10 December 1940

10 December 1940



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10 December 1940

December 1940

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>January

North Africa

British troops continue to advance in the Western Desert

War in the Air

RAF attacks the channel invasion ports

Greece

Greek troops are on the attack along the entire front



San Antonio Register (San Antonio, Tex.), Vol. 10, No. 47, Ed. 1 Friday, December 20, 1940

Weekly newspaper from San Antonio, Texas that includes local, state, and national news along with advertising.

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eight pages : ill. page 20 x 15 in. Digitized from 35 mm. microfilm.

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This newspaper is part of the collection entitled: Texas Digital Newspaper Program and was provided by the UT San Antonio Libraries Special Collections to The Portal to Texas History, a digital repository hosted by the UNT Libraries. It has been viewed 110 times, with 4 in the last month. More information about this issue can be viewed below.

People and organizations associated with either the creation of this newspaper or its content.

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UT San Antonio Libraries Special Collections

UTSA Libraries Special Collections seeks to build, preserve and provide access to our distinctive research collections documenting the diverse histories and development of San Antonio and South Texas. Our collecting priorities include the history of women and gender in Texas, the history of Mexican Americans, activists/activism, the history of the African American and LGBTQ communities in our region, the Tex-Mex food industry, and urban planning.


History and Hobby

My wife and I go to flea markets, rummage sales and antique stores as one of our shared interests.

We do not buy much given that we live in a condo with limited space and our interests are narrow.

This past Saturday we went to a flea market and I found a gentlemen with a box full of WW2 Life Magazines and a smaller box full of pulp fiction that dealt with war aviation themes from the 1930s to 40s. It was a bonanza for a history geek like me especially because the WW2 Life Magazines were only $3.00 each!

Dare-Devil Aces (pictured above) cost a bit more and is an example of the pulp fiction magazines that were popular during the Depression and WW2 years.

Dare-Devil Aces was part of a publishing empire called Popular Publications founded by Henry (Harry) Seeger. Seeger’s motive was escapist literature to the masses-a niche that TV, movies and video games now fill more than the printed page.

Dare-Devil Aces was a type of pulp fiction that was based in the realities of WW1 and WW2 aviation and the issue I found (cover above) is from December, 1940. That is one full year before the US entered WW2 and at a time when England was under daily attack from the German Luftwaffe.

The cover of the Dare-Devil Aces never had anything to do with one of the particular stories in the magazine so it’s helpful to say something about the historical part (the airplanes in the artwork) and the pulp fiction part (the stories in the magazine).

The Historical Part

The cover was meant to convey a general theme and for most of the 1940 issues the general theme would have been the Royal Air Force versus the German Luftwaffe given the fact that 1940 was the year of the famous Battle of Britian.

The Battle of Britain was fought after France fell in May of 1940. The British were forced to evacuate France and did so in the epic of Dunkirk.

The Germans made plans invade England (Operation Sea Lion) but first had to attain air superiority in order to protect the troop conveys and prevent the Royal Navy from intervening.

Herman Goering promised Hitler that his Luftwaffe was up to the task but do to some strategic errors and the incredible pluck of the RAF the Luftwaffe failed. Great Britain would remain free from German occupation and eventually serve as the launching pad for the Normandy Invasion in June of 1944.

Despite some isolationist elements in the US many Americans were unabashedly pro-British and took an interest in how England was faring and what the US was doing to help them. Dare-Devil Aces was therefore quite popular with Americans who wanted to destroy Nazism and who saw it as the threat it was.

The Dare-Devil Aces cover shows three Stuka dive-bombers, one of which is getting shot down. The British planes engaging the Stuka’s appear to be Bolton Paul Defiants, a two-seat aircraft sporting four .303 machine guns in the rear turret.

The ground scene seems to illustrate the British evacuation of Dunkirk earlier in 1940.

That’s about it for the history and the fact is both types of aircraft were obsolete by 1940 and in the case of the two-seat Defiant was quickly withdrawn or used in secondary theaters of war.

The Stuka too was withdrawn from the Battle of Britain because it was slow and vulnerable to the RAF’s Spitfires and Hurricane fighters. It would serve on effectively in other theaters as long as the Germans could maintain fighter air superiority to protect them.

The Pulp Fiction Part

Pulp fiction was never meant to convey historical fact. The stories in this particular issue are either part of a series or stand alone stories that have a fictionalized hero or heroes that triumph over great odds or significant obstacles to get the upper hand.

In the story I read the culprit is a Nazi bomber commander named Von Benz. In 1940 all Germans were considered Nazis in pulp fiction and Von Benz is typical of what you might expect of a Nazi-a cold blooded killer of women and children and a pilot that machine guns British pilots who have bailed out. Nasty guy for sure.

The story revolved around an American named Gary in the RAF (there was an Eagle Squadron of Americans who did fly in the RAF prior to the US entry but the story has nothing to do with the historical Eagle Squadron) and his closest British pilot friend, Bob.

Gary and Bob are both Spitfire pilots. (In 1940 there were way more Hurricanes than Spitfires but even in 1940 the glamor of the “Spit” was already evident.)

Von Benz is either directly responsible or indirectly responsible for a number of atrocities one of which kills Bob’s mother and sister-the gal Gary is falling in love with (of course).

Gary and Bob vow vengeance with their Spitfires and both get shot down over France where the Luftwaffe base is located. Gary the American is shot down after Bob had been shot down some days earlier in the same place (of course).

Gary the hero (good to have an American hero for American readers) manages in James Bond fashion to kill a German soldier and steal his uniform (and Luger) and fake his way into Von Benz’s HQ at the Luftwaffe base (of course).

There he encounters an earlier nemesis-a British Captain named Stanton who as it turns out is collaborating with the Nazis, something Stanton has accused “the American” of doing earlier and had resulted in a fist fight with Stanton losing (of course).

Needless to say Gary triumphs over Stanton, the Nazi guards and then the evil Von Benz himself (of course).

The story is pure propaganda designed to get Americans fired up about supporting Great Britain while we were officially neutral.

In fact the magazine editor in his preface to the issue calls American neutrality “pseudo-neutrality” since by that time we were all in for the British supplying WW1 destroyers for conveys and supplies of every kind.

Most Dare-Devil Aces magazines sell for $25.00 or more depending on condition and availability. My issue cost $10.00 (note the cover prince of 10 cents) which is more than I’d like but truth be known you hardly ever find them at flea markets or antique stores.

The cover pictured above is from the iNet as the one I purchased is not so clean.


HistoryLink.org

On December 10, 1946, six Curtis Commando R5C transport planes carrying more than 200 U.S. Marines leave San Diego en route to Seattle. The aircraft, flying entirely by instruments at an altitude of 9,000 feet, encounter heavy weather over southwestern Washington. Four turn back, landing at the Portland Airport one manages to land safely in Seattle, but the sixth plane, carrying 32 Marines, vanishes. Search-and-rescue aircraft, hampered by continuing bad weather, are unable to fly for a week and ground searches prove fruitless. After two weeks, the search for the missing aircraft is suspended. The Navy determines that the plane was blown off course by high winds and flew into the side of Mount Rainier (14,410 feet). In July 1947, a ranger at Mount Rainier National Park spots wreckage on South Tahoma Glacier. Search parties examine the debris and confirm that it came from the missing plane. Four weeks later, the bodies are found high on the face of the glacier, but hazardous conditions force authorities to abandon plans to remove them for burial. The 32 U.S. Marines remain entombed forever on Mount Rainier. In 1946, it was the worst accident, in numbers killed aboard an aircraft, in United States aviation history and remains Mount Rainier’s greatest tragedy.

The Tragedy

The Curtis Commando (C-46/R5C) was the largest and heaviest twin-engine transport aircraft used by the U.S. military during World War II (1941-1945). Originally developed as a 36-seat commercial airliner, it was used to haul cargo and personnel and for towing gliders. Although the plane had a service ceiling of 24,500 feet, it was restricted to flying at lower altitudes when hauling passengers because the cabin was unpressurized.

At 10:36 a.m. on Tuesday, December 10, 1946, six Curtis Commando R5C transport planes carrying more than 200 U.S. Marines departed El Toro Marine Air Station near San Diego on a six-and-a-half hour, nonstop flight to Naval Air Station Sand Point in Seattle. The flight encountered extremely bad weather over southwestern Washington and four of the planes turned back, landing at the Portland Airport. The two remaining aircraft, flying entirely by instruments (IFR), pressed onward toward Seattle.

At 4:13 p.m., Major Robert V. Reilly, pilot of aircraft No. 39528, radioed the Civil Aeronautics Administration (now the Federal Aviation Administration) radio range station at Toledo, Washington, that he was flying IFR at 9,000 feet and, with ice forming on the leading edges of the wings, requested permission to fly above the cloud cover. The plane was estimated to be approximately 30 miles south of Toledo, the midpoint between Seattle and Portland. When Major Reilly failed to contact Toledo, establishing his new altitude, air traffic controllers became concerned. Although buffeted by the storm, the fifth Curtis R5C flew through the weather without major difficulty, landing at Sand Point shortly after 5 p.m.

Under normal circumstances, the powerful Civil Aeronautics Administration (CAA) radio range station at Everett should have been able to receive transmissions from Major Reilly’s aircraft by 4:30 p.m., but heard none. Frantic efforts by the CAA, as well as the Army and Navy, to contact the plane were fruitless. The CAA’s ground transmission network queried other airfields around Western Washington, but there was no trace of the missing transport. All of the Curtis R5C’s had sufficient fuel to fly for 10 hours, giving officials hope that Major Reilly had landed his plane safely at some remote location.

At dawn on Wednesday, December 11, 1946, Army, Navy, and Coast Guard search planes were poised to start an intensive search of the area where the aircraft was presumed to have disappeared. But poor visibility and bad weather throughout southwestern Washington kept the search planes grounded. Air rescue units remained on alert, waiting for a break in the weather. Another concern was the missing aircraft's color, black, making the wreckage extremely difficult to spot from the air. Most search activity was limited to investigating leads provided by local citizens who reported hearing airplane engines around the time the Curtis R5C disappeared.

Although it was well off Major Reilly’s designated flight plan, the search for the aircraft was concentrated around Randle, Longmire, and Paradise in the southern foothills and slopes of Mount Rainier. John Preston, superintendent of Mount Rainier National Park, and other park rangers reported hearing a plane fly over the area about 4:15 p.m. on Tuesday afternoon, just minutes after Major Reilly’s last transmission to Toledo. Many of the rangers thought the aircraft might have crashed into the Nisqually Glacier on the south slope of the mountain.

On Friday, December 13, 1946, Assistant Chief Ranger William Jackson Butler (1909-2000) and Paradise District Ranger Gordon Patterson climbed to Panorama Ridge, elevation 6,800 feet, in a desperate effort to scout Nisqually Glacier for signs of the missing aircraft. But visibility there was almost zero and they were driven back by a blizzard. The rangers reported hearing the roar of avalanches on the glacier, which could have easily buried any wreckage forever.

Stormy weather in Western Washington continued for the next five days. High winds and heavy rain caused flooding at lower elevations, severely hindering search efforts and disrupting communications. More than five feet of snow fell on Mount Rainier, making it almost impossible to locate any trace of the plane on the mountain.

On Monday, December 16, 1946, the weather cleared for the first time in a week and conditions were ideal for an aerial search. Twenty-five Army, Navy, and Coast Guard aircraft were launched to search the slopes of Mount Rainier and as far south as Toledo in Lewis County for any sign of the missing Curtis R5C transport. But all the search planes returned without sighting any trace of wreckage. An intensive search around and west of Nisqually Glacier by air and ground units failed to uncover a single clue to the plane’s whereabouts. Still, authorities suspected that the aircraft had crashed on Mount Rainier or somewhere in the vicinity.

Two weeks of searching produced nothing and at that point chances of the Marines' survival were nil, so in late December efforts to find the aircraft were suspended. Park rangers thought that recent heavy snows on Mount Rainier would have covered any signs of wreckage.

Reconstructing the Event

Still, the lost Marines would not be forgotten. The search for the missing plane resumed the next summer, after some of the snow had melted. Meanwhile, the Navy conducted a thorough investigation into the facts and circumstances surrounding the aircraft’s disappearance. Families of the missing men offered a $5,000 reward to anyone finding the plane.

After analyzing the evidence, Navy officials concluded the missing plane, traveling at approximately 180 m.p.h., crashed into the side of Mount Rainier. Major Reilly was flying an IFR course, corrected for a southeast wind. However south of Portland, the wind changed direction, blowing from the west at 70 m.p.h. This wind shift, unknown to the pilot, pushed the plane approximately 25 degrees to the east, directly on a path into Mount Rainier. Their analysis was bolstered by reports from persons on the ground along the supposed line of flight where the Curtis R5C disappeared, who reported hearing a plane flying overhead. They believed the wreckage, if it could be located, would be scattered on one of the glaciers on the south or southwest side of the mountain.

Bill Butler's Eagle Eye

On Monday, July 21, 1947, Assistant Chief Ranger Bill Butler, 38, was hiking up Success Cleaver on his day off, monitoring snow levels and climbing conditions, when he spotted some aircraft wreckage, including a bucket seat, high on South Tahoma Glacier. The following day, Butler flew over the area in a Navy reconnaissance plane to assist photographing the area where he saw the debris. The wreckage couldn’t be seen from the air, but Butler was able to pinpoint the location without difficulty.

It was at about the 9,500-foot level on a huge snow-field rife with deep crevasses and sheer ice precipices, below an almost perpendicular 3,000-foot rock wall. The terrain was so treacherous that none of the park rangers or mountain climbing guides recalled anyone ever traversing the glacier’s face. As gravity drags the glacial ice down the mountainside, at an approximate rate of 10 inches per day, fissures open and close, causing avalanches and rock slides and collapsing snow bridges over crevasses.

Searching for Wreckage and Remains

On Wednesday, July 23, 1947, the Navy established a radio relay station and base camp at Indian Henry’s Hunting Ground, altitude 5,800 feet, on the slopes of Pyramid Peak. That afternoon, Butler, accompanied by seven expert mountaineers, hiked five miles from the Longmire Ranger Station to the base camp, where they spent the night. They planned to embark at 4 a.m. the following morning, but bad weather delayed the mission.

Finally, at 9 a.m. on Thursday, July 24, 1947, the search party started the arduous three-and-a-half mile climb toward South Tahoma Glacier. They split into three groups, each taking a different route, making the search of the glacier safer and more efficient. Because it was believed that vibrations from aircraft motors could trigger avalanches and rock slides, endangering the climbers, all planes were warned to stay clear of Mount Rainier.

That afternoon, the first fragments of an aircraft were found at the 9,500-foot level, strewn over a quarter-mile-wide area and partially embedded in the ice. Initial efforts to free pieces of the wreckage with ice axes proved unsuccessful. Although no bodies were located, searchers found a Marine Corps health record, a piece of a uniform, a seat belt, a temperature control panel and fragments of an aircraft’s fuselage. At about 5:30 p.m., the mountaineers returned to the base camp at Indian Henry’s Hunting Ground with their discoveries. There Navy officials positively identified the health record as belonging to a marine aboard the missing Curtis R5C transport.

On Friday, July 25, 1947, the mountaineers returned to South Tahoma Glacier to search for signs of the 32 missing men, but the weather had deteriorated, greatly increasing the hazards on the glacier. Throughout the day, the climbers, battling rain and snow, were bombarded by falling rocks and encountered two large crevasses that had opened overnight. They recovered additional evidence identifying the wreckage, including a knapsack containing Marine Corps health and service records, and saw considerably more that could not be extricated from the ice. But no bodies were found although searchers dug several feet down into the ice at various locations to inspect debris.

On Saturday, July 26, 1947, Navy officials announced that, due to the extremely difficult and dangerous conditions on the glacier, the search for the missing men had been suspended. Photo reconnaissance aircraft would continue monitoring the crash site so that if and when conditions on the glacier improved, further attempts could be made to find and recover the bodies.

On Monday, August 18, 1947, Assistant Chief Ranger Bill Butler was on a scouting trip around the South Tahoma Glacier with two park rangers when he spotted a large piece of wreckage at the 10,500-foot level. The rangers investigated and found the crushed nose section of the Curtis R5C, which had been buried under several feet of snow since winter. The sun had melted the snow down to the glacial ice, revealing the nose section with the bodies of 11 men tangled inside. The rangers returned to park headquarters at Longmire and notified officials at Naval Air Station Sand Point of their discovery.

The Navy responded immediately, establishing a base camp at Indian Henry’s Hunting Ground. Over the next few days, Navy and National Park Service officials discussed the feasibility of the removing bodies from the glacier for burial. The general census was it would take at least 20 experienced mountain climbers, at great personal risk, about two weeks to bring 32 bodies from the crash site to the base camp. Butler explained that conditions on the glacier were so bad, it took four hours to get to the site of the original wreckage. Snow bridges, which were there previously, had collapsed and new crevasses had opened up all through the ice. Although it was only another half mile up the glacier, it took another four hours to reach the wreckage of the nose section. Before making any decisions, Navy officials advised they would seek expert advice from the Army’s famous Mountain Division about recovery efforts.

Meanwhile, the Navy Department and National Park Service had been planning a memorial service for the lost Marines on Sunday, August 24, 1947 at Longmire. Parents and relatives were due to arrive in Seattle as early as Tuesday. Although circumstances had changed dramatically, the decision was made to proceed with the service.

On Friday, August 22, 1947, 17 climbers, led by Butler, returned to the glacier to survey the new site and search for more bodies. In addition to the 11 men found in the crushed nose section, 14 more bodies, most encased in ice, and a considerable amount of the broken plane, were discovered wedged in a crevasse. A heavy volume of rocks and boulders falling from the glacier’s headwall forced the search party to withdraw, but they brought out wallets, rings, watches, and personal papers of many of the men who died. The Naval Public Information Office in Seattle announced that all 32 Marine bodies had been located 25 had been seen and there was no doubt the other seven were there also.

At 2 p.m. on Sunday, August 24, 1947, a memorial service for the 32 Marines was held near Longmire. The ceremony took place on a knoll at the 4,000-foot summit of Round Pass, overlooking Mount Rainier and South Tahoma Glacier. Approximately 200 persons attended the solemn service, including the families of 14 of the men. Marine Corps Commanding General Leroy Hunt presented each family that had lost a Marine with a folded American flag as a memorial. The ceremony concluded with a bugler playing taps and the traditional 21-gun salute. Before leaving, the families decided to hold a memorial on Round Pass in August every year to honor the dead Marines.

On Monday, August 25, 1947, 13 climbers, led again by Butler, returned to South Tahoma Glacier to assess the feasibility of removing the bodies for burial without undue hazard. Included in the survey party were nine experts in mountain and winter warfare from the Army’s Mountain Division. The following day, officials from the Army, Navy, and National Park Service met at Fort Lewis to discuss the recovery problems. After careful consideration, all the experts agreed to abandon the mission because it would endanger the lives of the recovery parties. Clinching the decision was a letter written after the memorial service by parents of six of the Marines aboard the ill-fated plane, stating that sufficient effort had been made to recover their son’s remains:

Parents who had left Mount Rainier before the letter was written also expressed the desire that no more lives be risked in recovery efforts.

Honoring the Fallen

On Wednesday, August 27, 1947, Captain A. O. Rule, Commandant of Naval Air Station Sand Point, announced the official decision to cease all recovery efforts on South Tahoma Glacier. A dispatch from the Navy Department, Washington, D.C., concurred with the decision and approved mass burial at the site. In effect, the 32 Marines would stay where they died, among the wreckage of the Curtis R5C.

Officials at Mount Rainier National Park affirmed that there were no predatory animals or insects on the glacier at 10,500 feet and the wreckage and bodies would be covered by several feet of snow which would start falling at that altitude in early September. "By next spring, this snow will be compressed into several feet of glacier ice and there should be no visible evidence of this tragedy left" (Seattle Post-Intelligencer).

On September 15, 1947, the Department of Washington Marine Corps League asked Secretary of the Interior Julius Albert Krug (1907-1970) to rename South Tahoma Glacier the United States Marines Memorial Glacier, stressing that "No finer memorial to our Marine dead could be found or erected" (New York Times). Instead, the National Park Service affixed a bronze plaque, bearing the names of the Marines, on a large granite boulder at Round Pass, overlooking South Tahoma Glacier.

On August 18, 1948, the first annual gathering of the families of the Marines interred on South Tahoma Glacier was held at Round Pass. During the ceremony, Butler was presented with the Distinguished Public Service Certificate and lapel pin, the Navy’s highest civilian award, for his determined efforts to find the lost Marines. The award was the first of its kind presented in Washington state. In his presentation address, Colonel D. A. Stafford, USMC, told the audience that Butler had declined the $5,000 reward offered by the parents for locating the missing plane, explaining that he had only been discharging his duties as a park ranger.

Butler was honored again by the National Parks Service during a meeting at Grand Canyon, Arizona. On October 3, 1948, he was awarded the Department of the Interior’s highest award, the Distinguished Service Medal, and given a promotion that netted him a salary increase of $126 per year. A year later, he was the subject of a full-length article in the Saturday Evening Post, entitled "Mountain Rescue Man."

The Department of Washington, Marine Corps League, in conjunction with the families of the men buried on South Tahoma Glacier, had been conducting an annual memorial ceremony at Round Pass each year on the last Saturday in August. However, in the mid 1990s, the road to Round Pass washed out, making the area inaccessible to everyone except hikers willing to walk four-and-a-half miles from the Longmire Ranger Station. Consideration was given to moving the granite memorial from Round Pass to the new Tahoma National Cemetery near Kent, dedicated on September 26, 1997. But extracting a 10,000-pound boulder from a wilderness area wasn’t feasible and it would require an act of Congress to allow its removal from a national park. Also, the family members and local Marine veterans believed the monument should stay in its original location.

In 1998, the newly established Mount Rainier Detachment of the Marine Corps League received authorization to duplicate the monument. They located a similar boulder and had it moved to Veterans Memorial Park in Enumclaw, approximately 45 miles southeast of Seattle, in the foothills of Mount Rainier. After creating a flat space on the rock, the league affixed a replica of the bronze plaque on boulder at Round Pass. The new monument was dedicated on Saturday, August 21, 1999, at the 51st annual memorial ceremony held to honor the 32 Marines entombed forever on Mount Rainier.

In 1946, the loss of the Curtis Commando R5C was the worst accident, in numbers killed aboard a plane, in United States aviation history. Although there have been more than 325 fatalities in Mount Rainier National Park since it was established by Congress in 1899, the plane crash on December 10, 1946, remains the greatest tragedy in the mountain’s history.

Roster of Marines on board the Curtis Commando R5C, No. 39528

  • Major Robert V. Reilly, Memphis, Texas, Pilot
  • Lt. Colonel Alben C. Robertson, Santa Ana Heights, California, Copilot
  • Master Sergeant Wallace J. Slonina, Rochester, New York, Crew Chief
  • Master Sergeant Charles F. Criswell, San Diego, California
  • Private Duane R. Abbott, Minneapolis, Minnesota
  • Private Robert A. Anderson, Raymondville, Texas
  • Private Joe E. Bainter, Canton, Missouri
  • Private Leslie R. Simmons, Jr., Kalama, Washington
  • Private Harry K. Skinner, Confluence, Pennsylvania
  • Private Lawrence E. Smith, Lincoln, Nebraska
  • Private Buddy E. Snelling, Columbus, Ohio
  • Private Bobby J. Stafford, Texarkana, Texas
  • Private William D. St. Clair, Los Angeles, California
  • Private Walter J. Stewart, Austin, Texas
  • Private John C. Stone, Los Angeles, California
  • Private Albert H. Stubblefield, Bakersfield, California
  • Private William R. Sullivan, Ardmore, Oklahoma
  • Private Chester E. Taube, Fresno, California
  • Private Harry L. Thompson, Jr., Kansas City, Kansas
  • Private Duane S. Thornton, Biola, California
  • Private Keith K. Tisch, Marne, Michigan
  • Private Eldon D. Todd, Fort Collins, Colorado
  • Private Richard P. Trego, Denver, Colorado
  • Private Charles W. Truby, Anthony, Kansas
  • Private Harry R. Turner, Monroe, Oregon
  • Private Ernesto R. Valdovin, Tucson, Arizona
  • Private Gene L. Vremsak, Calexico, California
  • Private William E. Wadden, Cedar Rapids, Iowa
  • Private Donald J. Walker, Hoquiam, Washington
  • Private Gilbert E. Watkins, Tuscon, Arizona
  • Private Duane E. White, Ottawa, Kansas
  • Private Louis A. Whitten, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma

The State of Washington
Washington State Department of Archeology and Historic Preservation

Curtis Commando C-46/R5C

Courtesy United States Air Force National Museum

Mount Rainier

Photo by Stan Shebs (CC BY-SA 3.0)

Paradise Inn, Mount Rainier, ca. 1935

Courtesy UW Special Collections (Neg. No. UW9020)

Bodies of Marines killed in December 10, 1946, plane crash found on Mt. Rainier, headline, August 20, 1947

Courtesy Seattle Post-Intelligencer

South Tahoma Glacier, Mt. Rainier

Courtesy National Park Service

William J. Butler, Assistant Chief Ranger, Mt. Rainier, August 20, 1947

Courtesy Seattle Post-Intelligencer

Memorial for Marines killed in 1946 crash on Mt. Rainier, Veterans Memorial Park, Enumclaw, August 21, 1999

Courtesy City of Enumclaw

South Tahoma Glacier, Mount Rainer

Courtesy National Park Service

Sources:

“Ask Glacier Name for Marines,” The New York Times, September 15, 1947, p. 21 Robert N. Ward, “Marine Transport Feared Down in Mountain Region,” Seattle Post-Intelligencer, December 11, 1946, p. 1 “Hunt Abandoned at Mount Purcell,” Ibid., December 12, 1946, p. 1 Jack Jarvis, “Bad Weather Halts Search of Ice Fields,” Ibid., December 13, 1946, p. 1 Gene Schroeder, “Storm Blocks Plane Search by Rangers,” Ibid., December 14, 1946, p. 1 E. P. Chalcraft, “Plane rescue Team ‘Sweats Out’ Delay,” Ibid., December 15, 1946, p. 1 “Long Missing Plane Believed Found on Rainier,” Ibid., July 23, 1947, p. 1 E. P. Chalcraft, “Arduous Trek Starts to Site of Craft Wreckage,” Ibid., July 24, 1947, p. 1 E. P. Chalcraft, “Searching Party Risks death to Reach Tragic Scene,” Ibid., July 25, 1947, p. 1 E. P. Chalcraft, “Search On Foot Halted for Plane Victims in Rainier Ice,” Ibid., July 27, 1947, p. 9 E. P. Chalcraft, “Rainier May Hold Forever Bodies of Air Crash Victims,” Ibid., July 26, 1947, p. 1 “Report Eleven Bodies Found On Rainier,” Ibid., August 20, 1947, p. 1 Lucille Cohen, “Risk Lives to Get 11 Dead Off Rainier,” Ibid., August 21, 1947, p. 1 “All 32 Marine Bodies Located,” Ibid., August 24, 1947, p. 9 Robert N. Ward, “Taps Echoes Over Rainier for Marines,” Ibid., August 25, 1947, p. 1 Lloyd Stackhouse, “Marine Plane Dead to Rest On Mt. Rainier,” Ibid., August 28, 1947, p. 1 “Fit Resting Place for Plane Victims,” Ibid., August 29, 1947, p. 8 “Navy Honors Finder of Plane Wreckage on Mount Rainier,” Ibid., August 19, 1848, p. 1 “Park Ranger Given Award,” Ibid., October 4, 1948, p. 4 Candy Hatcher, “God’s Monument to 32 Marines,” Ibid., March 30, 2000, p. A-1 “Search for Craft Moves to Randle,” The Seattle Times, December 11, 1946, p. 1 “Floods Slow search for Lost Marine Corps Plane,” Ibid., December 12, 1946, p. 2 “State Men on Missing Marine Corps Plane,” Ibid., December 13, 1946, p. 13 “Plane Searchers Wait on Weather,” Ibid., December 14, 1946, p. 2 “Weather Balks Search Parties’ Hunt for Plane,” Ibid., December 15, 1946, p. 3 “18 Planes Hunt Lost Transport,” Ibid., December 16, 1946, p. 13 “Rangers Start Plane Search Tomorrow,” Ibid., July 23, 1947, p. 5 Robert L. Twiss, “Bad Weather delays Search for Lost Plane,” Ibid., July 24, 1947, p. 1 Robert L. Twiss, “Some Wreckage found in First Assault of Ice-Choked Terrain,” Ibid., July 25, 1947, p. 19 “Army May Seek Rainier Bodies,” Ibid., August 20, 1947, p. 14”Body Removal Plans Uncertain,” Ibid., August 21, 1947, p. 9 “Final Climb to Crash Slated,” Ibid., August 24, 1947, p. 10 “Climbers Study Removing Bodies,” Ibid., August 25, 1947, p. 5 “Parley Set on Body Removal,” Ibid., August 27, 1947, p. 2 “Crash Victims Will Remain on Glacier,” Ibid., August 28, 1947, p. 21 “Navy Rewards Ranger Who Found Lost Plane,” Ibid., August 19, 1948, p. 12 “Ranger Receives Service Medal,” Ibid., October 4, 1948, p. 7 "Butler, Veteran Rainier Ranger, Gets into Print,” Ibid., November 9, 1949, p. 12.


HistoryLink.org

On December 26, 1940, Walla Walla's first synagogue, Congregation Beth Israel Myer Youdovitch Memorial, is registered as a corporation in Olympia. After meeting informally for a few years, the Jewish community in Walla Walla raised support for a rabbi and facilities for him, his family, and religious services. It then organized a formal synagogue and eight individuals signed the articles of incorporation on December 19. The synagogue's first and only rabbi, Franklin Cone, will lead the synagogue for only a few years, but Congregation Beth Israel will continue to operate under lay leaders and in 1971 will move into expanded facilities. Membership will fluctuate over the years, and at the beginning of the twenty-first century the congregation will consist of some 35 families.

The Roots of a Rural Jewish Community

Walla Walla took form as a town in 1859, and although Jews were among the earliest settlers, it took a few generations before a large enough community was present to support Jewish institutions such as a synagogue. Some Jewish merchants operated or opened businesses in Walla Walla when gold was discovered in the eastern part of the territory, but the beginning of a local Jewish community followed the large migration of Jews from Eastern Europe in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.

By the 1930s, there may have been as many as 75 Jewish families in Walla Walla, a number of which were successful and well established in the community. In 1936, heads of 20 of these families signed a petition for the establishment of a B'nai B'rith (Sons of the Covenant) lodge and an auxiliary women's group. B'nai B'rith, a cultural and philanthropic organization that has operated orphanages, hospitals, retirement homes, and an emergency relief fund, was instituted in Walla Walla with much pomp and public support on March 29, 1936.

The Community and the Congregation

Around the time of the establishment of Wall Walla's B'nai B'rith lodge, synagogue services began to occur regularly in private homes. One of these homes belonged to Myer and Celia Youdovitch, and after Myer's death in 1938, Celia proposed the establishment of a synagogue in his name. As Congregation Beth Israel Myer Youdovitch Memorial was taking form, in early 1940 a Jewish agency asked the congregation if it would support Rabbi Franklin Cohn (1906-1971) and his family, who had fled Germany. The congregation acquired a house at 329 E Rose Street to serve as both a residence and a synagogue and the synagogue was incorporated in December 1940.

Military operations in the region increased the number of Jews in the Walla Walla area and Cohn, the synagogue, and B'nai B'rith were kept busy responding the religious and social needs of Walla Walla's Jewish community. But Cohn had to supplement his income by working as a bookkeeper and in 1942 the Cohn family left Walla Walla for Seattle.

After the war, lay leaders and visiting rabbis led services at the synagogue, and in 1972 some 40 families celebrated the first Passover Seder held in a new synagogue building at the corner of Alder and Roosevelt streets. By the 1980s, there were only a dozen Jewish families affiliated with the synagogue and services were held only a few times during the year,.

But during the last decades of the twentieth century, a number of professionals moved into the area and brought new life to the synagogue. The synagogue serves some 35 families. It is affiliated with the Union for Reform Judaism and the congregation meets regularly and celebrates the major holidays.

Congregation Beth Israel, Walla Walla, 2011

HistoryLink.org Photo by Michael Paulus

Congregation Beth Israel Myer Youdovitch Memorial synagogue building, 329 E Rose Street, Walla Walla, ca. 1950

Celia Youdovitch, July 1969

Jewish section of Mountain View Cemetery, Walla Walla, 2011


Yorkshire Post (10/Dec/1940) - New Books: Old Legends of Huddersfield

Few, if any, are more qualified than Mr. Ahier to record the history and topography of his adopted town and district. This latest publication is a compendious effort which will undoubtedly make its way into the bookcases of many local households and societies.

As Mr. Ahier explains, he has endeavoured to classify the legends and records relating to the district under two headings and concerning persons and the other places. The second part of the book will deal with the Elland Feud, the legend of Bretton Hall and the legends of places.

Here we have a mass of information concerning the origin of legends and traditions, "faked" legends, amusing legends concerning visits supposed to have been paid to Huddersfield by the Devil himself, half-a-dozen pages about Robin Hood and of his traditional death and burial at Kirklees, and a wide assortment of legends associated with alleged visits to Huddersfield and district by Oliver Cromwell.

On this last point the author comments that there were certainly several local raids by Parliamentarian soldiers, "and it is conceivable that the legends of these visits of Oliver Cromwell to this locality arose by assuming, but without foundation, that he was in command of the troops."

Mr. Ahier's research has been authoritative and exhaustive: his book is the moor is the more attractive for its wealth of entertaining anecdote.


Japanese Americans at Manzanar

Buses line up on a Los Angeles street to take Japanese American evacuees to camp.

Japan’s attack on Pearl Harbor December 7, 1941, led the United States into World War II and radically changed the lives of 120,000 men, women, and children of Japanese ancestry living in the United States. The attack intensified racial prejudices and led to fear of potential sabotage and espionage by Japanese Americans among some in the government, military, news media, and public. In February, 1942, President Franklin D. Roosevelt signed Executive Order 9066 authorizing the Secretary of War to establish Military Areas and to remove from those areas anyone who might threaten the war effort. Without due process, the government gave everyone of Japanese ancestry living on the West Coast only days to decide what to do with their houses, farms, businesses, and other possessions. Most families sold their belongings at a significant loss. Some rented their properties to neighbors. Others left possessions with friends or religious groups. Some abandoned their property. They did not know where they were going or for how long. Each family was assigned an identification number and loaded into cars, buses, trucks, and trains, taking only what they could carry. Japanese Americans were transported under military guard to 17 temporary assembly centers located at racetracks, fairgrounds, and similar facilities in Washington, Oregon, California, and Arizona. Then they were moved to one of 10 hastily built relocation centers. By November, 1942, the relocation was complete.

Waiting in line at the mess hall was a common activity at Manzanar.

Life at Manzanar

Ten war relocation centers were built in remote deserts, plains, and swamps of seven states Arkansas, Arizona, California, Colorado, Idaho, Utah, and Wyoming. Manzanar, located in the Owens Valley of California between the Sierra Nevada on the west and the Inyo mountains on the east, was typical in many ways of the 10 camps.

About two-thirds of all Japanese Americans interned at Manzanar were American citizens by birth. The remainder were aliens, many of whom had lived in the United States for decades, but who, by law, were denied citizenship.

The first Japanese Americans to arrive at Manzanar, in March 1942, were men and women who volunteered to help build the camp. On June 1 the War Relocation Authority (WRA) took over operation of Manzanar from the U.S. Army.

The 500-acre housing section was surrounded by barbed wire and eight guard towers with searchlights and patrolled by military police. Outside the fence, military police housing, a reservoir, a sewage treatment plant, and agricultural fields occupied the remaining 5,500 acres. By September 1942 more than 10,000 Japanese Americans were crowded into 504 barracks organized into 36 blocks. There was little or no privacy in the barracks—and not much outside. The 200 to 400 people living in each block, consisting of 14 barracks each divided into four rooms, shared men’s and women’s toilets and showers, a laundry room, and a mess hall. Any combination of eight individuals was allotted a 20-by-25-foot room. An oil stove, a single hanging light bulb, cots, blankets, and mattresses filled with straw were the only furnishings provided.

Coming from Los Angeles and other communities in California and Washington, Manzanar’s internees were unaccustomed to the harsh desert environment. Summer temperatures soared as high as 110ºF. In winter, temperatures frequently plunged below freezing.

Throughout the year strong winds swept through the valley, often blanketing the camp with dust and sand. Internees covered knotholes in the floors with tin can lids, but dust continued to blow in between the floorboards until linoleum was installed in late 1942.

“…one of the hardest things to endure was the communal latrines, with no partitions and showers with no stalls.” Rosie Kakuuchi

Sports provided a welcome diversion at camp.

Overcoming Adversity

Internees attempted to make the best of a bad situation. The WRA formed an advisory council of internee-elected block managers. Internees established churches, temples, and boys and girls clubs. They developed sports, music, dance, and other recreational programs built gardens and ponds and published a newspaper, the Manzanar Free Press.

Most internees worked in the camp. They dug irrigation canals and ditches, tended acres of fruits and vegetables, and raised chickens, hogs, and cattle. They made clothes and furniture for themselves and camouflage netting and experimental rubber for the military. They served as mess hall workers, doctors, nurses, police officers, firefighters, and teachers.

Professionals were paid $19 per month, skilled workers received $16, and nonskilled workers got $12. Many pooled their resources and created a consumer cooperative that published the Manzanar Free Press and operated a general store, beauty parlor, barbershop, and bank. As the war turned in America’s favor, restrictions were lifted, and Japanese Americans were allowed to leave the camps. Church groups, service organizations, and some camp administrators helped find sponsors and jobs in the Midwest and the East. From all 10 camps, 4,300 people received permission to attend college, and about 10,000 were allowed to leave temporarily to harvest sugar beets in Idaho, Montana, Utah, and Wyoming.

A total of 11,070 Japanese Americans were processed through Manzanar. From a peak of 10,046 in September 1942, the population dwindled to 6,000 by 1944. The last few hundred internees left in November 1945, three months after the war ended. Many of them had spent three-and-a-half years at Manzanar.

The removal of all Japanese Americans from the West Coast was based on widespread distrust of their loyalty after Pearl Harbor. Yet, no Japanese Americans were charged with espionage.

“Manzanar has its first gold star mother. We had dreaded the day when some family in Manzanar would receive the fateful telegram….” Manzanar Free Press article on Pfc. Frank Arikawa’s death

Soldiers from Manzanar served with great distinction in the 442nd Regimental Combat Team.

Loyalty and Service

About 5,000 Japanese Americans were serving in the U.S. Army when Japan attacked Pearl Harbor in December 1941. The U.S. military soon called for another 5,000 volunteers from the mainland and Hawaii. In January 1942, however, the Selective Service reclassified Japanese Americans as “enemy aliens” and stopped drafting them.

Emotions were intense during 1942 as the United States entered the war and Japanese Americans were moved to the relocation centers. Various protests and disturbances occurred at some centers over political differences, wages, and rumors of informers and black marketing. At Manzanar two people were killed and 10 were wounded by military police during the “Manzanar Riot” in December 1942.

Tensions intensified in 1943 when the government required internees to answer a “loyalty questionnaire.” They were asked if they would serve in combat and if they would swear unqualified allegiance to the United States. Some older internees answered “no” because they were not allowed to become U.S. citizens. Others refused to serve while their families were behind barbed wire. Those who answered “yes” were considered “loyal” and became eligible for indefinite leave outside the West Coast military areas. Those who answered “no” were sent to a segregation center at Tule Lake, Calif.

In January 1944 the draft was reinstated for Japanese Americans. Most of those who were drafted or volunteered joined the 442nd Regimental Combat Team. Combined with the 100th Infantry Battalion of the Hawaiian Territorial Guard, the 442nd fought with distinction in North Africa, France, and Italy. With 9,846 casualties, the 100th/442nd had the highest casualty rate and was the most highly decorated Army unit for its size and length of service. Nearly 26,000 Japanese Americans served in the U.S. military during World War II.

1869 First known Japanese immigrants to U.S. settle near Sacramento.

1913 Alien Land Law prohibits Japanese aliens from owning land in California and imposes a three-year limit on leasing of land.

1924 Immigration Exclusion Act halts Japanese immigration to U.S.

1941 U.S. enters World War II after Pearl Harbor attack Dec. 7.

1942 Executive Order 9066 of Feb.19 authorizes relocation and/or internment of anyone who might threaten the U.S. war effort.

1943 U.S. Army forms 442nd Regimental Combat Team, a segregated unit for Japanese Americans that serves with 100th Infantry Battalion in Europe.

1944 Supreme Court upholds constitutionality of evacuation based solely on national ancestry while separately ruling that loyal citizens cannot be held against their will.

1945 World War II ends with Japan’s surrender Aug. 14. Manzanar War Relocation Center closes Nov. 21.

1952 Walter-McCarran Immigration and Naturalization Act allows Japanese aliens to become naturalized citizens. 1972Manzanar designated a California Registered Historical Landmark.

1988 U.S. Civil Liberties Act grants a $20,000 payment and an apology to 82,000 former internees.

1992 Manzanar National Historic Site established March 3.

2001 Minidoka Internment National Monument designated Jan. 17 in Idaho. National Japanese American Memorial dedicated June 29 in Washington, D.C.

2004 Manzanar National Historic Site Interpretive Center opens April 24.

Additional Resources

Japanese American Confinement Sites Consortium (JACSC)

While not a program of the National Park Service, the Japanese American Confinement Sites Consortium (JACSC) is comprised of organizations committed to collectively preserving, protecting, and interpreting the history of the World War II experiences of Japanese Americans and elevating the related social justice lessons that inform issues today. Members include former confinement sites, as well as historical organizations, endowments, museums, commissions, and educational institutes.


Big Blue 1840-1940

Quick History
With the death of the popular Franz Josef I in 1916, and the the Austro-Hungarian Empire on the wrong end of WW I, turmoil and revolution reigned.

The seeds of the Kingdom of Hungary's demise, where 70% of it's land base was lost, lay in the ethnic rise of nationalism within the former Austro-Hungarian Empire.

The second design in the issue had 8 higher denomination stamps with the "Parliament Building" motif. Subsequent issues also can be confusing. Pay attention to the Danube River, as sometimes there is a vessel, sometimes not.

Big Blue
Big Blue "69, on 13 pages, has spaces for 304 regular and 66 semi-postal stamps for the years 1916-1940. (Counting the 3 spaces for 1919 Szeged semi-postal stamps that BB provides in the semi-postal section.)
Coverage is 78% for regular and 90% for semi-postal stamps. Clearly, overall coverage by BB for these years is good.

There were only three stamps that barely crossed the $10 threshold all semi-postals. They are listed in the "comment" section after the checklist.

One peculiar note: BB does not provide space or cover the "occupation" issues after WWI. In the 2011 Scott catalogue, the "occupation" issues (France, Romania, and Serbia) cover four pages. Many stamps are inexpensive, so clearly that is not the problem.

But, of interest, BB does have three Szeged semi-postal issues listed in the Hungarian semi-postals! Perhaps because of Szeged's significance to Hungarian history? Recall the anti-Bolshevist National forces under Admiral Horthy were there while the Communists were in power the summer of 1919 until the Romanian Forces (under French support) removed the Marxist government.

1916-18
108,109,110,111,112,113,114,
115,116,117,118,
119,120,121,122,
123,124,125,126,

1918-19
153,154,155,156,157,158,159,162,
163,164,165,166,167,
168,169,170,171,172,173,

1919
174,176,177,178,179,180,181,
183,184,186,
187,189,190,193,
194,195,196,197,

1919
198,199,200,201,202,
203,204,205,206,207,
208,209,210,211,212,213,
214,215,216,217,218,
219,220,221,222,

1920
318,319,320,321,
322,323,324,325,326,
327,328,329,330,
182,188,191,185,

1920-21
335,336,337,338,340,
364,365,

1922
339,341,342,343,344,345,346,
347,348,349,
350,367,352,353,370,
354,372,373,

1923
366,351,368,369,371,355,
356* or 388, 357,358*, 360,374,375,

1924
359 or 390, 361 or 392,362 or 393,363 or 394, 376 or 395, 377 or 396,

1923-25
380,381,382,383,384,
385,386,387,400,401,

1926-28
403*,404*,405* or 430, 406 or 431,407*,408 or 433,409 or 434,410 or 435,
411*,412,413,414,415,416,

1929-31
438*,439,440,441,445,
446,447,448,449, 450 or 453, 451 or 454,

1932-37
468,469,470,509,471,472,473,
474,510,475,476,477,478,479,

1938
511,512,513,514,515,
516,517,518,519,520,
521,522,523,524,

1939
537,538,539,540,541,542,543,
544,545,
546,547,548,549,550,

Semi-Postal
(Skipping 1913-16 Semi-Postals covered in previous post)

1919 (Actually Szeged semi-postal issue)
11NB1,11NB2,11NB3,

1923
B73,B74,
B72,B75,B76,B77,B78,B79,

1925
B80,B84,B86,
B81,B82,B83,B85,B87,

1938
B95,B96,
B98,B99,B100,B101,B102,
B103,B104,B105,B106,(B107),

1940
B114,B115,B116,
B126,B129,B127,B128,
B117,B119,B121,
B118,B120,

Comments
A) Expensive stamps ($10 threshold):
Szeged issue: 1919 Scott 11NB3 40f + 2f brown carmine ($10)
1925 Semi-postal Scott B86 2000k brown violet ($10)
1925 Semi-postal Scott B87 2500k olive brown ($10+)

B) *356 or 388 - the choices for 1923 & 1924 are for wmk 137 or wmk 133.

C) *358 200k green- 389 200k yellow green is excluded by BB for color.

D) *403,*404,*407,*411,: same denomination 428, 429,432,436 excluded for BB's color requirements.

E) *405 or 430: the 1926-30 choices, and the 1929-31 choices are for wmk 133 or wmk 210.

F) *438: no place for 437 30f emerald which begins the set.

G) Note: There are occasionally some minor color descriptive differences between BB and the 2011 Scott catalogue. I do not comment unless there could be confusion.

H) *452 violet: 455 is excluded by BB (dark violet).

I) ( ) around a number indicates a blank space choice.

Out of the Blue
If you read every section before this one, then you deserve a medal. There are 62 posted images in this post, perhaps a new record.

In fact, I think I deserve a medal. -)

Note: Map images appear to be in the public domain.

I would like some comments!

16 comments:

One of the things I noticed about Hungary in this era, compared with Austria, is that Hungary held on much more strongly to its rural and Catholic heritage. Austria in this era is characterized strongly by Art Deco designs. Hungary issues Marian stamps, St. Elizabeth (daughter of 11thc Hungarian king, married the Landgrave of Thuringia and lived at the "romantic" Wartburg castle, a must see if one is ever in central Germany) etc.

Interestingly, Karl I (I don't think Karl IV is correct--the dynastic issues are very complex, given the dual monarchy plus the imperial title and I don't understand it all but I've always seen him referred to as Karl I perhaps--Charles the IV was emperor in the 1300s with his court in Prague, but he was from the Lorraine dynasty??) insisted that he never abdicated, but merely ceased exercising his functions as king. He was never crowned in Austria, only in Buda and Austria after the war was much more secular and republican, so a recovery of the throne there was impossible. He had strong support in Hungary but, as I recall, the French and their allies scuttled it (by pressuring Horthy).

Karl I has been beatified by the Catholic Church--he had tried to broker a peace from 1916 onward but Kaiser Wilhelm would have nothing to do with it and he tried some social reforms along Catholic social teaching lines during the last years of the war but things were too chaotic.


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Dr. Germar Rudolf

These statistics concerning prisoners in Auschwitz camp purport to be taken directly from Soviet archive material, now available on microfilm from the former Soviet Central Archives. Also, a good deal of corroborative material from the German Archives concerning the German State Railways has been located in the German State Archives (Bundesarchiv) and utilized. The railroad was responsible for the transportation of inmates to and from concentration camps and these figures from the Russian files are accurately reflected in the Reichsbahn documents.

Another avenue for confirmation exists in the wartime radio intercepts which are known to have been made. British wartime intelligence was eavesdropping on the radio traffic as Auschwitz (and other camps) sent regular reports to the relevant government department in Berlin. These messages were either in plain text or a low-level encrypt and consisted of lists of numbers corresponding to the various prisoner categories.

The following derives from the prisoner records of Auschwitz camp from May 1940 through December 1944 in the Glücks complete Concentration Camp microfilm records now located in the Russian Central Archives, Central State Archives No. 187603, Rolls 281-286, as follows:

Roll 281, 1940: Frames 107-869

Roll 282, 1940-41: Frames 001-875

Roll 283, 1941-42: Frames 001-872

Roll 284 1942-43: Frames 003-862

Roll 285, 1943-44: Frames 019-852

Roll 286, 1945: Frames 001-329.

The Russian microfilms cover all of the concentration camp records from 1935-1945 and the Auschwitz records were compiled from these. Note, however, that each months reportage covers all the camps and there is no such thing as an "Auschwitz file" or a "Bergen-Belsen" or "Mauthausen file." The Auschwitz material is included in, let us say, the July 1942 file along with other camp entries and compilations.

Table 1: Non-Jewish Prisoners Entering Auschwitz

1940 1941 1942 1943 1944
January &ndash 1691 843 9474 1767
February &ndash 1339 1508 4065 1052
March &ndash 221 1071 15618 573
April &ndash 4051 1817 7346 5971
May 70 1793 1881 4868 2097
June 1225 731 2583 3368 1412
July 147 1925 3493 4942 1368
August 1156 473 3106 5282 6890
September 1873 785 1628 4531 4604
October 471 7191 2952 8179 674
November 637 1215 2507 3676 1854
December 1190 1217 3172 4961 1251
TOTALS 6769 22632 26561 76310 29513

Total non-Jews in Auschwitz, 1940-1944: 161,785

Table 2: Jewish Prisoners Entering Auschwitz 1941-1944

1941 1942 1943 1944
January &ndash 1166 6076 1445
February &ndash 6762 2507 1299
March &ndash 1000 9037 1178
April &ndash 3004 5054 3175
May &ndash 9736 2453 18927
June &ndash 3518 2520 8438
July 171 3419 4201 12924
August &ndash 5990 13382 12705
September &ndash 4146 7990 2126
October &ndash 4742 1624 1177
November 1 &ndash 3921 &ndash
December 6 &ndash 7180 &ndash
TOTALS 178 43483 65945 63394

Total Jews in Auschwitz, 1941-1944: 173,000

Total number of inmates in Auschwitz, 1940-1944: 334,785

Table 3: Total Typhus Deaths in Auschwitz, 1941-1944

1941 1942 1943 1944
January &ndash 1776 2123 2801
February &ndash 1515 2979 1933
March &ndash 3018 4604 2321
April &ndash 1392 2835 1771
May &ndash 2911 2378 981
June &ndash 3688 2980 1575
July &ndash 4124 3438 1121
August &ndash 4968 2633 1847
September &ndash 1497 2901 3313
October 2128 6092 3549 3095
November 5084 103 4621 927
December 2585 1023 4679 120
TOTALS 9797 32107 39720 21805

Total deaths by typhus in Auschwitz, 1941-1944: 103,429

Table 4: Jewish Typhus Deaths in Auschwitz, 1942-1944

1942 1943 1944
January 875 1502 1429
February 906 1729 876
March 1789 3981 1312
April 875 895 632
May 1991 1721 407
June 2406 1990 884
July 3090 2017 455
August 3271 968 1129
September 919 1803 1871
October 4789 2705 1294
November 29 3219 927
December 621 2842 91
TOTALS 21561 25372 11307

Total Jewish deaths by typhus in Auschwitz, 1942-1944: 58,240

Total non-Jewish deaths by typhus in Auschwitz, 1941-1944: 45,189

Table 5: Deaths by natural causes (other than typhus) in Auschwitz, 1940-1944

1940 1941 1942 1943 1944
January &ndash 142 120 103 120
February &ndash 175 77 221 191
March &ndash 165 42 198 178
April &ndash 9 39 89 167
May 6 47 23 62 155
June 23 19 21 56 151
July 15 5 16 31 98
August 35 11 5 38 65
September 9 23 19 96 54
October 21 2 25 102 67
November 34 39 49 235 94
December 30 48 61 197 17
TOTALS 173 685 497 1428 1357

Deaths by natural causes (other than typhus), 1940-1944: 4,140

Table 6: Deaths by natural causes (other than typhus), Jews, Auschwitz, 1941-1944

1941 1942 1943 1944
January &ndash 62 62 98
February &ndash 39 117 127
March &ndash 32 120 111
April &ndash 26 43 140
May &ndash 11 37 90
June &ndash 5 41 107
July &ndash 9 16 49
August &ndash 1 24 32
September &ndash 11 61 41
October &ndash 19 81 39
November &ndash 37 104 81
December 7 48 130 6
TOTALS 7 300 836 921

Total Jewish deaths by natural causes (other than typhus), 1941-1944: 2,064

Table 7: Transfers from Auschwitz, 1940-1944

1940 1941 1942 1943 1944
January &ndash 657 &ndash &ndash 612
February &ndash 8 196 &ndash 2060
March &ndash &ndash 275 3001 881
April &ndash 1002 158 1024 2500
May &ndash 36 423 &ndash 7923
June &ndash 4 1845 &ndash 9228
July &ndash &ndash 753 &ndash 15628
August &ndash &ndash &ndash 3195 8957
September &ndash &ndash &ndash 600 9091
October 11 &ndash &ndash 4544 33244
November &ndash &ndash &ndash 3500 8309
December &ndash &ndash &ndash 333 1455
TOTALS 11 1707 3650 16197 99888

Total transferred from Auschwitz, 1940-1944: 121,453

Table 8: Transfers of Jews from Auschwitz, 1941-1944

1941 1942 1943 1944
January 271 &ndash &ndash 409
February &ndash 120 &ndash 1843
March &ndash 37 1572 410
April 459 30 630 1927
May 17 112 &ndash 7540
June &ndash 873 &ndash 8109
July &ndash 120 &ndash 13765
August &ndash &ndash 2871 7501
September &ndash &ndash 395 8502
October &ndash &ndash 3201 28509
November &ndash &ndash 3264 7322
December &ndash &ndash 173 761
TOTALS 747 1292 12106 86598

Total number of Jews transferred from Auschwitz, 1941-1944: 100,743

Table 9: Administrative Executions at Auschwitz, 1940-1944

1940 1941 1942 1943 1944
Nov 22 40 Poles Jan 3 1 Pole

July 3 80 Poles

Aug 1 1 Jew

Nov 14 151 Poles

Dec 1 1 Pole

Dec 20 5 Poles

Apr 3 11 Poles

May 27 150 Poles

May 28 1 Jew

June 4 3 Jews

June 9 3 Jews

June 10 13 Poles

June 11 3 Jews

June 12 60 Poles, 2 Jews

June 13 6 Jews

June 15 200 Poles

June 16 2 Poles, 2 Jews

June 18 8 Jews

June 19 50 Poles, 4 Jews

June 20 4 Czechs

June 22 4 Jews

June 23 3 Jews

June 25 3 Jews

June 26 40 Poles, 1 Jew

June 27 4 Jews

June 29 2 Poles, 3 Jews

July 1 15 Jews

July 2 9 Jews

July 14 10 Poles, 2 Jews

July 16 9 Poles

July 20 50 Poles

July 23 2 Jews

July 29 14 Poles

Aug 11 11 Jews

Aug 13 1 Pole

Aug 18 60 Poles

Aug 21 57 Poles

Sept 5 1 Jew

Sept 25 3 Poles

Nov 9 3 Poles

Nov 14 1 Pole

Nov 17 1 Pole

Dec 4 9 Poles, 2 Russians

Jan 6 9 Poles, 5 Jews

Jan 14 6 Poles

Jan 25 22 Poles

Jan 26 7 Poles, 2 Jews

Feb 7 2 Poles

Feb 9 2 Poles, 1 Jew

Feb 13 16 Poles

Feb 19 11 Poles, 3 Jews

Mar 17 1 Pole

Apr 3 26 Poles

Apr 13 2 Gypsies

May 22 13 Poles, 6 Jews, 5 Gypsies

May 31 1 Gypsy

June 10 20 Poles

June 25 68 Poles

June 28 30 Poles

July 24 1 Pole

July 28 4 Poles

Aug 20 38 Poles

Sept 4 45 Poles, 8 Russians

Sept 21 2 Poles

Sept 28 9 Poles, 6 Jews, 12 Gypsies, 1 Czech

Oct 11 54 Poles

Nov 9 50 Poles

Feb 1 19 Poles, 8 Russians

Mar 24 4 Poles, 3 Jews

Sept 15 2 Poles

Total Poles executed: 1,485

Total Russians executed: 19

Total Gypsies executed: 20

Total number of inmates executed: 1,646

Table 10: Hungarian Jews sent to, and transferred from, Auschwitz, May-October 1944

IN OUT
May 8548 2963
June 3981 5934
July 6543 9630
August 3881 1500
September 163 1300
October 1 200
TOTALS 23117 21527

Hungarian Jews remaining in Auschwitz after October 1944: 1,590

Note: The number of Hungarian Jews claimed sent to Auschwitz during May-October 1944 in Lucy Dawidowicz, The War Against the Jews , New York (1975) is 450,000 in Raul Hilberg, The Destruction of the European Jews , New York (1985) it is 180,000.

Summary of Jewish prisoners in the Auschwitz camp system, 1941-1944

IN OUT
Jewish prisoners entering the Auschwitz camp system 173000
Jewish prisoners who died of typhus 58240
Jewish prisoners who died of natural causes 2064
Jewish prisoners executed 117
Jewish prisoners transferred to other camps 100743
TOTALS 173000 161164

Number of Jewish prisoners remaining at end of 1944: 11,836 plus admissions during November and December 1944

These statistics have been collected and compiled by several people, based on microfilm copies of the original records supplied by Germar Rudolf before his arrest in America and extradition to Germany. There he will face trial for challenging the State's Holocaust dogma. The contributors to this page have agreed that credit should be given to Rudolf who, however, is not responsible for any errors in transcription or interpretation.

Figures for some months are unavailable and the summaries given include only the known numbers. In particular, it is not known whether the " &ndash " entries represent zero or the statistic is missing.

When the SS evacuated the Auschwitz work camp complex on 15 January 1945, they left a large number of prisoners behind. Many of these were too old or too sick to travel and they were left in their barracks, guarded by a Polish militia that had been raised earlier by Hans Frank. With the approach of the Soviet army in early 1945, these Polish guards indiscriminately attacked the barracks, with the prisoners inside, using hand grenades and machine guns.

The violent animosity of the Catholic Poles to their huge Jewish community is well known. When the Russians invaded Poland, one of the greatest fears of the Polish leadership and the government was that the 500,000 Jewish residents of Warsaw's Nalevski district would rise up against them in support of the advancing Bolshevik armies. Many Polish Jews fled after the failure of the Russian attack and a number of those left behind were promptly slaughtered by Poles when the central government collapsed after the German invasion of 1939.

Although exact figures of the dead among the remaining Auschwitz inmates in 1945 are not available, several existing Soviet military reports put the death toll between 7,000 and 10,000. Former members of the Polish militia have subsequently claimed that many of the dead were shot down by Russian troops as they attempted to leave the liberated camp. The Russians did not like Jews either, remembering their savagery against them during the salad days of Josef Stalin.

The truth of the matter will probably never be known but at least this atrocity cannot be blamed on the Germans, who were hundreds of miles away at the time.


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