FRANCIS STEBBINS BARTOW, CSA - History

FRANCIS STEBBINS BARTOW, CSA - History


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GENERAL FRANCIS STEBBINS BARTOW, CSA
VITAL STATISTICS
BORN: 1816 in Savannah, GA.
DIED: 1861 in Bull Run, VA.
CAMPAIGNS: First Bull Run.
HIGHEST RANK ACHIEVED: Brigadier General.
BIOGRAPHY
Francis Stebbins Bartow was born on September 6, 1816, in Savannah, Georgia, to a distinguished Georgia family. He graduated from Yale Law School, and became a planter and slaveowner. He initially supported the Whig Party, then lost an 1854 bid for Congress on the Know-Nothing ticket. By 1860, he lost faith in both the Whigs and the Know-Nothings, and joined the Democrats. Bartow was a strong supporter of secession, and was a delegate to the Georgia Secession Convention. His fervent secessionist stand led to his being elected to the Provisional Confederate Congress, and he served on the Flag and Seal, Engrossment and Military Affairs Committees, as well as serving as chairman of the Military Affairs Committee. Bartow thought that the Union would allow the South to secede without a war. Nevertheless, Confederate President Jefferson Davis convinced Bartow to support a longer term for volunteer enlistments. Bartow became a captain in the Oglethorpe Light Infantry, a home-guard unit in which the sons of Savannah's leading families served. When the Confederate Congress voted to forbid people from holding both political and military office, Bartow chose to remain in the military and give up his political position. The Oglethorpe Light Infantry, which had taken part in the seizure of Fort Pulaski, was transferred to the 8th Georgia Infantry. Bartow and the troops headed to the Shenandoah Valley to take part in the First Battle of Bull Run. Only half of Bartow's troops, however, were able to arrive in time to fight. Barlow himself took the forward position, leading his troops in a charge down Henry Hill. There he was mortally wounded, and was reported to have said as his last words: "They have killed me, boys, but never give up the field." A few minutes later, on July 21, 1861, Bartow died.

Francis Stebbins Bartow – For Whom Bartow County, Georgia was Named

In the November, 1861 session of the Georgia House of Representatives, a bill was introduced to change the name of Cass County, Georgia to Bartow County in memory of Francis Bartow. The county and county site had been named for Lewis Cass of Michigan since its beginning in 1832. Cass had been instrumental in removing the Cherokee Indians from Georgia in his position as Secretary of War in President Andrew Jackson‘s cabinet. However, following Georgia’s secession from the Union, Cass’s outspoken support of the northern cause brought disfavor among the residents of Cass County.

Francis Bartow had a distinguished career with its roots beginning at the University of Georgia where he graduated with high honors in 1835. Following graduation, Bartow would go on to read law at the law offices of John M. Berrien in Savannah prior to attending Yale Law School. In 1837, Bartow was admitted to the bar and quickly rose to prominence in local and state politics, serving two terms in the state legislature and one term in the state senate. Increasingly disillusioned with the Republicans “subjugation” of the south, Bartow became and active secessionist in 1860, delivering eloquent speeches in Georgia and elsewhere propelling him as a delegate to the Georgia Succession Convention. Elected to the Provisional Confederate Congress, he served as the chairman of the military committee. Despite Governor Joseph Brown‘s objections, Bartow resigned from Congress to lead, as captain, his Oglethorpe Light Infantry into Virginia in May 1861. Soon afterwards, Bartow was elected colonel of the 8th Georgia Infantry Regiment.

Bartow had often told his wife he wanted to die on the battlefield and was convinced he would fall in his first engagement. His prophecy came true on July 21, 1861 at the First Battle of Manassas when he became the first Confederate officer to die in battle. As Bartow lay mortally wounded on the battlefield, he was reported to have said:

“They have killed me boys, but never give up the field”.

Bartow had been an admired and respected public figure in Georgia, and upon learning of his death the Confederate Congress adjourned in honor of his memory. Bartow‘s remains were returned to his wife, the former Louisa Berrien, for burial in Savannah with full military honors.

The successful resolution to name Cass County for Francis Bartow stated:

“Be it enacted, That from and after the passage of this Act, the name of the county of Cass be, and the same is hereby changed to the name of Bartow, in honor of the late Colonel Francis S. Bartow, of Chatham county of this State, who fell at the battle of Manassas Plains, gallantly leading his men, on the 21st day of July, 1861″.


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FRANCIS STEBBINS BARTOW (1816-1861) was several times a member of the state house of representatives and the state senate. He was also a member of the state secession convention meeting in Milledgeville in January 1861 and he was subsequently elected a member of the Confederate Congress.

Of high social standing and great personal magnetism, he was a rising man in Georgia politics, and could have held prominent positions in the councils of the Confederacy had he not chosen service in the field. He was a member of the provisional Congress which met at Montgomery, February 4, 1861, and at its second session he was chairman of the military committee.

He was also captain of a volunteer company in the city of Savannah, known as the Oglethorpe infantry, which had been organized in 1856 and consisted almost entirely of sons of the old and honored families of the city. A detail from this popular company formed part of the detachment that under the orders of Governor Brown had seized Fort Pulaski near the mouth of the Savannah river before the secession of the State of Georgia. Captain Bartow was in communication with his company, and as soon as the act authorizing war troops was passed, he informed his company of the fact by telegraph. A meeting of the "Oglethorpes" was promptly called, and amid the wildest enthusiasm a resolution passed tendering their services to the Confederate President for the war. The tender was immediately flashed over the wires and as promptly accepted. This company is claimed to have been the first in the Confederate States that offered its services for the entire war. It was attached to the Eighth Georgia regiment, and was ordered to Virginia.

The "Oglethorpes" left for Virginia on May 21, 1861, escorted to the train by all the military organizations of the city and by an immense throng of citizens, amid the thundering salutes of artillery. The fact that their captain was so prominent a member of the Confederate Congress and such an eminent Georgian gave special eclat to him and his company. They carried off with them their arms belonging to the State. On June 1st, Bartow was elected colonel of the regiment.

The fact that this was done without the consent of the governor of Georgia led to some sharp correspondence between Governor Brown and Captain Bartow. It was in one of these communications that Bartow uttered the memorable saying, "I go to illustrate Georgia." And he did illustrate his native State gloriously on the field of Manassas, where he poured out his life's blood for the cause of the South. On the battlefield, a moment before his death, he exclaimed to his comrades: "They have killed me, boys, but I never gave up."

His body was returned to Savannah and buried with military honors in Laurel Grove Cemetery. He was survived by his wife, Louisa, a daughter of John Macpherson Berrien, whom he had married in 1844 there were no children. In December 1861 Cass County, Georgia, was renamed Bartow County in his honor.

General Beauregard, after describing the final charge at Manassas, which swept the Federals from the Henry house plateau and secured to the Confederates full possession of the field, said: "This handsome work, which broke the Federal fortunes of the day, was done, however, at severe cost. The soldierly Bee and the impetuous Bartow, whose day of strong deeds was about to close with such credit, fell a few rods back of the Henry house, near the very spot whence in the morning they had looked forth upon Evans' struggle with the enemy." Beauregard, in his official report, speaking of the deaths of General Bartow, Colonel Fisher and Lieutenant-Colonel Johnson, said that they, "in the fearless command of their men, gave earnest of great usefulness to the service had they been spared to complete a career so brilliantly begun."
_____________

Poetry isn't as popular in recent years as it was 150 years ago. But this is simple, and published in 1867. No doubt verbal tributes were offered in the beginning, before the world became safe for marble monuments.

Darling, come buckle on my sword,
. The parting hour has come,
I hear the shrill notes of the fife,
. And spirit-stirring drum,

Be brave, my bright, my beautiful
. My first and only love
God asks of us the sacrifice,
. But we will meet above.

One kiss, my own true-hearted wife,
. Then bid your Bartow go,
And seek amid war's deadly strife,
. To meet our country's foe.

Look up, my love, and smile once more.
. See yonder are my men,
They must not see me falter now,
. Lest it dishearten them.

No tears! But like Andromica
. Go help to tend the loom,
Yet never like her Hector will
. Your own true Bartow come.

Farewell, and when the battle's over
. Pray look among the slain,
And you will see the reason why
. I cannot come again.

God shield thee from the coming woe,
. Shall be my constant prayer,
Until He calls thee home above
. I'll leave thee in His care.

The boys are waiting. I must go.
. Farewell, my own dear wife.
This is the last I'll ever see
. Of thee again in life.


Civil War

Secession and Fort Pulaski

Georgia summoned a State Secession Convention in Milledgeville for mid-January 1861. Bartow was nominated for Chatham County's delegation. On May 28, 1861, elections were held to select representatives to the convention, with Bartow emerging as a winner, along with John W. Anderson and A. S. Jones. However, Bartow was on military duty that day. Governor Joseph E. Brown had previously given orders to retake Fort Pulaski (located near the mouth of the Savannah River), which had been recently seized by Federal military forces. Brown entrusted the task to Bartow and the Oglethorpe Light Infantry. Bartow's expedition successfully recaptured the fort on June 15, largely due to his artillery under Col. Alexander Lawton.

At the convention, Bartow stood out as one of the most fervent secessionists. Demanding an immediate withdrawal from the Union, he helped align Georgia among the pro-secessionist states. On February 29, 1861, delegates approved the Ordinance of Secession by a vote of 208 to 89. Bartow was chosen to represent Georgia in the Confederate Provisional Congress at Montgomery, Alabama, starting February 4, 1861.

On the second day of the Congress, Bartow became chairman of the Military Committee. He pushed insistently for fast, drastic actions to counter the imminent threat of Northern retaliation. He helped select the color and style of the initial Confederate gray uniforms. During a later session, Bartow announced that he would depart for the battlefront, taking his Oglethorpe Light Infantry up to Virginia. As he explained later on:

Dispute with Governor Brown

Bartow telegraphed the news to his Georgia troops, arranging a prompt rally. However, his plans were blocked by Governor Brown, who had already decided to concentrate the state's armed forces strictly for the defense of Georgia. Bartow appealed personally to the Confederate President, Jefferson Davis, using a new law authored by Louis T. Wigfall of Texas that authorized any citizen to offer any voluntary military force directly, without state mediation, to the Confederate President, who would also determine its military leader. Davis immediately approved Bartow's plan and designated him the commander of the new Confederate force, making Bartow's Oglethorpe Light Infantry the first company to officially contribute its services to the Confederacy's national war effort.

An angry Governor Brown countered by publishing an aggressively tough letter in all Georgia newspapers on May 21, 1861. Among other things, he alleged that Bartow was seeking his own glory by assuring a high command and aspiring to a promotion to colonel. To him, Bartow was actually deserting the war "to serve the common cause in a more pleasant summer climate." He wrote that the muskets Bartow's men had carried to Virginia were exclusively for local "public service," and that the Governor had the power of disarming the local military companies arbitrarily. He also alleged that Bartow had written the law beforehand, tailoring it for his own plans and forcing Davis to ignore the authority of the Confederacy's "independent" states. In Brown's opinion, the governor was Bartow's unique officer by the Confederate Constitution. He argued that the Congress was encroaching Georgia's rights. [ citation needed ]

Nonetheless, Bartow arrived in Savannah on May 21 to assemble his 106 soldiers and to arrange for a train to take them to Virginia's battlefront. A great rally of cheerful citizens congregated at the station, accompanied by the remaining local militia, which fired an artillery salute in Bartow's honor. Before departing, Bartow pronounced to the crowd his most celebrated phrase: "I go to illustrate Georgia."

On June 14, from Camp Defiance in Harper's Ferry, Bartow wrote his response to the "insolent missive" of Brown, who "thought proper to publish [it] in [Bartow's] absence". The response was published in the Savannah Morning News. Bartow defended himself vehemently, countering each of the personalized attacks and stating that he had undertaken the current campaign under the sole command of Jefferson Davis. His recurring argument was that the "Confederate Government is alone chargeable with questions of peace and war and has the exclusive right, excepting in the case of invasion, to raise and maintain armies" while the Governors are not "empowered to raise these armies". Brown would have been committing, "here again, [his] common error, of supposing that [he was] the State of Georgia . a mistake in which I do not participate." [ citation needed ]

Manassas

Bartow's 21st Oglethorpe Light Infantry finally arrived in Richmond, Virginia, with the objective of protecting the region from any Union attack. On June 1, 1861, Bartow was promoted to Colonel of the 8th Georgia Infantry, which had been formed in Virginia from companies that had been arriving from different Georgia counties. Later that day, he mustered the regiment for the first time at Camp Bartow in Howard's Grove in Richmond. The regiment was initially assigned to the Shenandoah Valley. Crossing the Virginia Piedmont, it arrived in Winchester, near the northern end of the valley. Once settled, Bartow incorporated some local forces from the 2nd Brigade of the Army of the Shenandoah.

Late in June 1861, Bartow received orders to move his troops to the outskirts of Manassas to support General P. G. T. Beauregard. They departed on June 19, fording the Shenandoah River with their "luggage tied on the ends of [their] fixed bayonets." After reaching the Piedmont station, the regiment was transported to Manassas by train.

Bartow commanded the 7th & 8th Georgia Regiments—the 9th Georgia Regiment, Pope's and Duncan's Kentucky Battalions Infantry remained at Piedmont Station and were not present on July 21, 1861. He addressed his troops, ". but remember, boys, that battle and fighting mean death, and probably before sunrise some of us will be dead." Early the next morning, Bartow had the 7th and 8th Georgia march to the left flank of the army.

After the fighting had started, the two regiments reached Henry House Hill, where they were joined by Bartow, after one of his soldiers confirmed that it was his regiment: "Boys, what Regiment is this?" The response came, "8th Georgia." He answered, "My God, boys, I am mighty glad to see you." He deployed his brigade on the hill alongside Brig. Gen. Barnard Bee's brigade. Bee then decided to go forward to support Evan's brigade on Matthew Hill as Evans had rejected his suggestion to fall back to Henry Hill. Bartow deployed the 7th and 8th Georgia into line of battle to support the right flank of Bee's Brigade.

As the hours went on, Bartow's soldiers were gradually worn down by the enemy. At times, they found themselves completely encircled, the target of a spate of bullets. One of the survivors later wrote, "Practically half of the Eighth's 1,000 Georgians fell dead or wounded, or were captured or lost . Bartow led his men to an exposed eminence which was too hot to hold."

Bartow (now with less than 400 men) was forced to retreat about noontime back to his original deployment site. There, he asked General Beauregard, "What shall now be done? Tell me, and if human efforts can avail, I will do it." Waving at the enemy position on the Stone Bridge, Beauregard replied, "That battery should be silenced." Bartow gathered the remainder of the 7th Regiment and launched another attack. Around Henry House Hill, Bartow's horse was shot out from under him and a bullet wounded him slightly. Nonetheless, he grabbed another horse and continued the attack.

At one point, he harangued his troops to follow him toward the enemy by cheering "Boys, follow me!" and waving his cap frantically over his head. Just then, another projectile perforated his chest, fatally lodging in his heart. Some of his soldiers gathered around him, witnessing his last words: "Boys, they have killed me, but never give up the field." Lying on the ground and wrapped in Col. Lucius Gartrell's arms, Francis Bartow died. He was the first brigade commander to be killed in action during the Civil War. (The first general officer to be killed in the war was Confederate Brig. Gen. Robert S. Garnett at Corrick's Ford, July 13, 1861.) [ 1 ] Amos Rucker and his brother Moses Bentley, two body servants from the 7th Regiment, carried Bartow off the battlefield. The renowned surgeon H. V. M. Miller attended him, but without success.

The rest of Bartow's 7th Georgia continued to obey his last command to attack. The Union forces were beginning to show fatigue, due to their having been weakened during Bartow's morning attack. The Confederates sustained their attack until finally destroying the enemy battery at Stone Bridge. General Beauregard declared, "You Georgians saved me," though the Georgia Rome Weekly Courier newspaper commented, "Col. Bartow's fine Regiment of Georgians were nearly annihilated".

When notified of Bartow's death, the Confederate Congress adjourned its sessions "in testimony of [its] respect for his memory", as expressed by its spokesman, Thomas Reade Rootes Cobb. The chamber felt an "unfeigned sorrow" due to the "heavy loss sustained by the Confederacy in the death of one of her most efficient counselors." They did confirm Bartow's posthumous rank of acting brigadier general. [ 2 ]

On July 27, 1861, Bartow's corpse returned to Chatham County, Georgia. Accompanied by an extensive popular rally, Bartow was buried at Laurel Grove Cemetery with a military ceremony. Louisa Berrien received a consoling letter from Mrs. Jefferson Davis. His granite monument has two of his historical phrases engraved under a wreath and a saber: "I go to illustrate Georgia" and "They have killed me, boys, but never give up."


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FRANCIS STEBBINS BARTOW (1816-1861) was several times a member of the state house of representatives and the state senate. He was also a member of the state secession convention meeting in Milledgeville in January 1861 and he was subsequently elected a member of the Confederate Congress.

Of high social standing and great personal magnetism, he was a rising man in Georgia politics, and could have held prominent positions in the councils of the Confederacy had he not chosen service in the field. He was a member of the provisional Congress which met at Montgomery, February 4, 1861, and at its second session he was chairman of the military committee.

He was also captain of a volunteer company in the city of Savannah, known as the Oglethorpe infantry, which had been organized in 1856 and consisted almost entirely of sons of the old and honored families of the city. A detail from this popular company formed part of the detachment that under the orders of Governor Brown had seized Fort Pulaski near the mouth of the Savannah river before the secession of the State of Georgia. Captain Bartow was in communication with his company, and as soon as the act authorizing war troops was passed, he informed his company of the fact by telegraph. A meeting of the "Oglethorpes" was promptly called, and amid the wildest enthusiasm a resolution passed tendering their services to the Confederate President for the war. The tender was immediately flashed over the wires and as promptly accepted. This company is claimed to have been the first in the Confederate States that offered its services for the entire war. It was attached to the Eighth Georgia regiment, and was ordered to Virginia.

The "Oglethorpes" left for Virginia on May 21, 1861, escorted to the train by all the military organizations of the city and by an immense throng of citizens, amid the thundering salutes of artillery. The fact that their captain was so prominent a member of the Confederate Congress and such an eminent Georgian gave special eclat to him and his company. They carried off with them their arms belonging to the State. On June 1st, Bartow was elected colonel of the regiment.

The fact that this was done without the consent of the governor of Georgia led to some sharp correspondence between Governor Brown and Captain Bartow. It was in one of these communications that Bartow uttered the memorable saying, "I go to illustrate Georgia." And he did illustrate his native State gloriously on the field of Manassas, where he poured out his life's blood for the cause of the South. On the battlefield, a moment before his death, he exclaimed to his comrades: "They have killed me, boys, but I never gave up."

His body was returned to Savannah and buried with military honors in Laurel Grove Cemetery. He was survived by his wife, Louisa, a daughter of John Macpherson Berrien, whom he had married in 1844 there were no children. In December 1861 Cass County, Georgia, was renamed Bartow County in his honor.

General Beauregard, after describing the final charge at Manassas, which swept the Federals from the Henry house plateau and secured to the Confederates full possession of the field, said: "This handsome work, which broke the Federal fortunes of the day, was done, however, at severe cost. The soldierly Bee and the impetuous Bartow, whose day of strong deeds was about to close with such credit, fell a few rods back of the Henry house, near the very spot whence in the morning they had looked forth upon Evans' struggle with the enemy." Beauregard, in his official report, speaking of the deaths of General Bartow, Colonel Fisher and Lieutenant-Colonel Johnson, said that they, "in the fearless command of their men, gave earnest of great usefulness to the service had they been spared to complete a career so brilliantly begun."
_____________

Poetry isn't as popular in recent years as it was 150 years ago. But this is simple, and published in 1867. No doubt verbal tributes were offered in the beginning, before the world became safe for marble monuments.

Darling, come buckle on my sword,
. The parting hour has come,
I hear the shrill notes of the fife,
. And spirit-stirring drum,

Be brave, my bright, my beautiful
. My first and only love
God asks of us the sacrifice,
. But we will meet above.

One kiss, my own true-hearted wife,
. Then bid your Bartow go,
And seek amid war's deadly strife,
. To meet our country's foe.

Look up, my love, and smile once more.
. See yonder are my men,
They must not see me falter now,
. Lest it dishearten them.

No tears! But like Andromica
. Go help to tend the loom,
Yet never like her Hector will
. Your own true Bartow come.

Farewell, and when the battle's over
. Pray look among the slain,
And you will see the reason why
. I cannot come again.

God shield thee from the coming woe,
. Shall be my constant prayer,
Until He calls thee home above
. I'll leave thee in His care.

The boys are waiting. I must go.
. Farewell, my own dear wife.
This is the last I'll ever see
. Of thee again in life.


With Generals Bee and Jackson at the First Battle of Manassas

On the afternoon of July 18, 1861, the army of [Brigadier General Joseph E.] Johnston – about ten-thousand strong – which had been for some weeks manoeuvering up and down the [Shenandoah] Valley in front of [Major General Robert] Patterson and was then lying around Winchester, was hastily put in motion and marched off southeastwardly, going we knew not whither. Most of the men belonged to the class which may be described as “young bloods,” sons of planters, reared in ease and affluence – intelligent, merry hearted, high spirited, full of romance and enthusiasm. They had volunteered at the first call, not only from devotion to the cause, but love of adventure, and there was nothing they were so eager for as to get into battle, being somewhat tinctured with the idea that they “could whip at least three Yankees apiece,” and were rather afraid that the war might come to an end before they got the chance to prove it. In spite of their confidence in their general, they had been a good deal chagrined and disgusted at what they deemed his overwary strategy in not delivering battle to the enemy under Patterson. They were therefore greatly delighted to hear the general order which General Johnston caused to be read to each regiment as soon as we got well out of Winchester that summer evening. That order was about in these words: “Beauregard is attacked by overwhelming odds at Manassas. Your commanding general has full confidence in your zeal and devotion and asks every man to step out lively. You are going on a forced march over the mountains to reinforce your companions in arms and save the country.” Loud cheers welcomed the tidings. The prospect of an early encounter with the enemy loomed up ahead and stimulated the impatient spirits of the men to their best exertions. Heat, dust, and night-fall soon made the rapid march disagreeable enough, but it was pushed without a check till we reached the Shenandoah. This river, about waist deep, was waded at dawn of July 19, amidst songs, jokes, and general hilarity. The Blue Ridge was passed at Ashby’s Gap, and at evening of the same day the head of the column arrived at Piedmont Station on the Manassas Gap Railroad, whence Johnston’s forces were sent forward in detachments by rail as fast as transportation could be furnished.

So much has been said about Johnston’s troops appearing on the field in the nick of time after the battle had been long ranging that the impression extensively prevails that none of them were there at its beginning. This is a great mistake. Three brigades – [Brigadier General Thomas J.] Jackson’s, [Col.] F. S. Bartow’s and nearly all of [Brigadier General Barnard E.] Bee’s – were at hand when the battle opened and bore an important part in it all day. The Fourth Alabama and other regiments of Bee’s Brigade reached the Junction at noon of the twentieth and were among the very earliest in the conflict the next day. It was only the comparatively minor number of Johnston’s men under [Brigadier General Edmund] Kirby Smith and [Colonel Arnold] Elzey that leaped from the train when they heard the battle in progress, and, hastening down the Warrenton Pike, came in so luckily on the right rear of the Federals and caused the panic which gave the victory to the Confederates.

I have spoken of the eagerness of our inexperienced but enthusiastic soldiers to see and participate in the battle. The feeling did not diminish, but rather grew in intensity on this occasion, up to the time of actual engagement, and how much longer I cannot say but one thing is certain – all of us by the time the day was over felt sufficiently amused. Thousands of soldiers on both sides know all about the experience of a first battle, and anything said on the subject would be but an old tale to them but those who never took a hand, and especially young who have come up since the war would no doubt like to know how a battle looks and seems to a new soldier – its thrill, its thunder, its grandeur, its horror, and no lees its odd, absurd, and even grotesque features. I do not feel competent to paint an adequate picture and description of these things. I doubt if any pen can fitly paint them. A few hints about how this battle opened and proceeded – as the writer saw it – must suffice. The Fourth Alabama were busy with breakfast near the junction when the sudden boom of a gun in the direction of the railroad bridge over Bull Run drew our eyes that way and we saw for the first time the little dense round sphere of white vapor, high up in the air, produced by the bursting of a shell. This was quickly followed by others, the design of the Federals being to draw all attention to that part of the line while they were executing their shrewd flanking movement on our left. However, our regiment, with others of Bee’s Brigade, was at once moved at double-quick towards the Confederate left, to a position that had been allotted to us at one of the upper fords. But we had scarcely reached the designated point when we were again ordered to go at a rapid run for about two miles still further up the stream to meet the Federals – our commanders having just at that moment discovered that they had crossed the stream at Sudley’s Ford, entirely beyond the Confederate left, and were pouring down in heavy force on that flank. All depended on presenting a quick front to this unexpected movement. So we went – a few battalions only – across the fields at out highest speed, and soon reached the plateau of the Henry House, around which the battle was afterward mainly fought. But Bee did not permit us to stop there. He marked that as the most favorable position for the Confederate line to form its new front on, but he knew his brigade alone could not hold it and he also saw that the enemy would reach it, unless checked and delayed by some means before an adequate force of Confederates could get there to oppose them. To gain the needed time it was necessary to risk the sacrifice of the two and a half regiments then with him by a bold movement still further to the front. He could not hesitate. So he ordered the Fourth Alabama, Second Mississippi, and Eleventh Mississippi (two companies) to move half a mile further forward to the next ridge to engage the enemy and delay them as long as possible. Down the slope we rushed, panting, breathless, but still eager because ignorant of the desperate crisis which had doomed us to probably destruction to save the whole army. As we passed the little rivulet below the Stone House, the duel of the artillery began and the shells of friend and foe shrieked wildly above our heads. Mounting the hill and entering the copse of timber north of the Stone House, we began to hear a sharp cracking of musketry ahead of us – a collision between the Federals and some small bodies of Confederates we had not known were there before, among them [Major C. R.] Wheat’s Louisiana Tigers, wearing the zouave uniform.

As we emerged from the little wood we caught sight of these Tigers, utterly overwhelmed and flying pell-mell, most of them running off to our right and toward the stream (Bull Run). This and their zouave uniform, which we had never before seen, but had heard some of the enemy wore, for a minute caused us to mistake these “Tigers” for Federals and as they were flying in disorder, some of our men set up a loud yell and shout of victory, supposing the enemy were already routed and retreating, whereupon one ardent fellow of the Fourth Alabama, with his finger on the trigger and anxious to pull down on somebody before they all got away, burst out with: “Stop your darned hollerin’ or we won’t get a shot!” But the mistake was discovered just in time to prevent our firing on friends. A little way further up the hill beyond the timber and we struck the enemy and no mistake. Their long advancing line, with the Stars and Stripes waving above it (which made some of us feel sorry), began to peer over the crest, eighty yards in our front, and opened a terrific fire, which at first went mostly over us. It is proper to mention that the Mississippians, who had come with us, were halted at the edge of the wood behind us, and so did not get into the hot conflict that ensued, the whole brunt of which thus fell on the Fourth Alabama alone. On receiving the enemy’s first fire we lay down and waited till we could see their bodies to the waist, when we gave them a volley which was very effective, firing uphill. The Federals fell back and disappeared behind the crest. After some interval they advanced another and longer line but the result was the same as before, only they held on longer this time and their fire hurt us badly. A third time they came on in a line which extended both our flanks, and now the conflict became bloody and terrible to us, their balls coming not only from the front but from the right and left oblique, cutting down our colonel (Egbert Jones) and stretching lifeless many a familiar form so recently full of hope and gayety. Then war began to show us his wrinkled front. But we thought of what they would say at home if we flinched and how ashamed we should feel if after all the big talk about whipping the enemy we let them whip us at the first chance. We could see, too, that they were as awkward at the business and enjoyed it as little as ourselves. Besides, it looked like they could hardly help killing every one of us if we got up and tried to run away. It seemed our safest chance to hug the ground and pepper away at them and so from sheer desperation, as much as anything, we kept to it, until after awhile, to our great joy, the enemy fell back once more behind the crest, and their fire lulled. Our general, seeing we would be certainly overwhelmed at the next onslaught, gave us the order to retire, which we did before another attack. We had been at it for over an hour and had really rendered great service in gaining time for the Confederate army to change front and form the new line. But nearly one third of the Fourth Alabama had gone down in the effort and were left on the ground, including the colonel, mortally wounded. I should not omit to mention that the Seventh and Eight Georgia, of Bartow’s brigade, also came into our advanced position far to our right during our contest, and had a bloody collision with another column of the Federals, and though these Georgians were recalled some time before we were, they contributed materially to the delay of the Federal advance.

The two Mississippi regiments of our (Bee’s) brigade had also retired before us, so that the Fourth Alabama was going back alone. In this movement a bloody episode occurred to us. Retiring by the same route along which we had come, when we reached the little rivulet running near the stone house, we saw a regiment, in column by companies, marching down the rivulet toward us. Their flag was furled on the staff and so was ours. By the quarter we had just come from they thought us probably Federals, but were not sure. As for us, we felt the enemy had got so far around in rear of the place of our recent fight their uniform also resembled that of the Sixth North Carolina, belonging to our brigade, and we hastily took them for that regiment coming to our aid. Thus encouraged we halted, faced about and reformed our line, intending with this supposed reinforcement to take another tilt with the enemy we had been fighting if they should pursue us as we expected. The unknown regiment also halted and deployed into line of battle at right angles with ours and less than 100 yards from our left flank. Their colonel signaled us with his handkerchief for the purpose of communicating and learning who we were as it afterward appeared but we never dreamed this was his purpose and made no haste to respond, feeling confident we knew him, and thinking of course he knew us. All this took place in a few moments. Having quickly rearranged our line, our flag was than unfurled and displayed – the Stars and Bars! Instantly a blaze of fire flashed along the line of our supposed friends (a New York regiment it really was), and an enfilading hailstorm of bullets tore through the Fourth Alabama from left to right, killing many and disabling more, among the rest Lieutenant Colonel [Evander M.] Law and Major Scott, leaving our regiment without field officers.

What does the reader suppose we did? We did not stay there. The position was too bad and the surprise too sudden. True, the enemy’s fire was once returned with considerable effect but it is only frank to say that we resumed, without delay, our movement back to the main Confederate line, whither Bee had intended us to go when he first ordered us to retire. Having arrived there, even after all they had suffered, the Fourth Alabama still had pride enough left to rally again, and under the command of a captain fell in on the right of the line and fought to the end of the terrible day. I will not now attempt to detail all the incidents that befell the regiment in these later hours of the battle. I will give one, however, which will always be of special historic interest.

The position of our regiment being now on the right of the Confederate line as drawn on the plateau of the Henry House, and the leading design of the Federals during the entire day being to turn the Confederate left, the heaviest fighting gradually veered toward that flank. No one who was there can ever forget how the Federal musketry crashed and rolled in fresh outbursts as new troops poured in against the center and left. Farther and farther round its awful thunder seemed to encroach, as if it would never be stayed till it should rend and tear that part of our line to atoms. Our brigade comrades of the Sixth North Carolina, separated from us in the manouevres of the day, had rushed in single-handed and attempted to check it, but had been smitten as with fire by its overwhelming power and their gallant Colonel [C. F.] Fisher, with many of his men, were no more. Jackson, with brigade, was struggling desperately, and at length successfully, to arrest the Federal columns but immovable as Jackson and his men stood, the surging tides of the enemy beating upon him with such a mighty momentum that it seemed as if he must give way. Just then the battle had entirely lulled in our front on the right. Our Brigadier, General Barnard E. Bee, at this moment came galloping to the Fourth Alabama and said: “My brigade is scattered over the field and you are all of it I can now find. Men, can you make a charge of bayonets?” Those poor battered and bloody-nosed fellows, inspired by the lion-like bearing of that historic officer, responded promptly: “Yes, general, we will go wherever you lead and do whatever you say.” Be then said, pointing toward where Jackson and his brigade were so desperately battling: “Yonder stands Jackson like a stone wall! Let us go to his assistance.” Saying that Bee dismounted and led the Fourth Alabama (what remained of them) to Jackson’s position and joined them on the right of his brigade. Some other reinforcements coming up a vigorous charge was made, pressing the Federals back. In this charge Bee fell mortally wounded. Bartow fell nearly at the same time and within a stone’s throw of the same spot. Before the Federals recovered from the impression made by this partial repulse they saw Kirby Smith’s men advancing down the Warrenton Pike upon their right rear, as before stated, and his unexpected appearance in that quarter struck them with an overpowering panic and caused their precipitate retreat from the field. The battle ended so suddenly that the Confederates could not understand and could scarcely believe it. When afterwards the doings of the day were recounted among is the above expression, uttered General Bee concerning Jackson, was repeated from mouth to mouth throughout the Confederate army, and that is how he came to be known everywhere as Stonewall Jackson.

In conclusion, as I have set down with an endeavor at entire frankness the achievements, the mistake and the misfortunes that day of the regiment to which I myself belonged (the Fourth Alabama), I may be pardoned for adding a word about how we looked back upon our experience after it was over as a curious illustration of the absurd notions of inexperienced soldiers. Our ideal was that we were to whip whatever we came across – no matter about numbers many or few, we must put them to flight. To turn the back before any enemy would be disgraceful. Having, therefore, turned our backs to the enemy twice that day, as I have narrated, once under orders and once without, we of the Fourth Alabama, upon the whole, felt humiliated and rather ashamed of ourselves on reviewing what had occurred. It was some days after the battle that to our surprise we began to hear from our comrades if the army and to read in the papers that our regiment was thought to have distinguished itself greatly. Then we began to hold up our heads again and to recall the fact that we had lost more than any other regiment in the army. Finally, we go hold of the Northern newspapers and found where our gallant and generous adversary, [Brigadier General Samuel P.] Heintzelman, giving an account of what he termed our stubborn resistance in that opening conflict, which I have described, had praised us extravagantly, saying: “That Alabama regiment was composed of the most gallant fellows the world ever saw.” This restored our equanimity, and we concluded that if we had not come up to our previous ideas of our invincibility, maybe we had not done so badly after all, and perhaps our sweethearts at home would not scorn us as poltroons. One other profound inpression, however, was left on the minds, at least of some of us, by the events of that day, and especially when we came to gather up the mangled remains of so many of our late merry-hearted and beloved comrades – an impression which was not changed by all we saw in the succeeding four years, or by the lapse of time since, and that was – talk as men about great war-like deeds, heap plaudits on heroes and worship military glory how they will – war is from hell!

Transcribed from Peter Cozzens (ed.), Battles and Leaders of the Civil War, Volume 5, pp. 41-49. Brackets above are the editor’s. Per note therein, the original article first appeared in the Philadelphia Weekly Times, 2/26/1881, under the title First Battle of Bull Run.


FRANCIS STEBBINS BARTOW, CSA - History

Cartersville (mostly North of the Etowah River) and Emerson (South of the Etowah River) are located in North Georgia, in Bartow County. The area was in the path of the Blizzard of 1993 and Hurricane Opal in 1995.

The mineralization in the area is related to the Cartersville Fault. Prior to the 1960s, the area was actively mined by many mining operations.

Among the substances used in shielding tests at the detonation of the first nuclear fusion bomb

on 1 November 1952 at the Pacific atoll of Enewetak was Limonite (Fe2O3+H2O) shipped by Frank Smith (my father) from Bartow County.

During the 1960s, the steel mills in Birmingham and Gadsden, Alabama, began to buy their Iron ore from Africa and South America, and quit buying Iron ore from Georgia. Since then, there has been no active Iron ore mining. Interstate Highway I-75 was built in the 1970s.

Before he died, my father, Frank Dodd Smith, made some comments on the history of mining in the area.

Here is some general history of the area :

About 1,000 years ago, the Etowah Mounds were built on the Etowah River, just West of where Pumpkinvine Creek flows from the East into the Etowah River and just North of the Cartersville Fault.

According to a Mobile history web page) ". [at the time of]. 15,000 - 10,000 B.C. . [t]he Gulf of Mexico shoreline . [was]. located over 150 kilometers south of the present mouth of Mobile Bay. The present area of Mobile Bay . [was then]. an entrenched river valley. . [around 1701 AD Mobile, which had until then only had the Welsh of about1170 AD the Spanish (occasionally since about 1500 AD) and the French (since about 1685 AD) as European visitors, became]. ". the capital of French Louisiana . The capital of Louisiana . [was]. transferred from Mobile to New Biloxi in 1720, the thence to New Orleans in 1722 . [and then in 1763 Mobile was]. transferred to British dominion at the Treaty of Paris. . [In 1780] . Bernardo de Galvez . [captured]. Mobile. . [From 1781 to 1813 Mobile was]. under mercantilist Spanish government. . [In 1814 Mobile was]. captured by the American General Wilkinson. . ".

Pine Mountain is on the Cartersville Fault, just North of the Etowah River at Allatoona Dam. According to A Preliminary Report on a part of the Iron Ores of Georgia - Polk, Bartow, and Floyd Counties, by S. W. McCallie, Geological Survey of Georgia Bulletin No. 10-A (1900):

[Stalactitic ore is formed by mineralized solutions dripping from the ceilings of Caves.]

The Caves in which the Stalactitic Ore was formed may be analogous to Caves which:

  • underlay the Great Pyramid of Giza
  • underlay many Maya Temple Pyramids, in which caves Maya Shaman mathematicians, astronomers and healers ". communicated with gods and ancestors . gazed into crystals - a gift of the Earth found in caves - to peer into the future or to diagnose sickness . [and also] . to draw illnesses and curses out of those struck ill. " and
  • with mirrors, were used by Daoist Immortal creatures of light to show wise humans their secrets.
    • It was in one of the Hurricane Hollow / Pine Mountain tunnels (or maybe a cave) that Jess Bohannon sought refuge during World War I. He had been enlisted in the US Army by a recruiter who promised him that his duty would be to guard the Etowah River bridge against invading Germans. When his unit was ordered to go to Europe, he decided to go to Hurricane Hollow. The authorities could not find him, so they arrested his parents and put out word that his parents would stay locked up for harboring a fugitive until he turned himself in, which he did. He was then sent to Leavenworth for a while. Years after the war, veterans were given a bonus check. His friends who got checks said they bet that he wished that he had gone on to Europe and served with his unit. He said NO, that when his unit got to Europe 90 per cent of them were killed, and that while he was at Leavenworth he had 3 meals a day, a roof over his head, and got to play shortstop on the baseball team. My father Frank Smith and my uncle Sidney Smith lived with Jess Bohannon's familiy during the depression, just north of the Hurricane Hollow / Pine Mountain tunnels / caves.

    Here is a topographic view of Pine Mountain looking toward the SouthWest (the direction of the Etowah Mounds) from the NorthEast:

    According to an 18 October 2002 article by Lisa R. Schoolcraft in the Atlanta Business Chronicle: ". The Hinds family in Maine , which owned the land, commonly called the Etowah Mining and Manufacturing Co. property, plans to donate nearby 230 acres to the city of Cartersville for use as a nature park with trails , said Tony Smith, an attorney representing most of the sellers. The park will include Pine Mountain , he said. "The property was originally assembled in the 1830s for mining," Smith said. "It was the iron works that Sherman destroyed on the way to Atlanta. Mining dwindled away in the 1960s and we've just had the property. . ". I also donated my relatively small interest in the Pine Mountain property. Of the 6 individuals and 4 trusts making up the Hinds ownership in the Pine Montain property, all arranged to participate in the donation except for one individual and her trust, but those interests were even smaller than mine. It is ironic that a Hinds family ancestor fought in the Union army, was captured, and died in the horrible conditions of the Andersonville POW camp in southwest Georgia. Thus Pine Mountain, on which Mark Anthony Cooper flew the first disunion flag of the Southern Confederacy, was donated as a public park by a Union family.

    Here is a view of Pine Mountain from the top of the largest Etowah Mound:

    Here are lines-of-sight from Mounds A(4), B(5) and C(6) to Pine Mountain.

    • The three red lines-of-sight, which are parallel to the Pumpkinvine Creek segment of the Carteresville Fault, go from Mounds A, B, and C over the smaller Mounds F, D, and E, respectively, to Pine Mountain.
    • The Mound C red line-of-sight begins where Mound C was originally located, behind the present location of Mound C. Mound C was relocated when it was excavated.
    • The blue line-of-sight, which is perpendicular to the red lines-of-sight, goes from Mound B over small Mound G to Ladds Quarry Mountain.
    • Viewed from Mound C, Pine Mountain is in the notch between Mound A and Mound B.

    According to Robert Silverberg's book, The Mound Builders (Ohio University Press 1970, pages 259-264), ". the Missippians [Mound Builders] . seem already to have been declining when the Spaniards came [around 1540]. . the Temple Mound folk of the Southeast [slid] into a less ambitious way of life. Huge mounds were no longer built. . around the old mounds the familiar festivals and rituals continued, but hollowly, until their meaning was forgotten and the villagers no longer knew that it was their own great-great-grandfathers who had built the mounds. . All of these Indians of the Temple Mound region had only faint and foggy notions of their own history .

    . The leaders of . a loose confederation of tribes in Georgia and Alabama, numbering some 30,000 Indians in 50 good-sized towns . called themselves the Muskhogee, but English traders, meeting a branch of this tribe near a creek, called them the Creek Indians . Other tribes [Chickasaw and Choctaw] in the same general part of the country spoke related Muskhogean languages . it seems likely that the Creeks . were direct descendants of the Temple Mound people, [but] nothing in Creek myth confirms that idea. . The Creek Indians . appear to have forgotten their ancestry, though they recalled the ancient customs to some extent. .

    . Only one group of Southeastern Indians still maintained a real link to its Temple Mound heritage . the Natchez, a Muskhogean tribe living in seven small villages east of the present city of Natchez, Mississippi. We know a great deal about these people, largely due to the writings of French traders who lived among them from 1698 to 1732. . The Natchez rebelled against the French in 1729. . they were all but wiped out the survivors became scattered among other Southeastern tribes, who looked upon them as gifted with mystic powers. .

    . To the north of these Muskhogean-speaking peoples lived the Cherokees, whose language was Iroquoian,

    • [As noted by David B. Kelley, the first words of the US Constitution, We the People , are a direct translation from the Iroquois constitution.],

    indicating that they had come from the west and north . European explorers . found the Cherokees in command of a vast region along the Tennessee Valley. [The Cherokees] were at constant war with their neighbors, particularly the Creek Indians to the south and the Chickasaws to the west. . the Cherokees . had come as invaders from another region. . The Cherokees themselves . looked upon the mounds as the work of an earlier people. . ".

    Early in 1540, near Augusta, Georgia, Hernando de Soto had been greeted by the Indian Lady of Cofitachequi, who was carried on a litter covered by a delicate white cloth, and was compared by one Spaniard to Cleopatra. She told de Soto that her people had little food and and had been afflicted by a terrible plague (possibly due to introduction of diseases by the 1526 expedition to South Carolina of de Ayllon). They took de Soto to their Cofitachequi Temple, with a roof of cane mats decorated inside and out with shells and pearls, at Talomico on a mound overlooking a river. De Soto repaid their hospitality by stealing the pearls from the Temple and kidnapping the Lady of Cofitachequi.

    De Soto then travelled North and Northwest, so that his expedition may have been the first European contact with the the area.

    As the Indians learned how the de Soto treated them, they began to plan resistance, but had difficulty overcoming Spanish armor and horses. Later in 1540, in Alabama, de Soto encountered the Indian leader Tuscalusa, and demanded slaves and women. Tuscalusa promised to give de Soto women at Mabila. When they got to Mabila, Tuscalusa's Indians attacked de Soto by surprise, inflicting heavy losses, but the Indians were defeated in the pitched battle by Spanish horses and armor. After Mabila, de Soto went further West to Mississippi, by which time the Indians had learned that hit-and-run night attacks were the best way to combat the Spanish horses and armor. In 1542, de Soto got sick and died, and the remnants of his expedition got to the Mexican port of Panuco in 1543. Before he died, de Soto concluded that the Southeastern Indians were not like the Indians of Mexico and Peru, because ". it was impossible to dominate . men who were so free , and . they could never make the Indians come under their yoke or dominion either by force or trickery, for rather than do so these people would all permit themselves to be slain.".

    Lowndes County: Withlacoochee-Alapaha-Suwanee River Basin

    According to Timucan Chiefdoms of Spanish Florida Volume 1: Assimilation (University Press of Florida 1998) by John E. Worth: ". the Suwannee Valley culture is . [t]hought to have emerged . around A.D. 900 .

    . Suwannee Valley . occupied much of the . Suwanee River watershed, including at least the middle to lower Suwannee River valley and most or all of the Santa Fe River valley. . Suwannee Valley populations seem to have been . distributed across the landscape in localized groups . generally situated next to important sources of water, including lakes, springs, or rivers . due in large part to the "patchy" darstic environment of the Suwannee River watershed, aboriginal populations tended to live in widely separated community clusters . [with]. only weak integration on a regional scale. . the Hernando de Soto expedition . [in]. 1539 . penetrated the heart of the Suwanee Valley . At that time, the entire region between the present-day Santa Fe and Suwanee Rivers and a substantial area to the west was apparently governed by two principal Timucuan chiefs . Aguacaleycuen on the east [of the Suwanee River] and Uzachile on the west [of the Suwanee River, to] . the present Aucilla River . [to the west of which was]. Apalachee terrritory . [T]hese two regional chiefdoms also persisted well into the seventeenth century unde the names of Timucua and Yustaga . northeast of the . Suwannee River watershed, the Atlantic drainage of the Okefenokee Swamp region, including the St. Marys and Satilla River valleys east and north of the swamp, was home to at least two important local Timucuan chiefdoms at the end of the sixteenth century - Oconi and Ibihica. .

    . Yustaga missions, almost all of which were probably established prior to 1630 . included the towns of Potohiriba, Machava, Arapaja, Urihica, Chamile, Cachipile, Chuaquin, and ultimately Asile . To the north, the interior chiefdoms of Ibihica and Oconi were also formally missionized during this same period . Santiago de Oconi had always been spared from "all the contagions and sicknesses" . due to its remote locations on the border of the Okefenokee Swamp .

    . Late in 1633 two Franciscan friars . embarked on the formal missionization of the . Apalachee province . the missionization of Apalachee representd the establishment of a Gulf Coast terminus to Florida's first transpeninsular road. Apalachee had access to ports, and by the end of the decade maritime transport between St. Augustine, Havana, and Apalachee was a reality. . After missionization of Apalachee . the [Spanish] Florida conversion effort largely halted. . the Timucuan rebellion of 1656 . accelerated the . restructuring of the Timucua mission province of the late seventeenth century . English-sponsored aggression from the north . [led to]. the destruction and retreat of these missions . Timucuan refugees . [spent]. their final decades at St. Augustine before the evacuation to Cuba in 1763. . ".

    According to Marvin T. Smith of Valdosta State University: ". The best information we have suggests that mission Santa Cruz de Cachipile was founded around 1623, and was abandoned by 1658 following the Timucua rebellion of 1656. The inhabitants of Santa Cruz were removed to the present Gainesville, Fl area to keep an eye on some of the Indians who had rebelled (Santa Cruz was not part of the 1656 Rebellion). All of this information comes from research by John Worth. . [ Santa Cruz de Cachipile was located near

    Ocean Pond near I-75 in Lowndes County, Georgia. ]. Santa Cruz would have been contemporary with Santiago de Ocone. How much of a regular traffic between the two is unknown to me. Recent work by Chris Trowel suggests that Ocone may have been on Floyd's Island. . ".

    is a map of Spanish Missisions in Georgia: 1526-1686. The terms Guale (on the map south of the Savannah River and north of the Altamaha river) and Mocama (on the map south of the Altamaha River and north of the St. Marys River), and the term Jekyll Island, are described on a John Worth web page as follows: ". the two chiefdoms of MOCAMA and GUALE inhabited the [Georgia] coastline during the early colonial era. Almost every modern published work regarding the scenic Georgia coast asserts that the entire Georgia coast (Savannah to St. Marys) was originally called GUALE (pronounced " wallie ") . This is a myth, because in truth, there was no universal indigenous name for the Georgia coast, and GUALE was actually an Indian chiefdom which extended only from about the mouth of the Ogeechee River (just south of present-day Savannah) to the middle of the Georgia coast at the mouth of the Altamaha River (at present-day Darien) . The GUALE province therefore only included the islands of Ossabaw, St. Catherines, and Sapelo (and their smaller neighbors), as well as the mainland estuaries and river valleys opposite these islands. The entire southern coast of Georgia was inhabited by a completely distinct chiefdom ultimately known as MOCAMA, which extended from the mouth of the Altamaha River all the way down to the mouth of the St. Johns River near present-day Jacksonville, Florida. The MOCAMA province included the islands of St. Simons, Jekyll, and Cumberland, as well as the mainland opposite them. Not only did the MOCAMA speak a totally different language (Timucuan) than the GUALE (Muskogean) , but they also found themselves at war with one another during the 1597 GUALE rebellion, when GUALE Indians launched an assault on the capital-town of the Spanish-allied MOCAMA province on Cumberland Island. . Despite various published sources which assert that Jekyll Island was originally called OSPO (a Guale town actually located originally on the southern end of Sapelo Island), or SANTIAGO DE OCONE (a Timucuan mission actually located in the heart of the Okefenokee Swamp on the mainland), or even GUADALQUINI (a Mocama town actually located on St. Simons Island to the immediate north), Spanish sources make it clear that there was no major indigenous name for Jekyll Island, apparently because it had no large or politically-significant towns, and only minor population. As a result of this fact, Jekyll was the only island on the southern Georgia coast that never had a Spanish mission , and the Spaniards simply used the name ISLA DE BALLENAS, meaning "WHALE ISLAND," in deference to the fact that the waters in this area were (and are to this day) important breeding grounds for Georgia's right whales. . ".

    According to a web page about Stability and Change in Guale Indian Pottery, 1300-1702, by Rebecca Saunders: ". The Guale were among the first southeastern groups to come into contact with Spanish . colonists . Saunders traces the evolution of Guale pottery from the late prehistoric Irene phase through the Mission period . paying particular attention to changes in execution and frequency of the fylfot cross - a stylized cross that is a symbol of Guale cosmology . Although the symbol abruptly changed after the first Spanish contact, it showed remarkable stability through the Mission period . Only after 1684, when the Guale were relocated to Amelia Island in present-day Florida, did the use of the cross motif decline . ". According to a Celtic Art Coracle web page: ". Fylfot is the old English name for the bent-armed cross . . I suggest to use the term, "fylfot" to refer to the motif in Celtic art. The fylfot is stock-in-trade in the iconography, sacred imagery and symbolism of both pagan and early Christian art. It is a universal symbol, like the chevron, or the double spiral and S-scroll spirals of the stone ages throughout the planet. In Cro-magnon art, the fylfot is the basis of many maze patterns inscribed on goddess figurines. . The Hopis still have great veneration for the symbol: the fylfot appears in petroglyphs that relate the myths of migrations of the first people, who are said to have spread over the surface of the earth in this pattern. These first migrants left symbols, such as the fylfot, along their route, which is as good a way as any to explain the global distribution of the fylfot throughout the world from very early times. . ".

    According to a St. Simons Island history web page: ". Protestants of France, known as the "Huguenots," were rebelling against the Catholics. The French queen . reasoned that a colony in the New World could serve as a haven for the persecuted Huguenots as well as a base for raiding the treasure fleets of Spain. She selected Jean Ribault to head an exploratory expedition that landed at the mouth of the St. Johns River near present-day Jacksonville, Florida, in 1562 . He called it the "River May," and as he sailed northward as far as Parris Island, South Carolina, St. Simons Island became the "Ile de Loire." Rene Laudonniere led a second expedition of three ships and three hundred colonists in 1564. They, too, landed at the St. Johns River, and immediately began work on Fort Caroline. . Pedro Menéndez de Aviles . [sent by]. Philip II of Spain . landed forty miles south of Fort Caroline in August 1565. From this new base that he named St. Augustine, Menéndez attacked and destroyed the fledgling French colony. . In 1586, Sir Francis Drake destroyed St. Augustine. . From 1606 to 1655 the Spanish missionary effort reached its zenith as the Franciscan missions reflected a steady growth. San Buenaventura de Guadalquini was established on St. Simons, San Jose de Zapala on Sapelo Island, and Santiago de Ocone near the Okefenokee Swamp [on the east side, across the swamp from Ocean Pond to the west] . Spain's failure to supply attractive and practical trade goods . such as flints, mirrors, silver or brass ornaments . gave the English the advantage . in 1670 . Charles Town was settled . In 1686, the English settled Port Royal, South Carolina - the old Spanish outpost of St. Elena. The Spanish responded by destroying the settlement, burning the English governor's mansion, and threatening Charles Town itself. It was a final, futile gesture. . ".

    By the 1740s, Oglethorpe had settled Savannah and the Georgia coast and was providing military support for English traders in the Cherokee area. According to a history book by Junius Martin, a German Je su it , Christian Priber, was then active in the Cherokee area. Christian Priber planned to build a settlement in the Indian territory open to all fugitives, servants, slaves, felons. His design was "to bring about a confederation of all the southern Indians, to inspire them with industry, to instruct them in the arts necessary to the commodities of life, and, in short, to engage them to throw off the yoke of their European allies of all nations." Oglethorpe's forces considered Christian Priber to be an agent of the French seeking to alienate the Indians from the English traders, so they arrested him and brought him under guard to be examined by Oglethorpe. Oglethorpe found him to be an excellent linguist, speaking English, Dutch, French, Latin and Indian, and to have in his possession two manuscripts: a dictionary of the Cherokee language to be published in Paris and a book entitled Paradise, containing priciples for a commonweath based upon natural rights. Therefore, Oglethorpe imprisoned Christian Priber at Frederica for life, and the remains of Priber and his books are now only dust.

    The English became the dominant power in the area, with the United States of America succeeding to the English position of power after the American Revolution of 1776.

    Despite the efforts of the Spanish and English colonialists, the North American Indian cultures did have effects on the culture of the emerging US nation. For example, the first words of the US Constitution,

    are, as noted by David B. Kelley, a direct translation from the Iroquois constitution, which is 250 years older than the US Constitution.

    showed that what is now Lowndes County was in 1796 called Tallasse. According to a Tallahassee web page ". "Tallahassee" is an Apalachee Indian word meaning "old town" or "abandoned fields". The Apalachee Indians lived throughout the panhandle from 500 through the 1600s. . The Apalachee Indians left and the area became an abandoned village, thus it was called "Tallahassee". When Florida became a territory of the United States in 1822, both St. Augustine and Pensacola, the major cities in Florida at the time, competed to be the Capital. Unable to come to an agreement, it was decided to locate the Capital at a point between the two cities. Tallahassee's tall hills attracted the search party, and in 1824 the City of Tallahassee was created, with a log cabin capital was quickly built. . ". Perhaps "Tallasse" on the 1796 map refers the attitude of Atlantic/Savannah/Altamaha Georgians of that time toward much of South Georgia. According to a Wayne County, Georgia, history web page, ". Wayne County was created in 1803. The county boundaries have changed many times since the original "Tallassee Strip" (sometimes stated as Tallahasee and other spellings), a . strip of land spanning from the Altamaha River to the St. Mary's River. . ", and, according to a Fort Gaines, Georgia, web page ". March 12, 1814 . marked the end of the Creek War of 1813-14. This war in effect was a diversionary tactic fought at the same time that the War of 1812 was going on between the US and England. As cost of fighting the war, General Jackson demanded 20 million acres of land from the Creeks. . The surveyors . mapped the boundaries of a new territory they dubbed the "Tallassee Territory," and offered this area to the State of Georgia. The legislature initially refused it, calling it "a sterile and unprofitable land." . [in]. the First Seminole War . [in]. 1817 . Generals Jackson and Gaines again were called on to quell the hostile natives. Jackson, without direct authority, marched deep into Spanish Territory . At the end of the war, the Tallassee Territory was again offered to the state of Georgia and the state reluctantly agreed to accept it. Still, a minority report was filed stating that it would be unwise to spend the people's money trying to develop a country which God Almighty Himself had left in such an unfinished condition. Then, under an act of the Georgia legislature on December 15, 1818, the Tallassee territory was divided into the original counties of Early, Irwin, and Appling . all the numbers of the various land lots were placed on separate pices of paper in a large container in the state capitol (then located in Milledgeville). Beginning in 1819 random drawings for the land lots were then sold. The cost of a drawing varied from time-to-time but was approximately $12. . ".

    Irwin County was named for former Georgia Governor Jared Irwin . According to a web page: ". Irwin, Jared (1750-1818) Born in Georgia, 1750. Delegate to Georgia state constitutional convention, 1789, 1798 member of Georgia state legislature, 1790 Governor of Georgia, 1796-98, 1806-09. Died March 1, 1818. Interment somewhere in Washington County, Ga. . [ There was also a younger Jared Irwin ]. Born in Georgia, January 19, 1768. Democrat. Member of Pennsylvania state house of representatives, 1811 served in the U.S. Army during the War of 1812 U.S. Representative from Pennsylvania 10th District, 1813-17. In 1817, assisted in the establishment of a short-lived revolutionary government on Amelia Island, Fla. Died in Fernandina, Nassau County, Fla., September 20, 1818. Burial location unknown. . ". According to an AmeliaNow web page: ". Amelia Island is . the only U.S. location to have been under eight different flags.

    • French 1562-1565 . The Island's first recorded European visitor was the French Jean Ribault on May 3, 1562. He named the island "Isle De Mai." .
    • Spanish 1566-1763 . [and]. 1783-1821 (with 3 interruptions) . The Spanish under Pedro Menendez defeated the French and founded St. Augustine in 1565. . The mission and settlement were destroyed in 1702 by the English. Oglethorpe renamed the Island "Amelia" after the daughter of George II. .
    • English 1763-1783 . The Island became known as "Egmont" from Earl of Egmont's large indigo plantation. .
    • Patriots . With secret U.S. blessings, the so-called "Patriots of Amelia Island" overthrew the Spanish and hoisted their own flag on March 17, 1812. They replaced it with the U.S. flag the next day but Spain demanded return of the island. The Spanish completed Fort San Carlos in 1816.
    • Green Cross of Florida . To liberate Florida from Spanish control, Sir Gregor MacGregor seized Fort San Carlos in June 1817 and hoisted his Green Cross standard. After his withdrawal, the Spanish attempted to regain control but were repelled by forces led by Jared Irwin and Ruggies Hubbard.
    • Mexican Rebel Flag . Irwin and Hubbard were joined by the pirate Luis Aury, who gained control and raised the Mexican rebel flag. U.S. troops occupied the island in December 1817 and held it "in trust for Spain."
    • United States 1821 to present (with one interruption) .
    • Confederate . Confederates took over Fort Clinch in April 1861, but Federal troops regained it March 3, 1862, and occupied Fernandina for the duration of the War. . ".

    the North West Corner of Georgia was Cherokee Indian Territory, but South Georgia west of Camden County had been ceded to Georgia and in 1818 the counties of Early, Irwin (including what is now Lowndes), and Appling (including the Okefenokee Swamp) had been formed.

    Clinch County had been formed from parts of Lowndes and Ware Counties Franklinville had, like the Spanish settlement at Ocean Pond, disappeared and, according to a Valdosta - Lowndes County Chamber of Commerce web page: ". the . county seat . was moved to Lowndesville (the name of the town was later changed to Troupville). . ". According to a Wikipedia web page: ". Valdosta was founded in 1860 by residents of Troupeville, Georgia. Troupeville was a steamboat landing on the Withlacoochee river, but when the Gulf and Atlantic railroad was built four miles away, the inhabitants simply picked up the town and moved it to the railroad. There are still buildings in Valdosta that made the move. The now virtually abandoned Troupeville had been named after Gov. George Troupe. Valdosta was named after Troupe's estate, "Val d'Aosta", which itself was named after a mountainous region in Italy. Valdosta was once the center of long-staple cotton growing in the United States until the boll weevil finally killed the crop in 1917 and agriculture turned to tobacco and pine trees. The world's second Coca-Cola bottling plant is in Valdosta. . ".

    a number of counties had been formed from it, including Cass County. The State of Georgia had distributed the land in the area by land lottery, in 40 acre lots where there was thought to be gold and in 160 acre lots for other land. The southern and eastern parts of Cass County (now known as Bartow County) were in the 40 acre gold lotteries. By 1838, most of the Cherokees (about 15,000) still remained, so General Winfield Scott (under US president Martin van Buren, who had been vice president under Andrew Jackson) forcibly removed them to Indian Territory in the Western US.

    In 1837, Jacob Stroup, whose ancestors were iron workers in Germany, Pennsylvania, and the Carolinas, built iron works in Cass County along the Etowah River near Stamp Creek, upstream from Pine Mountain. Jacob's son Moses Stroup took over the Stamp Creek iron works, and in 1844 Jacob built another iron works on Allatoona Creek, just to the south of Stamp Creek. Around 1846, Jacob Stroup died, and Mark Anthony Cooper ( who was graduated from what is now the University of South Carolina, read law in Eatonton, Georgia, and there in 1821 began to practice law and lend money and who was named for his great-great-grandfather Mark Anthony who around 1689 arrived on a British ship in New Kent County, Virginia, worked off his debt for passage, then opened a mill and trading post near the head of the James River, and whose grandson Thomas Cooper, grandfather of Mark Anthony Cooper, moved to Georgia after the Revolutionary War to get free land - see a biography , ), who as the States Rights Democrat candidate had lost the 1843 race for Governor of Georgia, bought a half interest in the Etowah River iron works. Cooper and Stroup expanded the Etowah operations and brought in a New York merchant, Leroy Wiley, as a one-third owner and as an open account supplier of wholesale goods. Stroup had insufficient credit to carry the debts of the expanding operation, so Stroup was pushed out and Cooper took over the Stroup one-third interest. Around 1852 Wiley called on Cooper to pay the growing debt of the Etowah operations. When Cooper could not pay, Wiley turned the Etowah operations over to Cooper and demanded full debt payment within 3 years. Cooper paid the debt by borrowing $100,000 from friends in the area.

    In 1860, Cooper as the sole owner of the Etowah operations investigated arms manufacturing techniques in Whitneyville, Connecticut, and proposed to the Governor of Georgia that the Etowah operations could manufacture arms for Georgia and other states. Even before the 1860 USA presidential election, won by Lincoln, Cooper's son put on Pine Mountain ( which Cooper called Mount Anthony ) "the first disunion flag of the Southern Confederacy".

    According to a Henry Repeating Arms Company web page: ". Benjamin Tyler Henry . conceived the first practical, lever action repeating rifle. Patented in 1860, the Henry gave a single man the firepower of a dozen marksmen armed with muzzle-loading muskets. . The original Henry factory [was] in New Haven, Connecticut. . ".

    When Cooper was investigating arms manufacturing in Connecticut, he apparently overlooked the importance of the 1860 Henry, and by failing to produce similar arms for the Confederate army, Cooper helped doom the Confederate cause.

    However, the US Army's Ordinance Department duplicated Cooper's error, thus lengthening the Civil War: According to a Weapons of the Civil War web page: ". Repeating rifles had been invented prior to the beginning of hostilities, but the US Army's Ordinance Dept dismissed the new inventions because it was thought that troops would waste ammunition and the operating mechanisms might be a maintenance problem. Instead, the Ordinance Dept put its faith in the single-shot muzzle-loading rifled musket . It was not until late 1863 that many federal soldiers received army issued repeating rifles . such as . [the 1860]. Henry rifle . ".

    According to The University of Georgia Libraries, ". Governor Joseph Brown of Georgia called for a special election to be held on January 2, 1861 to choose delegates to a state convention to decide if the state should secede . The secessionist forces won the election by a vote of 50,243 to 37,123 and controlled the majority of the 301 delegates that met in Milledgeville on January 16, 1861. The secessionists forces were led by Gov. Brown, the Howell brothers, T. R.R. Cobb and Robert Toombs. Alexander Stephens, the United States Senator from Georgia, led the opposition. . On January 19, 1861, the formal Ordinance of Secession . passed by a vote of 208 to 89, and Georgia dissolved its ties with the Union. . ". However, according to an article by Randy Golden in About North Georgia, ". Voting for politicians who are either in favor of "immediate secession" or "co-operationist," the people of Georgia go to the polls across the state. In north Georgia the areas near larger cities are for immediate secession . Floyd County, the area around Rome, votes 3 to 2 in favor of secession. Clarke County, the area around Athens, votes 3 to 1 in favor of secession. However, Murray County was more typical of north Georgia. They vote 3 to 1 in favor of the co-operationist candidate. . Until the 1970's the vote for secession had been listed as 50,243 in favor of secession to 37,123 against. In 1972 the Georgia Historical Society attempted to recreate the vote because of abnormalities that had been noticed in some counties. For example, Forsyth and Cobb Counties showed a higher vote count than for the hotly contested presidential elections two months previous, an unlikely scenerio. Using contemporary sources, mostly local newspapers, the society concluded that the margin for the vote was razor-thin, and it was a vote against secession. The final vote on January 2, 1861 was 42,744 in favor of co-operation and 41,717 in favor of immediate secession . . ". According to the History of Bartow County, Georgia - Formerly Cass - ". Cass went overwhelmingly against disunion at the State Convention on January 16, 1861. The three representatives, Turner H. Trippe, H. F. Price, and W. T. Wofford, from this [Cass] county voted "nay" on every vote cast, but as loyal Georgians they accepted the situation and at once volunteered for Confederate service. It was the irony of fate that Cass should suffer more than any other county in north Georgia during the years of '64-'65. . ".

    Following the vote of the convention ( shown county by county on this map

    modified from an Encyclopaedia Britannica map. The map does not show data for all counties, so I have added the Cass County vote for union. Note that Lowndes County (Withlacoochee and Alapaha Rivers) voted for secession, but its eastern neighbor Clinch (formerly part of Ware) (Suwanee River and Okefenokee Swamp) voted for union. rather than the vote of the people, Georgia joined the Confederate States of America .

    Acccording to a 26 April 2003 AP article in The Atlanta Journal-Constitution : ". The Georgia Legislature approved a new state flag .

    . Next March 󞪄], Georgia voters will choose between . [it]. and the current Georgia flag. . ". Acccording to a 9 April 2003 article by Jim Galloway and Carlos Campos in The Atlanta Journal-Constitution : ". [The]. new state flag . [is]. based on the first national banner of the Confederacy, commonly referred to as the "Stars and Bars." . [ plus the state seal, the words "In God We Trust", and a 13th star ]. The . action almost certainly means a limited life for [ the current state flag, ] the blue state banner

    raised in 2001, by an act of the Legislature at the insistence of Gov. Roy Barnes [who was defeated by Gov. Sonny Perdue in November 2002] . ".

    In 1862, the CSA War Department paid Mark Anthony Cooper $400,000 in CSA bonds for the Etowah Manufacturing and Mining Company, which was transferred to Quimby & Robinson of Memphis, Tennessee. Cooper, who retained about 200 acres on the Etowah River as his home farm, paid his debts with some of the CSA bonds, and had over $200,000 CSA remaining for himself.

    In 1864, USA General William Tecumseh Sherman destroyed the Etowah operations on his way

    (War Is Hell, painting by Mort Kunstler, 2001, Booth Westen Art Museum )

    to Atlanta. According to a Henry Repeating Arms Company web page: ". With its reliable .44 caliber rimfire metallic cartridge, the 󞧴] Henry [lever-action repeating rifle] produced a rapid and highly accurate fire. . The incredible firepower unleashed by the Henry is evident in [Union] Major William Ludlow's account of the 󞧸] Battle of Al[la]toona Pass. .

    [ detail from Allatoona Pass, painting by Don Troiani, Booth Westen Art Museum - note use of bandanna to hold hot metal barrel-magazine - It was not until 1866 that an insulating wooden stock was added under the barrel-magazine. ]

    . "What saved us that day was the fact that we had a number of Henry rifles," wrote Major Ludlow. "This company of 16 shooters sprang to the parapet and poured out such a multiplied, rapid and deadly fire, that no men could stand in front of it and no serious effort was made thereafter to take the fort by assault." . After an encounter with the 7th Illinois Volunteer Infantry, which had the good fortune to be armed with Henrys, one Confederate officer is credited with the phrase, "It's a rifle that you could load on Sunday and shoot all week long." . ".

    On 26 April 1865, Confederate Gen. Johnston surrendered the CSA forces of Georgia, Florida, and the Carolinas to USA Gen. Sherman, effectively ending the American Civil War.

    Cooper's $200,000 in CSA bonds became worthless.

    According to a biography, Cooper ". turned to the public sector for a job. . ", and later became a Georgia State Senator.

    Post-war bitterness led to Cass County ( named for Lewis Cass, a Unionist from Michigan ) being renamed Bartow County, for Francis Stebbins Bartow of Savannah ( a lawyer educated at the University of Georgia and Yale Law School ) who was killed by a rifle shot at the first Battle of Manassas in July 1861.

    After the Civil War, through World War I, World War II, the Korean War, and into the 1960s, the area was actively mined.

    Among the substances used in shielding tests at the detonation of the first nuclear fusion bomb on 1 November 1952 at the Pacific atoll of Enewetak at the Pacific atoll of Enewetak was Limonite (Fe2O3+H2O) shipped by Frank Smith (my father) from Bartow County.

    During the 1960s, the steel mills in Birmingham and Gadsden, Alabama, began to buy their Iron ore from Africa and South America, and quit buying Iron ore from Georgia. Since then, there has been no active Iron ore mining. Interstate Highway I-75 was built through the area in the 1970s.

    Before he died, my father, Frank Dodd Smith, made some comments on the history of mining in the area.

    Geochemical anomalies indicate that the Iron and Manganese oxide and hydrated oxide ores that were mined near the surface are weathered residue of a massive sulfide body at greater depth. There are also indications that, at even greater depths, there may be deep natural gas deposits associated with the Appalachian Overthrust Belt.

    The Southern end of the Property is at Pumpkinvine Creek near the Pumpkinvine Pivot Point of the Cartersville Fault, where the fault line turned Northward toward Tennessee after running Easterly-NorthEasterly from Alabama. On the Etowah River, just West of where Pumpkinvine Creek flows from the East into the Etowah River and just North of the Cartersville Fault, the Etowah Mounds were built about 1,000 years ago.

    the Etowah Mounds are on the Western edge of the orange /////// cross-hatched area immediately North of the Cartersville Fault, and the Property is on the Eastern edge of the same area.

    If you go upstream along Pumpkinvine Creek from the Etowah River, you go Easterly until you reach the area of the Pumpkinvine Pivot Point of the Cartersville Fault. Since Pumpkinvine Creek itself pivots and changes direction there, if you continue upstream you turn around and go SouthWesterly along a fault line roughly parallel to and SouthEasterly of the Cartersville Fault.

    Volcanic activity marked the Cartersville Fault Pumpkinvine Pivot Point. It looks to me as though the volcanic activity was concentrated in the area from the Pumpkinvine Pivot Point at the SouthWest to near Tate in Pickens County at the NorthEast (on the map above, including but not limited to the bright yellow areas). The Pumpkinvine Pivot Point reminds me of Pivot Points between Island Arc Segments, such as today's Pivot Point near Denali at the end of the Aleutian Island Arc.

    From its Pumpkinvine Pivot Point, the Cartersville Fault runs SouthWesterly into Alabama.

    It runs Northerly along the Western boundary of the Great Smoky Mountains up to Tennessee, and then in Tennessee it runs NorthEasterly along the NorthWestern boundary of the Great Smoky Mountains.

    The Pumpkinvine Pivot Point is the SouthWestern terminal point of the Great Smoky Mountains.

    From its Pumpkinvine Pivot Point, the Cartersville Fault runs North into Tennessee until it meets the NY-AL Magnetic Lineament near the Southern end of the 300-kilometer Eastern Tennessee Seismic Zone, whose seismicity from 1981 to 1992 is shown in the following figure from Science 264 (29 April 1994) 686-688:

    Since the SouthWestern end of the Clingman Magnetic Lineament is at the Cartersville Fault near Pine Log Mountain, North of the Pumpkinvine Pivot Point, the South-North segment of the Cartersville Fault connects the Clingman Magnetic Lineament with the NY-AL Magnetic Lineament.

    The area around the Cartersville Fault between the Clingman Magnetic Lineament near Pine Log Mountain at the North and the Pumpkinvine Pivot Point at the South is known as the Cartersville Mining District.

    From the Eastern Tennessee Seismic Zone, the Cartersville Fault runs NorthEasterly into and beyond New York.

    The Cartersville Fault can be traced to the SouthWest into Alabama, where it is covered by Coastal Plain sediments.

    From a Global perspective, the Cartersville Fault is a prominent part of the Appalachian Mountains.

    The earliest (over 4,000 million years ago) configuration of Earth's continents is not well known, but, according to a 25 March 2002 article by David Whitehouse on the BBC: ". Professor John Rogers, of the University of North Carolina, US, . said: "Starting at about 1.8 billion years ago, all of the continents existing at that time began to collide into a single land area. .

    . I named the supercontinent Columbia because some of the best evidence for its existence is in the Columbia River region of western North America . ". . Columbia began to break up about 1.5 billion years ago, and its fragments then moved around the Earth independently for several hundred million years. . About a billion years ago, however, the fragments came together again to form a new supercontinent, dubbed Rodinia. .

    shows the configuration of Rodinia.]

    . This lasted until about 700 million years ago, before it too broke into several fragments. . these chunks moved independently until about 250 million years ago, when yet another supercontinent emerged, now called Pangea. .

    . This began to break up almost immediately to form the world's present array of continents. . ".

    Around 515 million years ago, the Iapetus Ocean began to open along the Eastern Coast of North America, the Appalachian Mountains began to form, and the number of life forms expanded in the Cambrian Explosion ( see web abstract and links to figures from Ian Dalziel's paper Neoproterozoic-Paleozoic Geography and Tectonics, Geological Society of America Bulletin,1997, vol. 109, no. 1, p. 16-42 ).

    The volcanic activity at the Pumpkinvine Pivot Point of the Cartersville Fault occurred during their formation. Here is an outline of the history of the Appalachian Mountains:

    PreCambrian Eastern North America had some siliclastic sediments from erosion of the continental interior.

    In the early Cambrian, seas encroached on the Eastern margin of North America, producing a huge Carbonate platform, somewhat like the present-day Bahama Banks, but much larger.

    About 470 million years ago, in the middle Ordovician (the time of the first vertebrates, the sharks), Carbonate deposition stopped and was replaced by Black Shales and turbid sediments from the Taconic Island Arc lying to the SouthEast, somewhat like present-day Japan lying East of China and Korea, with Volcanic activity.

    By the end of the Ordovician, about 440 million years ago, North America collided with the Taconic Island Arc, producing the First Cycle of the Appalachian Mountains and adding to North America the land of Southern New England. About the same time there was a massive extinction of marine life, probably caused by glaciation when the Gondwanaland supercontinent containing Africa, South America, India, Antarctica, and Australia, moved to the South Pole (which was then located in the present-day Sahara desert).

    During the Silurian, from 440 million years ago to 410 million years ago, the First Cycle of the Appalachian Mountains eroded, and Eastern North America became flat and flooded with seas producing Carbonates and some Quartz sand.

    The Second Cycle of Appalachian mountainbuilding began about 400 million years ago, extending through the Devonian (410 to 360 million years ago). At the end of the Devonian there was a massive extinction of marine life, probably caused by glaciation when the Gondwanaland again moved to the South Pole (which was then located in present-day South America).

    The Second Cycle of Appalachian mountainbuilding continued into the Carboniferous (360 to 300 million years ago, when the first amphibians lived on land, as did lots of tree-ferns and insects).

    The Second Cycle of Appalachian mountainbuilding involved the Avalon Isand Arc, which was similar to the Taconic Island Arc. Avalon's collison added Northern New England to North America. Avalon may not have merely collided with North America, but may have been caught between North America and the Western African part of Gondwanaland that had occurred by about 300 million years ago, a time of Volcanic activity at the Pumpkinvine Pivot Point based on dates of amphibolites of the Pumpkinvine formation, about 313 million years ago give or take about 10 million years.

    Over the next 50 million years or so, up to about 250 million years ago, North America and Africa continued to be compressed together, much as India and Asia are compressed today at the Himalaya Mountains, and as Italy and Europe are compressed today at the Alps. One consequence of this compression is that the Southern Inner Piedmont metamorphic rocks were overthrust hundreds of kilometers inland over the fold-and-thrust Valley and Ridge sedimentary rocks. Grandfather Mountain, North Carolina, is a geological window where the overthrust rocks have been worn away by erosion, exposing at the surface the underlying older rocks. At the same time, there was Volcanic activity, igneous plutons were emplaced in the Piedmont, and the surface Valley and Ridge was being further deformed by folding and thrusting.

    On the above section, Fig. 3 from Oliver's 1982 Science article, the Cartersville Fault is shown between the Valley and Ridge and the Blue Ridge.

    During this period from 300 to 250 million years ago, the part of North America lying West of the Appalachians was, from time to time, covered by seas, and there was an Ice Age.

    By about 250 million years ago (which was about one Galactic Year ago, since the Sun orbits the Milky Way Galaxy with a period of about 200 million years), the Ice Age ended, from 75 to 90 percent of the species and 60 percent of the families of sea life became extinct (the Permo-Triassic Extinction, caused by an Earth-Comet collision).

    At the time of the Permo-Triassic Extinction, Siberia and Central Russia had become attached to Europe, which was attached to Greenland, which was attached to North America, South America, and Africa, which was attached to India and Antarctica, which was attached to Australia. All this land mass of Pangaea stretched from Siberia at the North Pole to Antarctica at the South Pole. Both poles were cold, sea levels were low, there were only small areas of shallow seas, and the land mass blocked ocean currents. All these factors may have contributed to the Permo-Traissic Extinction..

    According to a 22 February 2001 BBC article by David Whitehouse: ". Atoms from a star trapped inside molecular cages of carbon . (Image: University of Washington) .

    prove that Earth's biggest mass extinction - an event 251 million years ago - was triggered by a collision with a comet or asteroid. . [ Science 291 (23 February 2001) 1530-1533 ]. The researchers believe these particular fullerenes are extraterrestrial because . [ as the researchers say in their paper ". Fullerenes (C 60 to C 200 ) from sediments at the PTB contain trapped helium and argon with isotope ratios similar to the planetary component of carbonaceous chondrites. . " ]. The telltale fullerenes were extracted from sites in Japan, China and Hungary, where the sedimentary layer at the boundary between the Permian and Triassic periods had been exposed. . the fullerenes were found at very low concentrations above and below the boundary layer, but they were found in unusually high concentrations at the time of the extinction. . Researchers estimate the comet or asteroid was 6 to 12 km (3.7 - 7.4 miles) across, or about the size of the asteroid believed responsible for the extinction of the dinosaurs 67 million years ago. . The scientists determined the size based on two factors - if the body was smaller than 6 km (3.7 miles) the effects would not have been global if it were larger than 12 km (7.4 miles) there would have to be more gas-laden fullerenes distributed around the world. . Researchers believe that the impact and rapid extinction occurred simultaneously with some of the most extensive volcanic activity the world has ever seen: enough lava to cover the entire planet with 3 metres (10ft) of it, oozed out of the ground in Siberia in less than one million years. These changes wiped out 90% of all marine species and 70% of land vertebrates. . The mass extinction of 251 million years ago was the greatest on record. Many fossils below the boundary, such as trilobites, which once numbered more than 15,000 species, are completely absent above it. . ". According to a 22 February 2001 space.com article by Rob Roy Britt: ". the object that slammed into Earth 251 million years ago . may have been a comet . and hence left behind only small quantities of iridium. Comets travel at greater speeds, and if it were a comet, it may have been on the small end of the size estimate in the report. A small, fast-moving comet could generate the same destruction as a larger, slower asteroid. . ".

    After the Permo-Triassic Extinction of about 250 million years ago, life on land began to be dominated by Conifers and Dinosaurs. About 200 million years ago, massive volcanic lava flows occurred in the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province, forming what are now the Hudson River Palisades and parts of the Amazon Basin, Spain, and Western Africa. Over the next 150 to 200 million years or so, compression between North America and Africa relaxed and a Rift Valley (similar to the present-day East Africa Rift Valley and the southeast USA Sequatchie Valley) formed, separating them at their present-day margins and creating the Atlantic Ocean between them. Small Aborted Rift Basins, including the Newark Basin and the Connecticut Basin,

    By about 150 million years ago, the continents looked about like this:

    By 65 million years ago, South America, Antarctica, and India had also substantially separated from Africa, and the Atlantic Ocean extended from the far North through the Equator to the far South and was connected with the ancestral Indian Ocean. Also about 65 million years ago, the volcanic Deccan basalt flows occurred in India and an asteroid impacted the Earth in the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. Dinosaurs became extinct, and mammals became prominent land animals.

    Shortly after the Cretaceous ended, about 50 million years ago, the Tethys Ocean began to close and the continents looked like this:

    By 50 million years ago, Cetaceans appeared in the oceans, and by 20 million years ago, large-brained Dolphins appeared.

    By 3 million years ago, the ancestral human Homo succeeded Australopithecus in Africa. Now humans can travel and communicate globally, so that in some ways North America and Africa are reunited as part of Earth's Global Community, which is evolving to resemble the noosphere of Pierre Teilhard de Chardin.

    Geology and Mineral Deposits of the Cartersville District, Georgia, by Thomas L. Kesler, Professional Paper 224, US Geological Survey 1950.

    Mineral Resources, Economics and the Environment, by Stephen E. Kesler, MacMillan 1994. Stephen E. Kesler, who is the son of Thomas L. Kesler, has a web page containing links to sites with information related to each chapter.

    The Southeastern Indians, by Charles Hudson, University of Tennessee Press 1976.

    The Mound Builders, by Robert Silverberg, Ohio University Press 1970.

    Mark Anthony Cooper, The Iron Man of Georgia. by Mark Cooper Pope III with J. Donald McKee, Graphic Publishing Company, Atlanta, 2000.

    History of Bartow County, Georgia - Formerly Cass - by Lucy Josephine Cunyus, Southern Historical Press 1933 - Addenda by publisher 1994.

    Understanding the Earth, ed. by Brown, Hawkesworth, and Wilson, Cambridge 1992.

    Life: An Unauthorized Biography, by Richard Fortey, HarperCollins 1997.

    Extinction, by Steven Stanley, Scientific American Library 1987.

    A Concise World Atlas of Geology and Mineral Deposits, by Duncan Derry, John Wiley 1980.

    Earth and Life Through Time, second edition, by Steven Stanley, Freeman 1989.

    Mineral Resources of the Appalachian Region, USGS Professional Paper 580, 1968.

    Geologic Map of Georgia, Georgia DNR and Georgia Geological Survey, 1976.

    Probing the Structure of the Deep Continental Crust, by Jack Oliver, Science 216 (14 May 1982) 689-695.

    A Seismotectonic Model for the 300-Kilometer-Long Eastern Tennessee Seismic Zone, by C. A. Powell, G. A. Bollinger, M. C. Chapman, M. S. Sibol, A. C. Johnston, and R. L. Wheeler, Science 264 (29 April 1994) 686-688.

    The Historical Atlas of the Earth, ed. by Roger Osborne and Donald Tarling, Henry Holt 1996.

    Georgia Geological Survey Information Circular 52, 1980.

    Conversations with Stan Bearden.

    Map at top of page, and 3D Relief Topo map of Pine Mountain, from DeLorme Topo USA on DVD-ROM (3D Vertical Exaggeration 2x).

    Map second from top of page from mapblast.com.

    USGS Maps, including: Cartersville Quadrangle (1:24,000) Greater Atlanta Region (1:100,000) (1974) Rome, Atlanta, Athens, and Greenville (1:250,000).


    Civil War

    Secession and Fort Pulaski

    The Milledgeville which began January 16, 1861—with Bartow nominated for Chatham County's delegation. On May 28, 1861, elections were held to select representatives to the convention, and Bartow emerged as a delegate, along with John W. Anderson and A. S. Jones. Bartow however, was on military duty that day as Governor Joseph E. Brown had previously given orders to retake Fort Pulaski (located near the mouth of the Savannah River)—recently seized by Federal military forces. Brown entrusted the task to Bartow and the Oglethorpe Light Infantry. Bartow's expedition successfully recaptured the fort on June 15, largely due to his artillery under Col. Alexander Lawton.

    At the convention, Bartow stood out as one of the most fervent secessionists. Demanding an immediate withdrawal from the Union, he helped align Georgia among the pro-secessionist states. On January 19, 1861, delegates voted to secede from the Union by a vote of 208 to 89. Bartow was a delegate in favor of secession, voting to sign Georgia's Confederate Provisional Congress at Montgomery, Alabama, starting February 4, 1861.

    On the second day of the Congress, Bartow became chairman of the Military Committee. He pushed insistently for fast, drastic actions to counter the imminent threat of Northern retaliation. He helped select the color and style of the initial Confederate gray uniforms. During a later session, Bartow announced that he would depart for the battlefront, taking his Oglethorpe Light Infantry up to Virginia. As he explained later on:

    Dispute with Governor Brown

    Bartow telegraphed the news to his Georgia troops, arranging a prompt rally. However, his plans were blocked by Governor Brown, who had already decided to concentrate the state's armed forces strictly for the defense of Georgia. Bartow appealed personally to the Confederate President, Jefferson Davis, using a new law authored by Louis T. Wigfall of Texas that authorized any citizen to offer any voluntary military force directly, without state mediation, to the Confederate President, who would also determine its military leader. Davis immediately approved Bartow's plan and designated him the commander of the new Confederate force, making Bartow's Oglethorpe Light Infantry the first company to officially contribute its services to the Confederacy's national war effort.

    An angry Governor Brown countered by publishing an aggressively tough letter in all Georgia newspapers on May 21, 1861. Among other things, he alleged that Bartow was seeking his own glory by assuring a high command and aspiring to a promotion to colonel. To him, Bartow was actually deserting the war "to serve the common cause in a more pleasant summer climate." He wrote that the muskets Bartow's men had carried to Virginia were exclusively for local "public service," and that the Governor had the power of disarming the local military companies arbitrarily. He also alleged that Bartow had written the law beforehand, tailoring it for his own plans and forcing Davis to ignore the authority of the Confederacy's "independent" states. In Brown's opinion, the governor was Bartow's unique officer by the Confederate Constitution. He argued that the Congress was encroaching Georgia's rights.

    Nonetheless, Bartow arrived in Savannah on May 21 to assemble his 106 soldiers and to arrange for a train to take them to Virginia's battlefront. A great rally of cheerful citizens congregated at the station, accompanied by the remaining local militia, which fired an artillery salute in Bartow's honor. Before departing, Bartow pronounced to the crowd his most celebrated phrase: "I go to illustrate Georgia."

    On June 14, from Camp Defiance in

    Manassas

    Bartow's 21st Oglethorpe Light Infantry finally arrived in Shenandoah Valley. Crossing the Virginia Piedmont, it arrived in Winchester, near the northern end of the valley. Once settled, Bartow incorporated some local forces from the 2nd Brigade of the Army of the Shenandoah.

    Late in June 1861, Bartow received orders to move his troops to the outskirts of Manassas to support General P. G. T. Beauregard. They departed on June 19, fording the Shenandoah River with their "luggage tied on the ends of [their] fixed bayonets." After reaching the Piedmont station, the regiment was transported to Manassas by train.

    Bartow commanded the 7th & 8th Georgia Regiments—the 9th Georgia Regiment, Pope's and Duncan's Kentucky Battalions Infantry remained at Piedmont Station and were not present on July 21, 1861. He addressed his troops, ". but remember, boys, that battle and fighting mean death, and probably before sunrise some of us will be dead." Early the next morning, Bartow had the 7th and 8th Georgia march to the left flank of the army.

    After the fighting had started, the two regiments reached Henry House Hill, where they were joined by Bartow, after one of his soldiers confirmed that it was his regiment: "Boys, what Regiment is this?" The response came, "8th Georgia." He answered, "My God, boys, I am mighty glad to see you." He deployed his brigade on the hill alongside

    Bartow (now with less than 400 men) was forced to retreat about noontime back to his original deployment site. There, he asked General Beauregard, "What shall now be done? Tell me, and if human efforts can avail, I will do it." Waving at the enemy position on the Stone Bridge, Beauregard replied, "That battery should be silenced." Bartow gathered the remainder of the 7th Regiment and launched another attack. Around Henry House Hill, Bartow's horse was shot out from under him and a bullet wounded him slightly. Nonetheless, he grabbed another horse and continued the attack.

    At one point, he harangued his troops to follow him toward the enemy by cheering "Boys, follow me!" and waving his cap frantically over his head. Just then, another projectile perforated his chest, fatally lodging in his heart. Some of his soldiers gathered around him, witnessing his last words: "Boys, they have killed me, but never give up the field." Lying on the ground and wrapped in Col. Lucius Gartrell's arms, Francis Bartow died. He was the first brigade commander to be killed in action during the Civil War. (The first general officer to be killed in the war was Confederate Brig. Gen. Robert S. Garnett at Corrick's Ford, July 13, 1861.) [1] Amos Rucker and his brother Moses Bentley, two body servants from the 7th Regiment, carried Bartow off the battlefield. The renowned surgeon H. V. M. Miller attended him, but without success.

    The rest of Bartow's 7th Georgia continued to obey his last command to attack. The Union forces were beginning to show fatigue, due to their having been weakened during Bartow's morning attack. The Confederates sustained their attack until finally destroying the enemy battery at Stone Bridge. General Beauregard declared, "You Georgians saved me," though the Georgia Rome Weekly Courier newspaper commented, "Col. Bartow's fine Regiment of Georgians were nearly annihilated".

    When notified of Bartow's death, the Confederate Congress adjourned its sessions "in testimony of [its] respect for his memory", as expressed by its spokesman, Thomas Reade Rootes Cobb. The chamber felt an "unfeigned sorrow" due to the "heavy loss sustained by the Confederacy in the death of one of her most efficient counselors." They did confirm Bartow's posthumous rank of acting brigadier general. [2]

    On July 27, 1861, Bartow's corpse returned to Chatham County, Georgia. Accompanied by an extensive popular rally, Bartow was buried at


    Bartow County, Bartowville, Manassas and Forrest County

    General Francis Stebbins Bartow was the first brigade commander killed during the Civil War. This is an important fact to remember as some may say the first officer but the that distinction goes to The first general officer to be killed in the war was Confederate Brig. Gen. Robert S. Garnett at Corrick’s Ford, July 13, 1861 . Amos Rucker and his brother Moses Bentley, two body servants from the 7th Regiment, carried Bartow off the battlefield. The renowned surgeon H. V. M. Miller attended him, but without success. It He died on July 21st, 1861 and his body was returned to Georgia on July 27th 1861 to Laurel Grove Cemetery in Savannah.

    On December 1st, 1861, the news paper mentions a house bill to change the name of Cass County to Bartow County. The same suggests changing the name of Cassville Georgia to Bartowville but the bill was amended changing Bartowville to Manassas, where Bartow died. The local newspaper changed from the Cassville Standard to Manassas Standard for a period. Bartow County kept its name and residents went back to naming the remnants of the city – Cassville.

    Another Confederate General almost had a county named for him. General Nathan Bedford Forrest, hero of Rome, Georgia

    ” As an acknowledgement by Georgia of the timely service rendered in capturing the Yankee cavalry near Rome, thereby preventing the destruction of that city, and also thwarting the raid of the enemy on the State Road, it has been suggested by a distinguished citizen, who fills a high official position in Georgia, that the name of Union County be changed to that of Forrest. Since Georgia withdrew from the Abolition Union, she has no use for any name or emblem so hated as the relation she was forced to cast off, to preserve her honor and her rights. Forrest County would have a patriotic and monuments significance. We take the foregoing from the Southern Recorder of the 12th. We second the motion with all our heart.”

    A motion was made to reconsider the change of Union County to that of Forrest. The motion after some discussion was lost. The truth being that even though Union county Union in its name, had many units that supported the Confederacy.


    On This Day in Georgia History

    On this day in 1905, the Georgia state legislature established Stephens County, making it the state’s 143rd county. Located in the Blue Ridge Mountains, the county was created out of portions of Habersham and Franklin counties in northeast Georgia. The county was named for Alexander Stephens, who served as governor of Georgia and vice president of the Confederacy. Toccoa, whose name comes from the Cherokee word for beautiful, is the county’s largest city, and serves as the county seat. Other towns in Stephens county include Avalon and Martin.

    Image of Toccoa Falls, from the Sunny South, April 6, 1901 in the Atlanta Historic Newspaper Archive

    The county is perhaps best known for its great natural beauty. One of the more striking features in the area is the 186 foot tall Toccoa Falls (see image below), which is located on the Toccoa Falls College campus. In 1977, a dam above the falls burst and killed 39 people. Today, a monument stands at the base of the falls to honor those who lost their lives in the flood.

    Three other counties were created on the same day. To find out which ones, take a look at the “This Day in Georgia History” section of the GeorgiaInfo website. They also have information about Georgia history that occurred on every other day of the year.


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