a man of good position in Rome. Short of actual proof it would be hard to imagine a series of evidences more morally convincing that the Pudens and Claudia of Martial are the Pudens and Claudia of St. Paul, and that they, as well as Pomponia, were [258] Christians. Whether, then, St. Paul did or did not actually visit Britain, the earliest British Christianity is, at least, closely connected with his name.

E. 13.&mdashNeither legendary nor historical sources tell us of any further development of British Christianity till the latter days of the 2nd century. Then, however, it had become sufficiently widespread to furnish a common-place for ecclesiastical declamation on the all-conquering influence of the Gospel. Both Tertullian and Origen [406] thus use it. The former numbers in his catalogue of believing countries even the districts of Britain beyond the Roman pale, Britannorum inaccessa Romanis loca, Christo vero subdita [407] . And in this lies the interest of his reference, as pointing to the native rather than the Roman element being the predominant factor in the British Church. For just at this period comes in the legend preserved by Bede, [408] that a mission was sent to Britain by Pope Eleutherius [409] in response to an appeal from "Lucius Britanniae Rex." The story, which Bede probably got from the 'Catalogus Pontificum,' [410] may be apocryphal but it would never have been invented had British Christianity been found merely or mainly in the Roman veneer of the population. Modern criticism finds in it this kernel of truth, that the persecution which gave the Gallican Church the martyrs of Lyons, also sent her scattered refugees as missionaries into the less [259] dangerous regions of Britain&mdashthose remoter parts, in especial, where even the long arm of the Imperial Government could not reach them.

E. 14.&mdashThe Picts, however, as a nation, remained savage heathens even to the 7th century, and the bulk of our Christian population must have been within the Roman pale but little vexed, it would seem, by persecution, till it came into conflict with the thorough-going Imperialism of Diocletian. [411] Its martyrs were then numbered, according to Gildas, by thousands, according to Bede by hundreds and their chief, St. Alban, at least, is a fairly established historical entity. [412] Nor is there any reason to doubt that after Constantine South Britain was as fully Christian as any country in Europe. In the earliest days of his reign (A.D. 314) we find three bishops, [413] together with a priest and a deacon, representing [414] the British Church at the Council of Arles (which, amongst other things, condemned the marriage of the "innocent divorcee" [415] ). [260] And the same number figure in the Council of Ariminum (360), as the only prelates (out of the 400) who deigned to accept from the Emperor the expenses of their journey and attendance.

E. 15.&mdashThis Council was called by Constantius II. in the semi-Arian interest, and not allowed to break up till after repudiating the Nicene formula. But the lapse was only for a moment. Before the decade was out Athanasius could write of Britain as notoriously orthodox, [416] and before the century closes we have frequent references to our island as a fully Christian and Catholic land. Chrysostom speaks of its churches and its altars and "the power of the Word" in its pulpits, [417] of its diligent study of Scripture and Catholic doctrine, [418] of its acceptance of Catholic discipline, [419] of its use of Catholic formulae: "Whithersoever thou goest," he says, "throughout the whole world, be it to India, to Africa, or to Britain, thou wilt find In the beginning was the Word." [420] Jerome, in turn, tells of British pilgrimages to Jerusalem [421] and to Rome [422] and, in his famous passage on the world-wide Communion of the Roman See, mentions Britain by name: "Nec [261] altera Romanae Urbis Ecclesia, altera totius orbis existimanda est. Et Galliae, et Britanniae, et Africa, et Persis, et Oriens, et Indio, et omnes barbarae nationes, unum Christum adorant, unam observant regulam veritatis." [423]

["Neither is the Church of the City of Rome to be held one, and that of the whole world another. Both Gaul and Britain and Africa and Persia and the East and India, and all the barbarian nations, adore one Christ, observe one Rule of Truth."]

SECTION F.

British Missionaries&mdashNinias&mdashPatrick&mdashBeatus&mdashHeresiarchs&mdashPelagius Fastidius&mdashPelagianism
stamped out by Germanus&mdashThe Alleluia Battle&mdashRomano-British churches&mdashWhy so seldom
found&mdashConclusion.

F. 1.&mdashThe fruits of all this vigorous Christian life soon showed themselves in the Church of Britain by the evolution of noteworthy individual Christians. First in order comes Ninias, the Apostle of the Southern Picts, commissioned to the work, after years of training at Rome, by Pope Siricius (A.D. 394), and fired by the example of St. Martin, the great prelate of Gaul. To this saint (or, to speak more exactly, under his invocation) Ninias, on hearing of his death in A.D. 400, dedicated his newly-built church at Whithern [424] in Galloway, the earliest recorded example of [262] this kind of dedication in Britain. [425] Galloway may have been the native home of Ninias, and was certainly the head-quarters of his ministry.

F. 2.&mdashThe work of Ninias amongst the Picts was followed in the next generation by the more abiding work of St. Patrick amongst the Scots of Ireland. Nay, even the Continent was indebted to British piety though few British visitors to the Swiss Oberland remember that the Christianity they see around them is due to the zeal of a British Mission. Yet there seems no solid reason for doubting that so it is. Somewhere about the time of St. Patrick, two British priests, Beatus and Justus, entered the district by the Brunig Pass, and set up their first church at Einigen, near Thun. There Justus abode as the settled Missioner of the neighbourhood, while Beatus made his home in the ivy-clad cave above the lake which still bears his name, [426] sailing up and down with the Gospel message, and evangelizing the valleys and uplands now so familiar to his fellow-countrymen&mdashGrindelwald, Lauterbrunnen, Mürren, Kandersteg.

F. 3.&mdashAnd while the light of the Gospel was thus spreading on every side from our land, Britain was also becoming all too famous as the nurse of error. The British Pelagius, [427] who erred concerning the doctrine of free-will, grew to be a heresiarch of the first order [428] and his follower Fastidius, or Faustus, the saintly Abbot of Lerins in the Hyères, the friend of Sidonius Apollinaris, [429] was, in his day, only less renowned. He asserted the materiality of the soul. Both were able writers and Pelagius was the first to adopt the plan of promulgating his heresies not as his own, but as the tenets of supposititious individuals of his acquaintance.

F. 4.&mdashPelagianism spread so widely in Britain that the Catholics implored for aid from over-sea. St. Germanus of Auxerre, and St. Lupus, Bishop of Troyes (whose sanctity had disarmed the ferocity even of Attila), came [430] accordingly (in 429) and vindicated the faith in a synod held at Verulam so successfully that the neighbouring shrine of St. Alban was the scene of a special service of thanksgiving. In a second Mission, fifteen years later, Germanus set the seal to his work, stamping out throughout all the land both this new heresy and such remains of heathenism as [264] were still to be found in Southern Britain. While thus engaged on the Border he found his work endangered by a raiding host of Picts or Saxons, or both. The Saint, who had been a military chieftain in his youth, promptly took the field at the head of his flock, many of whom were but newly baptized. It was Easter Eve, and he took advantage of the sacred ceremonies of that holy season, which were then actually performed by night. From the New Fire, the "Lumen Christi," was kindled a line of beacons along the Christian lines, and when Germanus intoned the threefold Easter Alleluia, the familiar strain was echoed from lip to lip throughout the host. Stricken with panic at the sudden outburst of light and song, the enemy, without a blow, broke and fled. [431]

F. 5.&mdashThis story, as told by Constantius, and confirmed by both Nennius and Bede, incidentally furnishes us with something of a key to the main difficulty in accepting the widely-spread Romano-British Christianity to which the foregoing citations testify. What, it is asked, has become of all the Romano-British churches? Why are no traces of them found amongst the abundant Roman remains all over the land? That they were the special objects of destruction at the Saxon invasion we learn from Gildas. But this does not account for their very foundations having disappeared yet at Silchester [432] alone have modern excavations [265] unearthed any even approximately certain example of them. Where are all the rest?

F. 6.&mdashThe question is partly answered when we read that the soldiers of Germanus had erected in their camp a church of wattle, and that such was the usual material of which, even as late as 446, British churches were built (as at Glastonbury). Seldom indeed would such leave any trace behind them and thus the country churches of Roman Britain would be sought in vain by excavators. In the towns, however, stone or brick would assuredly be used, and to account for the paucity of ecclesiastical ruins three answers may be suggested.

F. 7.&mdashFirst, the number of continuously unoccupied Romano-British cities is very small indeed. Except at Silchester, Anderida, and Uriconium, almost every one has become an English town. But when this took place early in the English settlement of the land, the ruins of the Romano-British churches would still be clearly traceable at the conversion of the English, and would be rebuilt (as St. Martin's at Canterbury was in all probability rebuilt) [433] for the use of English Christianity, the old material [434] being worked up into the new edifices. It is probable that many of our churches thus stand on the very spot where the Romano-British churches stood of old. But this [266] very fact would obliterate the remains of these churches.

F. 8.&mdashSecondly, it is very possible that many of the heathen temples may, after the edict of Theodosius (A.D. 392), have been turned into churches (like the Pantheon at Rome), so that their remains may mark ecclesiastical sites. There are reasons for believing that in various places, such as St. Paul's, London, St. Peter's, Cambridge, and St. Mary's, Ribchester, Christian worship did actually thus succeed Pagan on the same site.

F. 9.&mdashThirdly, as Lanciani points out, the earliest Christian churches were simply the ordinary dwelling-houses of such wealthier converts as were willing to permit meetings for worship beneath their roof, which in time became formally consecrated to that purpose. Such a dwelling-house usually consisted of an oblong central hall, with a pillared colonnade, opening into a roofed cloister or peristyle on either side, at one end into a smaller guest-room [tablinum], at the other into the porch of entry. The whole was arranged thus:

It will be readily seen that we have here a building on [267] the lines of an ordinary church. The small original congregation would meet, like other guests, in the reception-room. As numbers increased, the hall and adjoining cloisters would have to be used (the former being roofed in) the reception-room being reserved for the most honoured members, and ultimately becoming the chancel of a fully-developed church, with nave and aisles complete. [435] It may be, therefore, that some of the Roman villas found in Britain were really churches. [436]

F. 10.&mdashThis, however, is a less probable explanation of the absence of ecclesiastical remains and the large majority of Romano-British church sites are, as I believe, still in actual use amongst us for their original purpose. And it may be considered as fairly proved, that before Britain was cut off from the Empire the Romano-British Church had a rite [437] and a vigorous corporate life of its own, which the wave of heathen invasion could not wholly submerge. It lived on, shattered, perhaps, and disorganized, but not utterly crushed, to be strengthened in due time by a closer union with its parent stem, through the Mission of [268] Augustine, to feel the reflex glow of its own missionary efforts in the fervour of Columba and his followers, [438] and, finally, to form an integral part of that Ecclesia Anglicana whose influence knit our country into one, and inspired the Great Charter of our constitutional liberties. [439] Her faith and her freedom are the abiding debt which Britain owes to her connection with Rome.

INDEX.

Aaron of Caerleon, 259
Addeomarus, 130
Adder-beads, 71
Adelfius, 259
Adminius, 126, 128, 130
Aetius, 245
Agricola, 156, 160, 161, 162, 163, 164, 165
Agriculture, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 191, 231
Agrippina, 140, 149, 150
Akeman Street, 166
Alaric, 237, 243
Alban, St., 227, 259
Albany, 247
Albinus, 200
Albion, 32
Alexander Severus, 71
Allectus, 220, 223, 224, 231
Alleluia Battle, 264
Alpine dogs, 191
Amber, 48, 49
Ambleteuse, 86, 95
Amboglanna, 174, 204
Aminus. See Adminius
Amphitheatres, 185, 224
Ancalites, 55, 120
Ancyran Tablet, 128
Anderida, 56, 240, 250, 265
Anglesey, 154, 161
Antedrigus, 131, 146
Antonines, 213
Antoninus Pius, 171, 197, 214
Aquae Sulis, 183. See Bath
Aquila, 257
Arianism, 230
Arms, 49, 178
Army of Britain, 159, 160, 199, 200, 218, 228, 230, 235, 242
Army of Church, 268
Arthur, 247
Arthur's Well, 205
Asclepiodotus, 224
Ash-pits, 177, 186
Asturians, 204, 205
Atrebates, 55, 56, 82, 87, 125, 127, 142
Attacotti, 46, 194, 233
Augusta, 180, 233
Augustine, 243
Augustus, 128, 129
Avebury, 30

Bards, 66
Barham Down, 110, 114
Barns, British, 40
Barrows, 29, 60
Basilicas, 185
Baskets, 43
Basques, 51
Bath, 60, 170, 174, 183
Battle Bridge, 157
Beads, 48, 128
Beatus, St., 262
Bee-keeping, 42
Beer, 42
Belgae, 52, 57, 61
Belisarius, 249
Bericus. See Vericus
Bibroci, 55, 56, 120
Birdoswald, 174, 203, 204
Bishops, British, 230, 255, 259
Boadicea, 152, 157, 158, 253
Borcovicus, 205
Boulogne, 86, 220, 223, 233
Breeches, 47
Brigantes, 49, 57, 146, 148, 160, 197, 206
[270] Brige, 175
Britain, "Upper" and "Lower," 195
Britannia coins, 197
Britannia I. and II., 59, 225
Britannicus, 136, 140, 199
British coins, 38, 125, 126, 127
Lion, 126, 210, 221
Britons, Origin of, 32
Brittany, 235
Bronze, 3030, 33
Brownies, 29
Brutus, 151

Cadiz, 34
Cadwallon. See Cassivellaunus
Caer Caradoc, 148
Caergwent, 184
Caerleon, 150, 166, 179, 182, 195, 239, 259
Caer Segent, 56
Caesar, Julius:
Earlier career, 73-83
First invasion, 83-101
Second invasion, 102-123
Caesar (as title), 222
Caesar's horse, 107
Caledonians, 163, 194, 201, 202, 213, 232
Caligula, 126, 130
Calleva, 56, 172, etc. See Silchester
Cambridge, 171, 175, 178, 266
Camelodune, 127, 135, 147, 152, 154, 176
Cangi, 146
Cannibalism, 46, 233
Canterbury, 265
Caracalla, 171, 201, 212-214
Caractacus (Caradoc, Caratac), 127, 134, 137, 147, 148, 149
Carausius, 180, 220, 221, 245
Carlisle, 175, 204
Cartismandua, 148, 150, 160
Cassi, 54, 55, 120
Cassiterides, 34
Cassivellaunus (Caswallon), 109, 113-122, 127
Cateuchlani (Cattivellauni), 55, 58, 59, 109, 121, 127
Cattle, British, 45
Celestine, Pope, 263
Celtic types, 50
Cerealis, 160
Cerne Abbas, 65
Chariots, British, 50, 92, 99, 115, 129, 134, 163
Charnwood, 190
Chedworth, 58, 267
Chester, 162, 167, 174, 179, 182, 195, 247, 250
"Chester" (suffix), 175, 183, 250
Chesters. See Cilurnum
Chichester, 141
Chives, 205
Christianity, British, 225-230, 251-268
Churches, British, 185, 264-267
Cicero, 36, 75, 77, 104-106, 122, 151
Cilurnum, 204, 205, 211
Cirencester, 255. See Corinium
Citizenship, Roman, 140, 141, 213, 214
Clans, British, 52, 55-59
Claudia Rufina, 141, 256, 257
Claudius, 131, 134-143, 147, 149, 150
Clement, St., 252
Climate, British, 40, 185
Cogidubnus, 141, 256
Cohorts, 86, 114, 239
Coins, British, 38, 54, 125-127
Romano-British, 139, 177, 197, 221, 246
Colchester (Colonia), 167, 171, 175, 176, 222. See Camelodune
Colonies, 147, 152-154, 175
Columba, 71, 72, 268
Comitatenses, 239
Commius, 54, 83, 87, 94, 101, 121, 124-127, 130
Commodus, 199, 200
Constans, 230
Constantine I., 222, 227-229
III., 242
Constantius I., 180, 222-224, 227-229
[271] Constantius II., 231, 260
Cony Castle, 30
Coracles, 37, 245
Corinium 179, 189-191. See Cirencester
Corn-growing, 40, 191, 231
Coronation Oath, 260
Council of Ariminum, 230, 260
Arles, 230, 259
Cloveshoo, 267
Constance, 255
Nice, 230
Count of Britain, 240, 243, 247
the Saxon Shore, 220, 240, 243
Counts of the Empire, 240
Coway Stakes, 119
Cromlechs, 29
Cymbeline (Cunobelin), 54, 126-128
Cymry, 247

Damnonii, 57, 58, 61, 80, 247
Deal, 89, 108
Decangi, 146
Decentius, 231
Decurions, 182
Dedication of churches, 261
Dene Holes, 41
"Dioceses," 222
Diocletian, 59, 71, 219, 221, 222, 224-227
Divitiacus, 82, 109
Divorce, 259
"Divus," 123, 227
Dobuni, 57, 132
Dogs, British, 190
Dol, 235
Dolmens, 29
Domestic animals, 45, 46
Domitian, 163
Domitilla, 257
Dorchester, 61
Dover, 87
Dragon standard, 244
"Druidesses," 71, 154, 155
Druidism, 62-72
Duke of the Britains, 239, 243, 247
Duke of the Britons, 245
Duns, 60
Durotriges, 57, 61

Eagles, Legionary, 90, 91, 228
Eboracum, 174
Eborius, 259
Elephants, 107, 119, 134
Eleutherius, 258
Emeriti, 214
English, 232, 245, 246
Epping Forest, 47, 190
Equinoctial hours, 39, 40
Erinus Hispanicus, 204
Ermine Street, 166-170
Exports, British, 128, 129

Fastidius, Faustus, 263
Flavians, 133
Fleam Dyke, 144, 145
Fleet, British, 182, 221
Forests, 47, 56-58, 189
Fosse Way, 166, 167, 169
Frampton, 267
Franks, 219, 224, 237
Frisians, 200, 220, 248
Fruit-trees, 186

Gael, 32, 50
Galerius, 222, 227, 228
Galgacus, 163
Galloway, 46, 194, 233, 248, 261
Gates of London, 179
Geese, 46
Gelt, R., 210
Genuini, 197
Germanus, 263-265
Gerontius (Geraint), 242
Geta, 201, 213
Gladiators, 136, 137, 224
Glass, 48, 129
Glastonbury, 27, 57, 254, 255
Glazed ware, 188
Gnossus, 37
Gog-Magog Hills, 219
Gold, 30, 39, 48
Goths, 249
[272] Grindelwald, 262
Gulf Stream, 40

Hadrian, 181, 194-197
Hair-dye, 48, 129
Handicrafts, 187, 188
Hardway, 36
Hasta Pura, 138
Havre, 223
Helena, 222, 227
"Hengist and Horsa," 245
Heretics, 263
Honorius, 242, 243
Horseshoes, 177
Hounds, 190
Hugh, St., 185
Huntingdon, 171
Hypocausts, 189, 205

Iberians, 251
Iceni, 54, 57, 58, 59, 120, 130, 142-146, 152, 157, 170
Icknield Street, 144, 145, 167, 170, 186
Ictis, 35
Ierne, 32, 234, 236. See Ireland
Immanuentius, 109
Imperial visits, 134, 194, 201, 223, 230
Ireland, 162, 232, 262, 268. See Ierne
Iron, 33, 50
Itinerary, 171, 172, 173, 175

Jadite, 29
Jerome, St., 46, 191, 233, 260
Jerusalem, 160, 181, 260
Joseph of Arimathaea, 254
Julia Domna, 209, 210, 213
Lex, 192, 243
Julian, 191, 225, 231, 232
Julianus, 200
Julius Caesar. See Caesar
Classicianus, 158
Firmicus, 230
of Caerleon, 259
Juridicus Britanniae, 181
Justinian, 181, 248
Justus, 262

Magna, 208
Magnentius, 230, 231
Maiden Castle, 61
Way, 169
[273] Mandubratius, 109, 122, 127
Mansions, 189
Manures, 40
Marcus Aurelius, 215
Marseilles, 35, 38
Martial, 43, 141, 255-257
Martin, St., 261, 262
Martyrs, British, 227, 259
Mastiffs, 190
Mater Deum, 209, 210
Maxentius, 228
Maximian, 222, 225, 227, 228
Maximin, 228
Maximus, 235
Mead, 42
Meatae, 201, 202, 232
Mendips, 39, 188
Mile Castles, 195, 204
Milestones, 180
Millstones, 44
Missionaries, British, 261, 262
Mistletoe, 67, 68
Mithraism, 207, 208, 228
Mona, 154, 155, 161
Money-box, 184
Morgan, 263
Mutter-recht, 46

Paganism suppressed, 230
Palaeolithic period, 26-28
Pansa, 198
Pantheon, Druidic, 62, 64
Parisii, 54, 58, 82
Parjetting, 187
Patrick, St., 71, 262
Paul, St., 251-257
Pax Romana, 165, 178, 187
Pearls, British, 128
Peel Crag, 203
Pelagius, 263
Perennis, 199
Pertinax, 200
Peter, St., 252, 253
Petronius, 158
Phoenicians, 33-37
Picts, 193, 207, 232-236, 245, 259, 261, 264
Pilgrims, British, 260
Pilgrims' Way, 36
Pillars, multiple, 185
Pilum, 158
Pirates, 219-221, 235, 245
Plautius, 131, 134, 137, 147, 256
Plough, British, 40
Pomponia, 256
Population, 59, 178
Portsmouth Harbour, 132, 240, 252
Port Way, 186
Posidonius, 36, 82
Posting, 189, 227
Postumus, 218
Pottery, 30, 187
Praetorium, 181
Prasutagus, 152
Precedents, British, 182
Prefectures, 221
Prince of Wales, 247
Priscilla, 257
Priscus, 159
Probus, 192, 218
Pro-consuls, 74, 77, 142, 198
Procurator of Britain, 152, 153, 158
Prosper, 263
Provinces, 59, 74, 77, 195, 198, 222, 225, 230, 240
[274] Ptolemy, 171-175
Pudens, 141, 256, 257
Pytheas, 34-36, 38-40, 42, 45, 49, 51, 55

Querns, 44
Quiberon, Battle off, 81
Quintus Cicero, 104, 105, 106

Radagaisus, 237
Rampart of Agricola, 163, 194, 198, 201, 234
Rationalis Britanniarum, 241
Regni, 57, 142
Ribchester, 176, 266
Richborough, 88, 108, 121, 175, 223, 233, 235, 239
Rings, 186
Rite, British, 267
River-bed men, 26, 27
Rogation Days, 267
Roman citizenship, 140, 141, 213, 214
Roman roads, 117, 166-171
Royal roads, 167
Rycknield Street, 166, 170

Saexe, 219, 246
Sallustius Lucullus, 164
Samian pottery, 188
"Sarsen," 30, 31
Sarum, 175
Saturnalia, 132
Saxons, 193, 206, 219, 233, 234, 236, 238, 244, 245
See English
Saxon Shore, 219
Scotch dogs, 191
Scots, 232-238, 246, 262
Scythed chariots, 100
Seers, 66
Segontium, 127, 172, 228
Selwood, 38, 190
Seneca, 140, 152
Settle, 251
Severus, 200-203, 209-213, 231
Sherwood, 58, 190
Shields, British, 49, 50
Roman, 178
Ships, British, 37, 80
Venetian, 79, 80
Caesar's, 81, 103
Scotch, 232
Saxon, 245
Silchester, 56, 162, 175, 179, 183-188, 264, 265
Silurians, 51, 57, 146-150, 161
Silver, 39, 186
Simon Magus, 71
Zelotes, 253
"Snake's Egg," 70, 71
South Foreland, 89
Spain, 77, 103, 155, 200, 222, 242
Squads, 239
Squared word, 189
Stamford, Battle of, 232, 246
Staters, 38
"Stations," 202, 203
Stilicho, 235-237, 242
Stoke-by-Nayland, 265
Stonehenge, 30, 31
"Streets," 169
Suetonius Paulinus, 154-158, 161
Sul, 183
Sussex, 50, 128, 142
Sylla, 75
Syracuse, 219

Tabulae Missionis, 214
Tartan, 47
Tasciovan, 54, 127, 128, 130, 156
Tattooing, 48
Taxation, 192
Thames, 56, 117-119, 122, 134
Thanet, 36, 108, 245
Theatres, 153, 184
Theodosius the Elder, 233, 234
Great, 230, 235, 242, 268
Thimbles, Roman, 177
Tides, 88, 93, 96, 108, 124, 233
Tin, 33-38, 128
Tincommius, 54, 125, 128
Titus, 133, 137
Togodumnus, 134, 147
Tonsure, Druidic, 72
Treasury, 180, 241
Trebatius, 104
Trees, 47
[275] Tribal boundaries, 56-58
Tribune, 114, 138, 209, 239
Trident, 49
Trinobantes, 55, 57, 59, 109, 122, 127
Triumphs, 135, 149
Tufa, 244, 247
Turf wall, 197, 198, 206
Tyrants, 53, 54, 247

Valens, 234
Valentia, 225, 234, 237, 240
Valentinian I., 230, 233
II., 235
III., 177, 246
Vallum, 205-207, 233
Vandals, 219, 237
Varus, 130
Veneti, 79-81
Verica, 125
Vericus, 130, 142, 143, 152
Verulam, 120, 127, 156, 157, 168, 227, 263
Vespasian, 133, 137, 159
Vexillatio, 210
Via Devana, 166, 167
Vicar of Britain, 240, 243
Victorinus, 218
Villages, 27, 44, 45, 129
Villas, 188, 189, 267
Vine-growing, 192
Visi-goths, 243
Volisius, 54
Vortigern, 245

Wagons, 36
Wall (of Hadrian), 174, 195, 196, 202-212
Wall (of London, etc.), 179
Water-supply, 60, 162, 211
Watling Street, 118, 166-170
Wattle churches, 254, 255, 265
Weald, 57, 189
Wells, 186
West Saxons, 248
Whitherne, 261, 262
Wight, I. of, 36, 133, 189, 224
Winchester, 175
Winter thorn, 254


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